Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

71 results found
Article

Accessory ossicles of the wrist (mnemonic)

Accessory ossicles of the wrist can be easily recalled with the mnemonic: LOTTEO 1 HOTELS Mnemonic   L: lunula O: os styloideum (carpal boss) T: (os) triangulare T: (os) trapezium secondarium E: (os) epilunate O: os hamuli propriu Another useful mnemonic is HOTELS H: (os) hamuli propr...
Article

Acro-osteolysis (mnemonic)

The causes of acro-osteolysis can be remembered using the mnemonic: PINCH FO Mnemonic P: psoriasis/pyknodysostosis I: injury, e.g. thermal burn, frost bite N: neuropathy, e.g. diabetes, leprosy C: collagen vascular disease, e.g. scleroderma, Raynaud disease H: hyperparathyroidism F: fami...
Article

Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the ankle tendons that pass under the flexor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology The phrase Tom, Dick...
Article

Articular cartilage calcification (mnemonic)

An easy to remember mnemonic for the causes of articular cartilage calcification is: HOGWASH Mnemonic H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis G: gout W: Wilson disease A: arthritis S: pseudogout H: haemochromatosis
Article

Avascular necrosis causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) or more correctly osteonecrosis: STARS PLASTIC RAGS ASEPTIC Mnemonics STARS Most common causes: S: steroids T: trauma (e.g. femoral neck fracture, hip dislocation, scaphoid fracture) A: alcohol abuse R: radiation S: sickle cell dise...
Article

Bone cortical lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for bony cortical lesions is: MOFOS Mnemonic M: metastasis O: osteomyelitis F: fibrosarcoma O: osteoid osteoma S: stress fracture
Article

Bone within a bone appearance (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the possible aetiologies of a bone within a bone appearance is: GHOST DRAGON Mnemonic G: growth arrest lines H: heavy metal, hypoparathryoid, hypothyroid O: osteopetrosis S: sickle cell anaemia, scurvy, syphilis T: thalassamia, tuberculosis D: disease of Caf...
Article

Bony lesions without periostitis or pain (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember bony lesions that have no pain or periostitis is: E FUN Mnemonic E: enchondroma F: fibrous dysplasia U: unicameral bone cyst N: non-ossifying fibroma If periostitis or pain is present (assuming no trauma, which can be a foolhardy assumption), you can exclude E-...
Article

Bony sequestrum (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to help remember common causes of bony sequestrum include: E-FILM LIFE FILE Mnemonics E-FILM E: eosinophilic granuloma  F: fibrosarcoma I: infection (Brodie abscess) L: lymphoma (skeletal)  M: malignant fibrous histiocytoma or metastasis (especially from breast carcinoma) LI...
Article

Calcaneal lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for calcaneal lesions is: BIG G Mnemonic B: bone cyst (unicameral) I: intraosseous lipoma G: ganglion (intraosseous) G: giant cell tumour
Article

Carpal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the carpal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location carpal bones. They usually describe the position of the carpal bones from latera to medial in the proximal row and then the distal row: Sam Likes To Push The Toy Car Hard She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catc...
Article

Causes of sacroiliitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the symmetric vs. asymmetric causes of sacroiliitis is: PAIR Mnemonic P: psoriatic arthritis A: ankylosing spondylitis I: inflammatory bowel related R: reactive (e.g. Reiter syndrome) The outside letters P & R (letters are far apart) are the asymmetric causes an...
Article

Charcot joint causes (mnemonic)

The causes of a Charcot joint can be remembered, with a little poetic license, as they (all) start with the letter S. Mnemonic sugar (diabetes) syphilis steroid use syringomyelia spinal cord injury spina bifida scleroderma (leprosy) The features of Charcot arthropathy can be remembered...
Article

Chondrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for chondrocalcinosis include: 3 Cs WHIP A DOG HOGWASH Mnemonics 3 Cs  C: crystals e.g. CPPD, sodium urate (gout) C: cations e.g. calcium (any cause of hypercalcemia), copper, iron C: cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis, acromegaly, ochronosis) WHIP A DOG W: Wilson di...
Article

Contents of the cubital fossa (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the contents of the cubital fossa is, from medial to lateral: My Brother Throws Rad Parties Mnemonic M: median nerve B: brachial artery T: tendon of biceps R: radial nerve P: posterior interosseous branch of radial nerve
Article

Diaphyseal lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for a short list of diaphyseal lesions is: CEMENT Mnemonic C: bone cysts E: enchondroma/Ewing sarcoma M: bone metastasis E: eosinophilic granuloma N: non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) T: tuberculosis/osteomyelitis
Article

Diffuse bony sclerosis (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering causes of diffuse bony sclerosis include: 3 M's PROOF Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic 1   Mnemonics 3 M's PROOF M: malignancy metastases (osteoblastic metastases) lymphoma leukaemia M: myelofibrosis M: mastoc...
Article

Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C - capitellum R - radial head I - internal epicondyle T - trochlea O ...
Article

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: CHONG Lead GNOME Mnemonics CHONG C: craniometaphyseal dysplasias H: haemoglobinopathies thalassemia sickle cell disease O: osteopetrosis N: Niemann-Pick disease G: Gaucher disease Lead G...
Article

Features of a Charcot joint (mnemonic)

The radiographic features of a Charcot joint can be remembered by using the following mnemonic: 6 Ds of Charcot joint Mnemonic increased Density (subchondral sclerosis) Destruction Debris (intra-articular loose bodies) Dislocation Distention Disorganisation The causes of Charcot arthrop...
Article

Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
Article

Femoral triangle contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to recall the order of the femoral vessels and nerve as they emerge from beneath the inguinal ligament into the femoral triangle are: NAVY NAVEL Mnemonic NAVY From lateral to medial: N: femoral nerve A: femoral artery V: femoral vein Y: "Y-fronts" (i.e. the midline) It should...
Article

Finger tip lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for finger tip lesions is: GEMS Mnemonic G: glomus tumour  E: epidermoid/enchondroma/subungual exostosis  M: metastasis (almost exclusively lung) S: sarcoidosis
Article

Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions (mnemonic)

There is a handy mnemonic for fluid-fluid levels of bone lesions on MRI: GOATS CSF Mnemonic G: giant cell tumour O: osteoblastoma A: aneurysmal bone cyst T: telangiectatic osteosarcoma S: sarcomas C: chondroblastoma S: solitary bone cyst F: fibroxanthoma
Article

Focal sclerotic bony lesions (mnemonic)

A popular mnemonic to help remember causes of focal sclerotic bony lesions is: HOME LIFE Mnemonic H: healed NOF O: osteoma M: metastasis E: Ewing sarcoma L: lymphoma I: infection or infarct F: fibrous dysplasia E: enchondroma
Article

Galeazzi and Monteggia fracture-dislocations (mnemonic)

There are several mnemonics for the difference between a Galeazzi and a Monteggia fracture-dislocation: GRIMUS MUGR (pronounced as mugger) FROG GRUesome MURder It is useful to note that it is the head of the non-fractured bone that is dislocated. Mnemonics GRIMUS GRIMUS helps to remember...
Article

Gracile bones (mnemonic)

The causes of gracile bones can be recalled with the following mnemonic: Mnemonic NIMROD N: neurofibromatosis I: immobilisation/paralysis M: muscular dystrophy, e.g. Duchenne muscular dystrophy R: rheumatoid arthritis (juvenile RA) O: osteogenesis imperfecta D: dysplasia, e.g. Marfan syn...
Article

Hair on end sign (mnemonic)

The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance of the diploic space of the skull vault which results from a thickening of trabeculae as the diploic space expands. These trabeculae are perpendicular in orientation, interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along the skull vault. I...
Article

Hand intrinsic muscles innervated by the median nerve (mnemonic)

All the intrinsic muscles of the hand are innervated by the ulnar nerve, except four muscles which are supplied by the median nerve and are easily recalled with the mnemonic: FOAL or LOAF Mnemonic F: flexor pollicis brevis O: opponens pollicis A: abductor pollicis brevis L: lateral two lum...
Article

Increased bone density (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic for causes of generalised increased bone density: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Fun, Happening and Lovely Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: metastasis (osteoblastic) O: osteopetrosis  P: pyknodysostosis; Paget's disease M: my...
Article

Inguinal canal walls (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember inguinal canal walls is: MALT (2M, 2A, 2L, 2T) Mnemonic Starting from superior, moving anticlockwise in order to posterior: Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles internal oblique Muscle transverse abdominus Muscle Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses Aponeurosis of exter...
Article

Intrinsic muscles of the hand (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to recall the intrinsic muscles of the hand and some of their features include: All For One And One For All PAd DAb FOAL Mnemonics All For One And One For All This mnemonic recalls the intrinsic muscles of the hand in their relative palmar anatomical position from lateral ...
Article

Lichen aureus (mnemonic)

The skin changes of lichen aureus can be remembered with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps of lichen aureus Mnemonic pigmented purpuric papules in peripheral patches
Article

Lichen planus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to describe the skin lesions associated with lichen planus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: planar P: polygonal P: pruritic P: purple P: papular
Article

Low signal masses in synovium (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for masses in the synovium which show low signal on all pulse sequences: PACS Mnemonic P: pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) A: amyloid C: chronic bleeding disorders, e.g. haemophilia S: synovial osteochondromatosis
Article

Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
Article

Lucent/lytic rib lesion (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for lucent/lytic rib lesions include: FAME FEMALE These are just short lists for the possible causes of a lucent/lytic rib lesion. The list of lucent/lytic bone lesions is far longer.  Mnemonics FAME F: fibrous dysplasia A: aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) M: metastasis to bone / mul...
Article

Lucent/lytic skull lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of lucent/lytic skull lesions is: MEL TORME Mnemonic MEL TORME M: metastasis E: eosinophilic granuloma L: lymphoma/Langerhans cell histiocytosis T: tuberculosis O: osteomyelitis R: radiation M: multiple myeloma E: epidermoid
Article

Lumbar plexus (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the branches of the lumbar plexus are:​ Indecent Ian Gets Laid On Fridays Luckily Itchy Igor Gets Laid On Fridays Luckily (ItcHy - iliohypogastric, IGor - ilioinguinal) IIGLO For aLl IIGLO is used in place of an igloo Mnemonic I: iliohypogastric nerve I: ilioing...
Article

Lytic bone lesion surrounded by marked sclerosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for lytic bone lesions surrounded by marked sclerosis include: BOOST Mnemonics BOOST B: brodie abscess O: osteoblastoma O: osteoid osteoma S: stress fracture T: tuberculosis
Article

Madelung deformity associations (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the associations of Madelung deformity include: HITDOC Mnemonic HITDOC H: Hurler syndrome I: infection T: trauma D: dyschondrosteosis O: osteochondroma (multiple hereditary exostoses)  C: congenital, e.g. Turner syndrome
Article

Meniscofemoral ligament (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for how the meniscofemoral ligaments course in relation to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is: the ligament of Wrisberg rides the PCL (i.e. is posterosuperior) the ligament of Humphrey is humped by the PCL (i.e. is anteroinferior)
Article

Multiple benign lucent bone lesions (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of multiple benign lucent bone lesions can be recalled with the following mnemonics: Never Pee On Huge Heavy Elephants From Jersey City CHEF JOHN P Mnemonics Never Pee On Huge Heavy Elephants From Jersey City N: neurofibromatosis (type 1) P: Paget disease O: Ollier dise...
Article

Multiple lucent/lytic bone lesions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for multiple lucent/lytic bones lesions include: FFEMHI The list of lucent/lytic bone lesions is huge. However, where there are multiple lesions, the potential list of differentials is considerably shorter and FFEMHI, while not exhaustive, is a good place to start. Mnemonics FEEMHI...
Article

Osteoarthritis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the main signs of osteoarthritis on plain radiography include: LOSS Mnemonic L: loss of joint space O: osteophytes S: subchondral cysts S: subchondral sclerosis mnemonic for Heberden nodes and Bouchard nodes Heberden- Distal interphalangeal joint (H-D) (High Defini...
Article

Osteochondroma malignant transformation (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for listing the radiological and clinical features suggestive of osteochondroma malignant (sarcomatous) transformation is 1 GLAD PaST Mnemonic G: growth after skeletal maturity L: lucency (new) A: additional scintigraphic activity D: destruction (cortical) P: pain after ...
Article

Osteolysis of distal clavicle (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic when you see tapered osteolysis of the distal clavicle is:  SHIRT Pocket Mnemonic S: scleroderma  H: hyperparathyroidism  I: infection (osteomyelitis)  R: rheumatoid arthritis  T: trauma  P: progeria
Article

Osteosclerosis causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of osteosclerosis is: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: myelofibrosis O: osteopetrosis P: pyknodysostosis M: metastases M: mastocytosis P: Paget disease A: a...
Article

Permeative process in bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for permeative processes in bone is: FIRE MD Mnemonic F: fibrosarcoma I: infection R: round cell tumours (Ewing sarcoma) E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases/myeloma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma D: desmoid tumour See also permeative process in bone pseudo-permeative pr...
Article

Popliteal fossa anatomy (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember popliteal fossa anatomy (medial-to-lateral arrangement) is: Serve And Volley Next Ball Mnemonic S: semimembranosus and semitendinosus (superior medial border) A: artery (popliteal artery) V: vein (popliteal vein) N: nerve (tibial nerve) B: biceps femoris (su...
Article

Posterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

Mnemonics that can be used to remember the anatomy of the ankle tendons from anterior to posterior as they pass posteriorly to the medial malleolus under the flexor retinaculum in the tarsal tunnel include: Tom, Dick and Harry Tom, Dick And Very Nervous Harry Mnemonic Tom, Dick and Harry T:...
Article

Posterior vertebral element lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for posterior vertebral element lesions is: GO TAPE Mnemonic G: giant cell tumour  O: osteoblastoma T: tuberculosis A: aneurysmal bone cyst P: Paget disease E: eosinophilic granuloma
Article

Protrusio acetabuli (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the causes of protrusio acetabuli include: PROTrusio acetabuli My PROTRUSIO Mnemonics PROTrusio acetabuli Includes the most common causes P: Paget disease R: rheumatoid arthritis (and other arthritides such as osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idio...
Article

Pubic symphysis widening (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for widening of the pubic symphysis is: EPOCH Mnemonic EPOCH E: bladder exstrophy P: prune belly syndrome O: osteogenesis imperfecta C: cleidocranial dysostosis H: hypothyroidism Note that this mnemonic does not include pubic diastasis secondary to trauma, a common cause of p...
Article

Rickets (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of rickets is: RICKETS Mnemonic(s) Reaction of the periosteum Indistinct cortex Coarse trabeculation Knees, wrists and ankles mainly Epiphyseal plates widened and irregular  Tremendous metaphysis Spur (metaphyseal) See also rickets
Article

Rotator cuff (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscles of the rotator cuff is: SITS Mnemonic S: supraspinatus I: infraspinatus T: teres minor S: subscapularis Recalling this order also helps remembering the insertions of these muscles, with the order being superior, middle and inferior facets of the grea...
Article

Sacral nerve plexus - anterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the anterior components of the sacral plexus is: too much sex in the quad Mnemonic tibial portion (L4-S2) of the sciatic nerve (L4-S3) nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus muscles (L5-S2) nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles (L4-S1)
Article

Sacral nerve plexus - posterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the posterior components of the sacral plexus is: Clean Guys Floss Mnemonic C: common peroneal nerve G: gluteal (superior and inferior) nerves F: femoral cutaneous (posterior) nerve
Article

Sacral plexus branches (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the branches of the sacral plexus prior to its division is: Six Ps: as all of the nerves start with the letter P SLIP, DSP: if you slip over, you may need to go on the DSP (Disability Support Pension) Mnemonic Six Ps nerve to piriformis (S1-S2) perforating cutane...
Article

Salter-Harris fracture classification (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering the Salter-Harris classification system are: SALTR SMACK Fortunately, this is also the order of prognosis (from best to worse) Mnemonics SALTR S: slipped (type I) A: above (type II) L: lower (type III) T: through or transverse or together (type IV) R: r...
Article

Short metacarpals (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of short metacarpals is: BIC PEN Mnemonic B: basal cell nevus syndrome I: idiopathic C: chromosomal: Turner syndrome P: pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseduohypoparathyroidism
Article

Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
Article

Soft tissue calcification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of soft tissue calcification include: My GHOSTS 1 TIC MTV 2 Mnemonic  My GHOSTS My: myositis ossificans G: gout H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis S: scleroderma/connective tissue disease T: tumoral calcinosis S: sarcoma (synovial cell) TIC MTV T: ...
Article

Sternoclavicular sclerosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for sternoclavicular sclerosis include: STOP SPOT Mnemonic S: SAPHO syndrome T: traumatic osteolysis O: osteomyelitis/osteosarcoma P: Paget disease
Article

Subchondral cysts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of subchondral cysts is: COORS Mnemonic C: CPPD  O: osteoarthritis  O: osteonecrosis R: rheumatoid arthritis S: synovial-based tumours
Article

Tarsal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the tarsal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location of tarsal bones. They usually describe the position of the tarsal bones from superior to inferior, medial to lateral in a right foot: The Cab in New Mexico Is Land Cruiser The Cure of Nemaline Myopathy I...
Article

Tendons of pes anserinus (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the three conjoined tendons that make up pes anserinus: Say Grace before Tea Mnemonics From anterior to posterior, the tendons are: Say Grace before Tea S: sartorius G: gracilis T: semitendinosus  
Article

Transverse metaphyseal lines (mnemonic)

Common causes of transverse metaphyseal lines can be remembered using the mnemonic: DENSE LINES PRINCES Mnemonic DENSE LINES D: D-vitamin intoxication E: elemental arsenic and heavy metals (lead, bismuth, phosphorus) N: normal variation S: systemic illness E: estrogen to mother during p...
Article

Tumours that metastasise to bone (mnemonic)

Tumours that metastasise to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic "lead kettle" spelled PBKTL (lead is Pb on the Periodic Table). PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most common primary sites; nearly 80% of cancers t...
Article

Vertebra plana (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of vertebra plana include: IMELT FETISH Mnemonics IMELT I: infection M: metastasis/myeloma E: eosinophilic granuloma L: lymphoma/leukaemia T: trauma; tuberculosis FETISH F: fracture (trauma) E: eosinophilic granuloma T: tumour (e.g. metastases, myelo...
Article

Wormian bones (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember ten of the numerous conditions associated with Wormian bones is: PORKCHOPS Mnemonic P - pyknodysostosis O - osteogenesis imperfecta R - rickets K - kinky hair syndrome C - cleidocranial dysostosis H - hypothyroidism/hypophosphatasia O - otopalatodigital syndrome ...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.