Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

32 results found
Article

Anterosuperior mediastinal mass (mnemonic)

The common causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be remembered by using the mnemonic: 5 Ts Mnemonic T: thymus T: thyroid T: thoracic aorta T: terrible lymphoma T: teratoma and germ cell tumours - see mediastinal germ cell tumours Testicular cancer metastasis can represent a si...
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Apical lung disease (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember common apical lung diseases is: SET CARP or CARPETS Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia T: tuberculosis C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spondylitis R: radiation pneumonitis P: pneumoconiosis
Article

Bochdalek hernia features (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the features of a Bochdalek hernia is: BBBBB Mnemonic B: Bochdalek B: big B: back and medial, usually on the left side B: baby B: bad (associated with pulmonary hypoplasia)
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
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Bronchial fracture (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the features of a bronchial fracture on a chest radiograph is: PPP Mnemonic P: progressive or P: persistent pneumothorax or P: pneumomediastinum
Article

Bronchiectasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) T: tuberculosis (granulomatous disease) K: Karta...
Article

Bronchopulmonary segments (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the bronchopulmonary segments are: A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm (right lung) ASIA ALPS (left lung) Mnemonic 'A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm' right upper lobe A: apical segment P: posterior segment A: anterior segment middle lobe L: lateral segment ...
Article

Bronchovascular spread (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember diseases that undergo bronchovascular spread is: SKILL Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis K: Kaposi sarcoma I: infection: pneumocystis pneumonia/tuberculosis L: lymphoma L: lymphangitis carcinomatosis
Article

Cardiophrenic angle mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of a cardiophrenic angle mass is: Fat PAD Mnemonic F: fat P: pericardial cyst A: aneurysm, adenopathy (lymph nodes) D: diaphragmatic hernia
Article

Chest radiograph pre-interpretation (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for chest radiograph pre-interpretation is: POPIRAM Mnemonic P: projection, PA or AP? left lateral or right lateral? O: orientation, determine left and right of the chest x-ray P: penetration (of the x-ray), under- or over-penetration? I: inspiration, poor or optimal ins...
Article

Conditions with lower lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for conditions with a lower lobe predominance in chest radiology include: CIA BADAS RASCO Mnemonic CIA C: collagen vascular disease I: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis A: asbestosis BADAS B: bronchiectasis A: aspiration pneumonia D: drugs; desquamative interstitial pneumonia ...
Article

Conditions with upper lobe predominance (mnemonic)

STEP UP: Sarcoidosis, Silicosis Tuberculosis Eosinophilic Pneumonia Pneumoconiosis UP
Article

DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta(type II) D: descending aorta (type III)
Article

Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragm is: I ate (8) 10 eggs at 12 Mnemonic I ate (8): inferior vena cava at T8 10 eggs: (o)esophagus at T10 at 12: aorta at T12
Article

Eggshell calcification in thorax and mediastinum (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for major causes of eggshell calcification in the thorax and mediastinum is:  A Silly Cool Sergeant Likes His Tubercular Blast Mnemonic A: amyloidosis S: silicosis C: coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) S: sarcoidosis L: lymphoma: (postirradiation Hodgkin disease) H: hi...
Article

Endobronchial metastases (mnemonic)

Primary neoplasms which may result in endobronchial metastases may be memorized by utilizing the following mnemonic: Kiss My RBC 1  Mnemonic Kiss: Kaposi sarcoma My: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma B: breast cancer C: colorectal carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, carcinoid See also endobro...
Article

Focal pulmonary opacity (mnemonic)

Causes of focal pulmonary opacities on a chest radiograph can be remembered using the rather crude mnemonic: 4 Fs Mnemonic F: 'fection (pulmonary infection) F: 'farction (pulmonary infarction) F: fluid (pulmonary oedema) F: f***ed (lung cancer)
Article

Haemorrhagic metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for haemorrhagic metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma: metastatic melanoma to brain R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma
Article

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic)

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. A useful mnemonic for the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) classification of IIPs is: All Idiopathic Chronic Lung Disease aRe Nonspecifically Patterned The mnemoni...
Article

Lung consolidation (mnemonic)

A commonly used mnemonic for recalling the features of consolidation is: A2BC3 Mnemonic A2BC3 A: acinar rosettes A: air bronchogram/alveologram B: bat-wing distribution C: coalescent/confluent ill-defined "fluffy" appearnce C: consolidation: diffuse, perihilar/bibasilar, lobar/segmental,...
Article

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of lymphangitic carcinomatosis is: Certain Cancers Spread By Plugging The Lymphatics Mnemonic C: cervix C: colon S: stomach B: breast P: pancreas T: thyroid L: larynx and lung
Article

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (mnemonic)

The causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema can be recalled with the following mnemonic: NOT CARDIAC Mnemonic NOT CARDIAC N: near drowning O: O2 therapy/post-intubation pulmonary oedema T: trauma/transfusion (TRALI: transfusion-related acute lung injury) C: CNS: neurogenic pulmonary o...
Article

Obliterative bronchiolitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of obliterative bronchiolitis is: CRITTS Mnemonic C: cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)/BOOP R: rheumatoid arthritis I: infectious: post-viral/post-atypical infection (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumonia) T: transplant: heart/lung/haematopoetic stem cell transpl...
Article

Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) U: usual interstitial pneumon...
Article

Pulmonary cavity (mnemonic)

A particularly helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary cavities is: CAVITY Mnemonic C: cancer  bronchogenic carcinoma: most frequently squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cavitary pulmonary metastasis(es): most frequently SCC A: autoimmune; granulomas from  Wegener granulomatosis (granulomatos...
Article

Pulmonary upper zone involvement (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for pulmonary predominantly upper zone involvement (infiltration/shadowing/fibrosis) causes include: BREASTS Mnemonic B: berylliosis R: radiation E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis A: ankylosing spondylitis / aspergillus  S: sarcoidosis T: tuberculosis S: silicosis
Article

Segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe (mnemonic)

The anatomy of the segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe can be remembered by using one of several mnemonics. The segments are as follows:  superior (B6)  medial basal (B7) anterior basal (B8) lateral basal (B9)  posterior basal (B10) Mnemonics  Small P Just remove the second "L" and...
Article

Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines lung point present 1 H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema) diffuse bilateral anterior B ...
Article

Thoracic plane (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the structures found at the level of the thoracic plane (also known as the plane of Ludwig) is: CLAPTRAP RAT PLANT Mnemonic CLAPTRAP C: cardiac plexus L: ligamentum arteriosum A: aortic arch (inner concavity) P: pulmonary trunk T: tracheal bifurcation (carin...
Article

Trauma CT thorax review areas (mnemonic)

Trauma CT thorax review areas are useful to reduce the potential for error, which is higher than usual given the larger number of images requiring review, and the often present time pressures and the potential presence of numerous concurrent injuries (see CT polytrauma).  Using some standard re...
Article

Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for a unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax include: CRAWLS SAFE POEM ACROSSS Mnemonics CRAWLS C: contralateral lung increased density, e.g. supine pleural effusion R: rotation A: air, e.g. pneumothorax W: wall, e.g. chest wall mass, mastectomy, polio, Poland syndrome, surgical re...
Article

Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

Many pulmonary disease are described as upper or lower lobe predominant. The following mnemonics can aid recall of these differential diagnosis.  upper lobe or apical predominance: SET CAP  lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics SET CAP S: silicosis/sarcoidosis E: EG/extr...

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