LAST CHANCE: X-ray Interpretation: Elbow Injuries - Half price course offer ends this Sunday!

Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

261 results found
Article

Gliosis

Gliosis is the focal proliferation of glial cells in the CNS in response to insult. Terminology Gliosis is not synonymous with encephalomalacia which is the end result of liquefactive necrosis of brain parenchyma following an insult. Radiologically they share some features and they often coexi...
Article

Glucagon

Glucagon is a polypeptide hormone central to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, acting as an antagonist to insulin. In imaging it is used as an antiperistaltic agent in GI studies, although its clinical efficacy is controversial.  Structure Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide hormone t...
Article

Gram stain

The Gram stain (or Gram method) is a key microbiological method for staining bacteria. The process relies upon two stains, the first, a complex of crystal violet and iodine, and the second, safranin, a red counterstain. The staining procedure subdivides bacteria into Gram-positive and Gram-negat...
Article

Granuloma

Granulomas are organized conglomerates of histiocytes, a specialized white blood cell 1. They form by the process of granulomatous inflammation, which is a specific type of chronic inflammation that occurs following cellular injury as a response to the mediators that are released. A broad range ...
Article

Hematinics

The hematinics are nutrients that are required by the body for erythropoiesis, i.e. the production of red blood cells 1,2. List of hematinics Clinically, the most important hematinics are vitamin B12, iron and folic acid because deficiency states of these three substances are much more common ...
Article

Hematoma

Hematomas (alternative plural: hematomata) are the name given to localized collections of blood and they can form virtually anywhere in the body. They often form secondary to trauma or surgery but spontaneous formation is also not uncommon, especially in those with coagulation disorders or on an...
Article

Hematoxylin and eosin stain

The combined hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is the most widely used stain in histology and histopathology. Hematoxylin has an intense purple-blue hue and binds to nucleic acids. Eosin has a pink hue and non-specifically stains proteins. These two stains in combination are vital for distinguis...
Article

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (Hb) is the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells. Structure Hemoglobin is a tetrameric protein molecule composed of four subunits. Each subunit consists of an iron-containing cyclic heme component linked to a polypeptide chain, the polypeptides are together known as globin. E...
Article

Haggitt level

The Haggitt level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration from a malignant polypoidal lesion. Levels of invasion 0: carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma 1: invasion of the submucosa, but limited to the head of the polyp 2: invasion extending into the...
Article

Hamartoma

A hamartoma (plural: hamartomas or hamartomata) is a benign tumor-like malformation that consists of a collection of architecturally disorganized cells located in an area of the body where the cells are normally found. It is often due to abnormal development. In radiology, hamartomas often mimi...
Article

Heavy metals

Heavy metals is a vague term for a group of metallic chemical elements that under some definitions can refer to the vast majority of the metals known to science. In biological/medical terms heavy metals are a much smaller group, that for many practitioners is restricted to those that are potenti...
Article

Hepascore

Hepascore is a biochemical severity scoring system based on liver function tests in predicting the extent of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C infection. Hepascore may also be applicable to other liver diseases and is being trialed for fatty liver disease and hepatitis B infe...
Article

Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of subtypes, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated subtype, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epithelial...
Article

HER-2 mutations in lung cancer

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) mutations may be detected in approximately 3% of lung adenocarcinomas 1. Radiographic features CT Early studies have suggested HER2-mutant tumors exhibit more aggressive features in general and tend to: exhibit a locally-invasive behavior comp...
Article

Hernia (general)

Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening. The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...
Article

Histological stains

Histological stains are chemical dyes used to treat histological specimens to make tissues more readily visible by light microscopy and demonstrate underlying characteristics of the tissue. There are many stains, some with very specific uses, whereas other (e.g. hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E)...
Article

Histology of blood vessels

Blood vessels, namely arteries and veins, are composed of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix (including collagen and elastin). These are arranged into three concentric layers (or tunicae): intima, media and adventitia. the intima (or tunica intima) inner layer abut...
Article

Homer Wright rosettes

Homer Wright rosettes are differentiated tumor cells grouped around a central region containing neuropil (therefore its association with tumors of neuronal origin). Pathology Examples of tumors where these can be seen include: medulloblastoma (the presence of Homer Wright rosettes in a poster...
Article

Host (infectious diseases)

A host in the context of infectious disease refers to an animal or plant that acts as a biological refuge in which another - often parasitic - organism may dwell. The host usually provides shelter or nourishment to the other organism, which may use the host to partially/completely sexually devel...
Article

Human coronavirus

The human coronaviruses (hCoVs), members of the family Coronaviridae, are enveloped RNA viruses that affect humans, mammals and birds, causing both acute and chronic illnesses. Four of the seven known human coronaviruses usually cause a mild coryzal illness only, these are HKU1, NL63, OC43, and...
Article

Human epididymis protein 4

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is an emerging serum biomarker in the assessment of epithelial ovarian tumors. HE4 is a member of the whey associated protein (WAP) gene cluster and has uncertain biological function 1. Early results indicate that HE4 has higher sensitivity and specificity than ...
Article

Hurthle cell

Hurthle cells are a type of oncocyte arising from thyroid follicular epithelial cells. Pathology Under microscopy, Hurthle cells are larger than typical follicular cells, with abundant mitochondria. Cancers of Hurthle cell origin can be benign adenomas or malignant carcinomas and consist of a...
Article

Hyperplasia

Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells of an organ/tissue, often secondary to a stimulus or stress. This process can be contrasted with hypertrophy, an increase in the size of cells, however these processes frequently co-occur 1. Hyperplasia occurs due to stimulation by growth factor...
Article

Hypersensitivity reaction

Hypersensitivity reactions are the immunological response to both exogenous and endogenous antigens, and forms the basis for many diseases.  Pathology Classification There are four types of hypersensitivity reactions, each mediated by a different mechanism 1-4: type 1 hypersensitivity: immed...
Article

Hypertrophy

Hypertrophy is a term describing an increase in the size of cells. It occurs due to an increase in synthesis of intracellular proteins and other cellular components, often in response to an invoking stimulus/stress, which will result in an increase in the size of an organ. This is in contrast t...
Article

Hypoplasia

Hypoplasia (plural: hypoplasias) is a pathological term referring to the state of a tissue or organ which at the end of its developmental process has not fully formed (cf. aplasia in which the organ/tissue does not form at all). Thus, the term hypoplasia does not tend to be used for a later (pos...
Article

Immunity

The human body regularly encounters harmful microorganisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defenses to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as the immune system. Humans have two types of immunity: innate immunity and acquired immunity. innate imm...
Article

Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry is a method of assessing histology with the use of antibodies to specific antigens. It is complementary to the older technique of chemical staining of tissues but is often combined with a counter-stain for context (e.g. hematoxylin to stain cell nuclei blue).  The process e...
Article

Incubation period

The epidemiological term, the incubation period (IP) is the time between exposure to something pathogenic (including radiation, microbes or chemicals) and when the pathology first becomes apparent by symptoms. Some authors use the terms latent period and incubation period to mean the same period...
Article

Inflammation

Inflammation is a response to a noxious stimuli which can be either be acute or chronic. The cardinal signs of inflammation include: heat redness swelling pain loss of tissue function Sub types Acute Inflammation Acute inflammation occurs within the first few hours after an injury. In ...
Article

Inflammation (acute)

Inflammation is the response of tissues to infection and damage. In the acute phase, it functions to bring cells and molecules to the site of infection or damage to elicit a protective response1.  The acute inflammatory response is characterized by three phases: Dilation of blood vessels, whic...
Article

Inflammation (chronic)

Chronic inflammation is a prolonged inflammatory response whereby inflammation, injury and repair coexist. It commonly occurs over a period of weeks to months and can follow an acute inflammatory response or begin independently in a slow, insidious manner.  Etiology prolonged infection prolon...
Article

Inflammatory markers

The inflammatory markers are a disparate set of biomarkers that are used clinically to assess a patient for: presence/absence of an active inflammatory disease process activity of a known disease Possible disease processes may include infective, malignant and autoimmune diseases, although it ...
Article

Intracranial aneurysm (overview)

Intracranial aneurysms, also called cerebral aneurysms, are aneurysms of the intracranial arteries. The most common morphologic type is the saccular aneurysm. Pathology There is not a universal classification for the types of intracranial aneurysms, resulting in a heterogeneous mix of terms ba...
Article

Intracranial arteries

Intracranial arteries have a unique structure when compared to extracranial vessels of similar size: see general histology of blood vessels entry. Proximal larger arteries The proximal arteries, arising from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries have differing distribution of elastic fib...
Article

Iodine

Iodine (chemical symbol I) is one of the trace elements. Its biological importance is its central place in the physiology of the thyroid gland and, in radiology, as the key chemical constituent of most of the radiographic, fluoroscopic, and CT contrast media. Chemistry Basic chemistry Iodine ...
Article

Iron

Iron (chemical symbol Fe) is one of the trace elements that is essential for normal human health due to its central importance in the structure and function of hemoglobin and the cytochromes. Chemistry Basic chemistry Iron is a transition metal with atomic number 26 and an atomic weight of 55...
Article

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations are increasingly being recognized as key genetic prognostic markers for diffuse gliomas, and have been included in a recent (2016) update of diffuse astrocytomas in the WHO classification of brain tumors 7. Somatic mutations of IDH result in enchondr...
Article

John Cunningham virus

John Cunningham virus, but universally called the JC virus, is a ubiquitous double-stranded DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family 1. In immunocompromised individuals, reactivation can lead to a variety of disease of the central nervous system, the most common of which is progressive multifocal ...
Article

Kikuchi level

The Kikuchi level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration of a sessile early invasive colorectal cancer1. Preoperative assessment of the level of invasion using this classification may decrease the incidence of unnecessary surgery for sessile polyps.  Levels o...
Article

KRAS mutation

KRAS (shortened name for the gene Kirsten RAt Sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) mutations are associated in a number of malignancies including:  certain adenocarcinomas of the lung colorectal carcinoma 1 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma Several germline KRAS mutations have also been found to b...
Article

Lactate dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is a key enzyme in most cells, catalyzing the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate. Its contemporaneous main clinical uses are limited primarily to the investigation of hemolysis, serous collections and as a tumor marker. Physiology L-lactate dehydro...
Article

Lamellated

The term lamellated (or laminated which means the same thing) is a radiopathological term used to describe the layered appearance of many calculi, including those of the renal tract, the salivary glands, and the biliary tree. The internal structure of these calculi has been likened to that of an...
Article

Langerhans cell

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally found in epithelial surfaces, lymph nodes and other organs, and can also be found elsewhere, particularly in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. ...
Article

Lead

Lead (chemical symbol Pb) is a toxic metallic element with no known biological function in humans. Chemistry Basic chemistry Lead is one of the post-transition metals with the atomic number 82 and atomic weight 207.2. It is grayish in color and is pliable, poorly electrically-conducting with ...
Article

Lepidic growth

Lepidic growth is a pathological term referring to a pattern of cell proliferation along the lining of the alveolar structures of the lung as is seen in a subset of lung tumors 1. History and etymology ‘lepidic’ was coined by the English pathologist John George Adam (1862-1926) whilst at McGil...
Article

Lipase

Lipase, more specifically pancreatic lipase, is an enzyme produced in the pancreas and is responsible for the digestion of fat molecules. It may be raised (hyperlipasemia) in numerous pancreatic, hepatobiliary and other diseases but is most commonly associated with acute pancreatitis. Physiolog...
Article

Lipohyalinosis

Lipohyalinosis (also known as fibrinoid necrosis) is a disease affecting the small cerebral arteries associated with lacunar infarction and deep white matter changes related to small vessel chronic ischemia. Pathology The histopathological landmarks of lipohyalinosis are irregular fibrosis and...
Article

Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist of fluid with remains...
Article

Lymph

Lymph (also known as lymphatic fluid) is the name given to the interstitial fluid once it has passed into the lymphatic vessels. Formation As blood passes through capillary beds a significant proportion of the plasma is filtered into the extracellular space. Most of this filtered tissue fluid ...
Article

Macroamylasemia

Macroamylasemia is the presence of serum amylase of a large molecular size, seen in both otherwise healthy individuals, and also in various diseases. Amylase seems to be able to self-polymerize and/or form complexes with other blood proteins, e.g. immunoglobulins. Epidemiology Macroamylasemia ...
Article

Macrolipasemia

Macrolipasemia is the presence of serum lipase of a large molecular size, seen occasionally in otherwise healthy individuals, but more commonly in various diseases. Lipase is able to self-polymerize and/or form complexes with other blood proteins e.g. immunoglobulins. Epidemiology Epidemiologi...
Article

Macromolecular complex

Macromolecular complexes include both macrohormones and macroenzymes, which consist of hormones and enzymes respectively covalently bound to carrier molecules, e.g. immunoglobulins, or occasionally the molecule may self-polymerize. Their primary importance lies in their ability to produce an art...
Article

Malignant transformation

Malignant transformation is the term given to the process whereby either normal, metaplastic, or benign neoplastic tissue, becomes a cancer. The process usually occurs in a series of steps and the affected tissue gradually accumulates the genetic mutations that express a malignant phenotype. The...
Article

Mammalian target of rapamycin

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin, are two proteins that are involved in cell signaling pathways implicated in tumorigenesis. The mTOR proteins are serine/threonine protein kinases that combine with several other proteins to form two large c...
Article

Manganese

Manganese (chemical symbol Mn) is one of the essential trace elements. It has an important biological role in the synthetic pathway for mucopolysaccharides, and it also is a cofactor for several enzymes. Chemistry Basic chemistry Manganese has the atomic number 25 with an atomic weight of 54....
Article

MAPK pathway

The MAPK pathway (mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway) also known as the RAS/MAPK pathway is an oncogenic pathway and is most commonly involved in human cancers.  It consists of a membrane receptor tyrosine kinase which when bound to by a growth factor results in activation of the signal t...
Article

Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein

Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a screening test that examines the level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in a pregnant woman. AFP is produced by both the yolk sac and foetal liver during pregnancy. Indications Ideally, all pregnant women should undergo the screening test between 15-20 w...
Article

Mercury

Mercury (chemical symbol Hg) is a liquid metallic element that historically was used in many medicines, but is now restricted due to legitimate concerns about mercury poisoning which is primarily found in seafood. Chemistry Basic chemistry Mercury is a silvery liquid at standard temperature a...
Article

Metachronous (pathology)

The term metachronous is used in oncology to refer to two (or more) independent primary malignancies, when the second (or third, etc.) malignancy arose more than six months after the diagnosis of the first malignancy 1,2. These may be in the same, or in different, organs. See also synchronous ...
Article

Metaplasia

Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett esophagus: normal squamous epithelium replace...
Article

Microglia

Microglia is one of the four types of glial cell and are the central nervous system equivalent of monocyte-macrophage system 1,2. During health, they are essentially inactive with small cell bodies and numerous processes extending throughout the local parenchyma 1,2. When presented a condition w...
Article

Micrometastasis

Micrometastases are defined by the UICC TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors as conglomerations of tumor cells measuring between 0.2 mm and 2 mm in size. Clusters of cells sized less than 0.2 mm in maximal dimension are termed isolated tumor cells (ITCs). Tumor clusters measuring larger than 2...
Article

Molybdenum

Molybdenum (chemical symbol Mo) is one of the essential trace elements. It complexes with a molecule called molybdopterin to form molybdenum cofactor, essential for the functioning of several important metabolic enzymes.  Chemistry Basic chemistry Molybdenum has the atomic number 42, with an ...
Article

Monomelic

Monomelic is typically used to refer to a condition that is confined to only one limb. Examples of conditions that can be monomelic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic polyostotic monomelic
Article

Monostotic

Monostotic is typically used to refer to a condition that involves only one bone. Examples of conditions that can be monostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic polyostotic monomelic
Article

Multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential

Multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential is a low-grade adult renal tumor composed entirely of numerous cysts. The entity was previously known as multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, which usually had clear cell morphology, but was redefined in the 2016 WHO classificati...
Article

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a thin, slightly curved bacillus. A member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, it is an obligate aerobic bacterium that is the etiologic agent of the majority of tuberculosis cases.  Epidemiology The worldwide incidence of tuberculosis was 8.7 million in 20...
Article

Myo-inositol peak

Myo-inositol is one of the compounds images with MR spectroscopy (MRS) at both 1.5 T and 3 T and is seen to resonate at 3.5 ppm chemical shift (right of the choline peak).  Myo-inositol is a precursor of both phosphatidylinositol (the major inositol-containing phospholipid) and phosphatidylinos...
Article

Naming of organisms

Occasionally, we will refer to lifeforms in an article or case, and we adhere to standard scientific convention when it comes to naming organisms. as set down by the International Commision on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) 1. As per the standard binomial system, the genus and species of the org...
Article

Necrosis

Necrosis (plural: necroses) is defined as unregulated cell death. This is in contrast to apoptosis, which is a form of regulated, or programmed, cell death 1.  Necrosis is the most common type of cell death observed in injury/disease. It occurs when cellular damage is so severe that lysosomal e...
Article

Neuritic plaques

Neuritic plaques (also known as senile plaques) are pathological extracellular aggregates formed around a core of amyloid β peptide and are a hallmark of Alzheimer disease.  They should not be confused with neurofibrillary tangles which are intracytoplasmic. Pathology Neuritic plaques are ext...
Article

Neurofibrillary tangles

Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are abnormal cytoplasmic accumulations of tau proteins, found in neuronal and glial cells of the central nervous system. They are responsible for a number of neurodegenerative diseases (collectively known as tauopathies) including 1: progressive supranuclear palsy...
Article

Neurofibromin

Neurofibromin is a protein coded for by the NF1 gene located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2). It is a multifunctional protein and is involved in the regulation of many cellular signaling pathways. In patients with a mutation of the NF1 gene, neurofibromin is defective and results in the clinical synd...
Article

Neuron

Neurons are cells of the central nervous system, located within the grey matter, and responsible for all neurological functions of the brain.  Structure Neurons vary in morphology and size substantially, but all share a number of features 1: a cell body nucleus perikaryon: cytoplasm surroun...
Article

Neuron specific enolase

Neuron specific enolase (NSE) is a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. It is sometimes considered as a tumor marker.  Elevated neuron specific enolase levels have shown to occur in associated with  tumors small cell lung cancer: up to 70% of patients with small cell lung...
Article

Nitrogen

Nitrogen (chemical symbol N) is one of the basic organic elements and is a key constituent of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, and of nucleic acids (i.e. DNA and RNA). On earth it is the most abundant element found in its pure form and comprises 78% of all breathable air.  Chemistr...
Article

Nucleic acids

The nucleic acids are the collective term for the two main macromolecular nucleotide polymers: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) Nucleotides, the constituent units of nucleic acids, are made up of simpler molecules called nucleosides and inorganic phosphate (H3PO4). Each nucl...
Article

Edema

Edema is the accumulation of fluid in tissues. It is caused by an imbalance between forces holding fluids in the vasculature and tissues 1. Fluids are normally held in a steady state between tissues and vasculature by homeostasis between these forces (Starling equation) 2: capillary hydrostatic...
Article

Oligodendrocytes

Oligodendrocytes are one of the four principles types of glial cells and are the central nervous system equivalent of the Schwann cells found peripherally. They wrap the neurons of the brain and spinal cord with myelin 1.  See also oligodendroglioma
Article

Opportunistic infection

Opportunistic infections (OI) are caused by micro-organisms (sometimes called opportunists) that under normal circumstances do not cause infections, but in certain clinical contexts, most commonly immunosuppression, may become pathogenic 1.
Article

Oxygen

Oxygen (chemical symbol O) is one of the basic organic elements, and is a constituent of most of the known organic molecules - and therefore all lifeforms - on earth.  Chemistry Basic chemistry Oxygen is a colourless odorless diatomic gas with an atomic number 8 and atomic weight 15.999. It h...
Article

p16

p16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker indicating expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, which is upregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the uterine cervix, p16 positivity supports the diagnosis of a high-grade squamous intraepithelia...
Article

Pandemic

The epidemiological term, pandemic is applied to an outbreak of disease that has spread across the globe, or in other words, an epidemic that has crossed many regions, borders and multiple continents. Some of the largest pandemics in history include the bubonic plague in the 14th century and the...
Article

Pathology (article structure)

Pathology is one of the main subheadings in a standard article.  Location The "Pathology" subheading is located after "Clinical presentation" and before "Radiographic features". Structure Immediately under the "Pathology" subheading a brief introduction to the relevant pathology of the condi...
Article

Pathology curriculum

The pathology curriculum is one of our curriculum modules and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core pathology knowledge for radiologists and other imaging professionals: general pathology cellular pathology ​pathologic classification systemic pathology pathology of the...
Article

Perivascular pseudorosettes (ependymoma)

Perivascular pseudorosettes are a common histologic feature of central nervous system ependymomas. They represent sections through papillary structures composed of tumor cells arranged radially around a central vessel. Between the central vessel and the tumor cells is a relatively microscopicall...
Article

Phlegmon

Phlegmon (plural: phlegmons) refers to unbounded, non-specific inflammation of soft tissue, usually in the context of infectious disease. It is distinct from an abscess which is walled-off by peripheral granulation tissue. Terminology Both historically and contemporaneously, phlegmon is used i...
Article

Pick bodies

Pick bodies are intracytoplasmic spherical inclusions found in Pick disease. They are composed of tau fibrils (thus Pick disease is a tauopathy) arranged in a disorderly array 1. Although tau protein is a major component a number of other protein products are present, including ubiquitin and tub...
Article

Picornaviruses

Picornaviruses (pico-RNA-viruses) are non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses with an icosahedral capsule. Their positive, single stranded RNA architecture places them in Baltimore group IV. The name derives from the fact that they are small (pico) RNA viruses. The picornavirus family cont...
Article

Placode

Placode (or neural placode) refers in terms of radiology to a segment of non-neurulated neural tissue, which has had development frozen in the neural plate stage. A placode can be found in all open spinal dysraphisms and in some closed spinal dysraphisms. In the former, the placode is exposed to...
Article

Poliovirus

Poliovirus is the causative agent involved in poliomyelitis. It is a single-stranded RNA virus and one of the smallest significantly described viruses: group: group IV family: picornaviruses genus: enterovirus species: enterovirus C subtype: poliovirus Related pathology poliomyelitis pol...
Article

Polyostotic

Polyostotic is term used to describe a condition involving multiple bones. Examples of conditions that can be polyostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic monomelic

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.