Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,793 results found
Article

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) (also known as subacute necrotising lymphadenitis or subacute necrotising histiocytosis) is an idiopathic disease characterised usually by cervical lymph node enlargement (80%). Epidemiology It typically affects young women. Clinical presentation It usually pre...
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Bullet and bodkin sign

Bullet and bodkin sign is the appearance of the ureter when there is an abrupt transition in the ureteral caliber. Bullet in the name is represented by the dilated proximal ureteric segment which appears to be perched on the constricted / non-dilated encased ureter which gives an appearance of a...
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De Quervain thyroiditis

De Quervain thyroiditis, or subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, is a form of self-limited subacute thyroiditis usually preceded by an upper respiratory tract viral infection such as mumps, measles, coxsackie virus, adenovirus, and influenza viruses. Epidemiology It usually affects middle age f...
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Solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas

Solid pseudopapillary tumours (SPT) of the pancreas are rare (usually benign) pancreatic tumours. Terminology The tumour has been referred to with multiple different names, including: solid pseudopapillary tumour (SPT) of the pancreas solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) solid pseudopapilla...
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Mitral valve regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation is due to functional or anatomical dysfunction of the mitral valve and can lead to striking chest x-ray abnormalities. Epidemiology The causes of mitral regurgitation are protean and, as such, there is no single group of patients who are affected. Mitral regurgitatio...
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Retropharyngeal abscess

Retropharyngeal abscess is a potentially life-threatening infection involving the retropharyngeal space which requires prompt diagnosis and aggressive therapy. Epidemiology Retropharyngeal abscesses are most frequently encountered in children, with 75% of cases occurring before the age of 5 ye...
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Rasmussen encephalitis

Rasmussen encephalitis (RE), also known as chronic focal encephalitis (not to be confused with a Rasmussen aneurysm), is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, usually affecting one brain hemisphere. Epidemiology Most cases (85% cases) occur in children under the age of 10 years 1. ...
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Warthin tumour

Warthin tumours, also known as lymphomatous papillary cystadenomas, are benign, sharply demarcated tumours of the salivary gland. They are of lymphoid origin and most commonly arise from parotid gland tail. They may be bilateral or multifocal in up to 20% of cases and are the most common neoplas...
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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mmHg or greater at right heart catheterisation, which is a haemodynamic feature that is shared by all types of pulmonary hypertension in the Dana Point classification system. A resting mean pulmonary arterial p...
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HIV-associated nephropathy

HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is commonly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS and leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The diagnosis is not imaging-based and must be confirmed by renal biopsy. Epidemiology HIVAN is seen in patients at advanced stages of HIV and AIDS, but it can also be see...
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Heberden node

Heberden nodes are a clinical examination sign related to the hands, most commonly found at the dorsolateral aspect of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) and are a moderate-to-strong marker of osteoarthritis 1-2.   Previously Heberden nodes and DIP osteophytes were thought to be synonymous...
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Sphenoid wing dysplasia

Sphenoid wing dysplasia is a characteristic but not pathognomonic feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), it can also occur in isolated cases. Epidemiology Sphenoid wing dysplasia is seen in 5-10% of cases of NF1 and is one of the diagnostic criteria of NF1 5,6. Pathology Its exact aetiol...
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Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
Article

Hypertrophic olivary degeneration

Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare condition characterised by unique pattern of trans-synaptic degeneration. It is caused by a lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, resulting in hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus. The three corners of the triangle are: red nuc...
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Hemimegalencephaly

Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital disorder of cortical formation with hamartomatous overgrowth all or a part of a cerebral hemisphere. This results from either increased proliferation or decreased apoptosis (or both) of developing neurons 2. Epidemiology Hemimegalencephaly is a cryptogen...
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Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA), or degenerative joint disease (DJD), is the most common of the arthritides. Terminology Because the osteoarthritis is not primarily an inflammatory process, some authors prefer the term osteoarthrosis instead.  Pathology Primary OA is the less common variant and is chara...
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Scapholunate advanced collapse

Scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) refers to a pattern of wrist malalignment that has been attributed to post-traumatic or spontaneous osteoarthritis of the wrist. It is a complication that can occur with undiagnosed or untreated scapholunate dissociation. It is essentially the same sequela o...
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Struma ovarii tumour

Struma ovarii tumour is a subtype of an ovarian teratoma and is composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and containing variable-sized follicles with colloid material. Epidemiology It accounts for 0.3-1% of all ovarian tumours and ~3% of all mature cystic teratomas 1. Clinical pre...
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Clear cell tumour of the lung

Clear cell tumour of the lung is a rare benign pulmonary neoplasm that contains an abundant amount of glycogen. It is often classified under the spectrum of perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas). Radiographic features Usually seen as a rounded, smooth-walled, and peripheral parenchym...
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Diffuse axonal injury

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a severe form of traumatic brain injury due to shearing forces. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to make on imaging alone, especially on CT as the finding can be subtle, however, it has the potential to result in severe neurological impairment.  The diagnos...
Article

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thrombo-embolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
Article

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy (also known as an intramural) is an important type of ectopic pregnancy with higher risks of rupture and haemorrhage compared to usual tubal ectopic pregnancies.  Terminology The term interstitial pregnancy is sometimes interchangeably used with cornual pregnancy...
Article

Tethered cord

Tethered spinal cord syndrome, also known as an occult spinal dysraphism sequence, is a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. Clinical presentation The condition is closely linked to spina bifida, and as such pre...
Article

Phthisis bulbi

Phthisis bulbi, also known as end-stage eye, is an atrophic scarred and disorganised globe that may result from a variety of severe ocular insults.  Pathology The globe is reduced in size (usually < 20 mm) with a thickened/folded posterior sclera. Dystrophic calcification is common, and osseou...
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Primary uveal malignant melanoma

Malignant uveal melanomas, also referred as choroidal melanomas, are the most common primary tumour of the adult eye 3.  Epidemiology Malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is predominantly seen in Caucasians 5. The incidence of these tumours incre...
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Cataract

Cataract is an opacification or thickening of the lens within the globe and is the leading cause of blindness in the world 2.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity. The diagnosis is made clinically. Pathology Aetiology Common causes include: ...
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Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular mus...
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Asthma

Asthma is a relatively common condition that is characterised by at least partially reversible inflammation of the airways and reversible airway obstruction due to airway hyper-reactivity. It can be acute, subacute or chronic. Epidemiology Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in t...
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Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis

Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis is the most common neurological complication of enterovirus infection 1. Clinical presentation Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis causes acute and severe neurologic disorders such as ataxia, nystagmus, oculomotor palsies, or bulbar palsy. In some cases, neurologic af...
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Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematocoeles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testicle. Pathology A haematocele normally occurs following trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a haematocoele 4. Radiogr...
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Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), also referred to as Forestier disease, is a common condition characterised by bony proliferation at sites of tendinous and ligamentous insertion of the spine affecting elderly individuals. On imaging, it is typically characterised by the flowing ...
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Lymph node imaging

Lymph node imaging has become an important task for the radiologist in present days, aiding the clinician in determining whether they are benign or malignant. Multiple modalities are being used for the assessment and characterization of lymph nodes, each with its advantages and drawbacks. Modal...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma (bladder)

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common primary neoplasm of the urinary bladder, and bladder TCC is the most common tumour of the entire urinary system. This article concerns itself with transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder specifically. Related articles include: general di...
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Urinary bladder rupture

Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma. Classification Bladder rupture can be categorised into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture.  Bladder contusion This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since it in...
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Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potentially symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditi...
Article

Cochlear incomplete partition type I

Cochlear incomplete partition type I  (IP-I) is a type of cochlear anomaly associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Radiographic features CT The main findings on CT are: absent modiolus absent interscalar septum wide (most common) or normal cochlear nerve canal Absence of these structu...
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Madelung deformity

Madelung deformity is due to premature closure or defective development of the ulnar third of the distal epiphysis of the radius.  This deformity results in a radial shaft that is bowed with increased interosseous space and dorsal subluxation of the distal radioulnar joint. It can be bilateral ...
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Orbital metastasis

Orbital metastases are relatively uncommon, but some primary tumours do have a predilection to metastasise to the orbit. This article concerns itself with extraocular metastases, rather than intraocular tumours or direct extension of tumours from neighbouring regions. For a discussion of intrao...
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Septo-optic dysplasia

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), also known as de Morsier syndrome, is a condition characterised by optic nerve hypoplasia and absence of septum pellucidum and, in two-thirds of patients hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. It is best thought of as being part of the holoprosencephaly spectrum (see cl...
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Meconium peritonitis

Meconium peritonitis refers to a sterile chemical peritonitis due to intra-uterine bowel perforation and spillage of fetal meconium into the fetal peritoneal cavity. It is a common cause of peritoneal calcification.  Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~1 in 35,000. Pathology The aet...
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Crossed fused renal ectopia

Crossed fused renal ectopia essentially refers to an anomaly where the kidneys are fused and located on the same side of the midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is around 1 out of 1000 births 1. There is a recognised male predilection with a 2:1 male to female ratio. More than 90% of...
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Thoracic aortic injury

Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life ending event. It can result from either blunt or penetrating trauma: blunt trauma (more common) rapid deceleration (eg. motor vehicle accident, fall from great height) ...
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Hypovitaminosis C (scurvy)

Scurvy (also known as Barlow disease in infants) is a condition characterised by an increased bleeding tendency and impaired collagen synthesis resulting in osteoporosis and impaired wound healing. It is caused by a dietary lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Epidemiology Scurvy in adults is ra...
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Chordoid meningioma

Chordoid meningiomas are uncommon histological variants of meningiomas, and due to their predilection for rapid growth and local recurrence are designated as grade 2 tumours under the current WHO classification of CNS tumours.  Chordoid tumours are encountered in a very wide age range (possibly...
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Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma

Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SGCAs or alternatively SEGAs) are benign tumours (WHO grade I), seen almost exclusively in young patients with tuberous sclerosis. They can be either asymptomatic or symptomatic due obstructive hydrocephalus, surgery treatment is often curative.  On imaging...
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Radiation-induced meningiomas

Radiation-induced meningiomas (RIM) are more frequently multiple and have a very long latency period. Meningiomas are a much more frequent complication of radiation exposure compared to sarcomas or gliomas. Epidemiology The exact incidence of radiation-induced meningiomas is unknown; one study...
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Pituitary macroadenoma

Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common suprasellar mass in adults, and responsible for the majority of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. They are defined as pituitary adenomas greater than 10 mm in size and are approximately twice as common as pituitary microadenomas.  On imaging they usuall...
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Laryngocoele

Laryngocoeles refer to dilatations of the laryngeal ventricular saccule located in paraglottic space of supraglottis. On imaging, these lesions are generally characterised as well-defined, thin-walled, fluid or air-filled cystic lesions in the paraglottic space. The communication with the laryn...
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Tophi

Tophi (plural of tophus), meaning "stone" in Latin appear as lumps on affected joints due to deposit of monosodium rate (MSU) crystals in patients with longstanding high level serum uric acid (hyperuricaemia). Tophi are a pathognomonic feature of gout.  
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Collision tumour of the ovary

A collision tumour of the ovary is an uncommon ovarian neoplasm where there is co-existence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumours with no histologic admixture at the interface. Pathology The exact pathogenesis is not well known. They are most commonly composed of ovarian teratoma...
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Intraosseous pneumatocyst

Intraosseous pneumatocysts are gas containing cystic structures seen inside the bone. Pathology They are of uncertain aetiology. These cysts do not communicate with the joint. Location Most common site of involvement is sacroiliac joints. Other sites involved are cervical spine, scapula and ...
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Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer

Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers (PAU) is a pathology that involves the aortic wall and along with aortic dissection and aortic intramural haematoma form the spectrum known as acute aortic syndrome.  Epidemiology Typically, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers are seen in older male patients w...
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Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with...
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Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
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Lung abscess

Lung abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus within the lung, and potentially life threatening. They are often complicated to manage and difficult to treat. Epidemiology As a result of the widespread availability of antibiotics, the incidence of lung abscesses has dramatically reduced. Si...
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Inverted papilloma

Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology  The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
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Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle

Chordoid gliomas of the third ventricle are rare slow growing well-circumscribed low-grade tumours lesions that arise from the anterior wall or roof of the third ventricle.  Epidemiology Epidemiological data is limited due to the rare nature of this finding and less than 100 cases have been pu...
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Dorsal dermal sinus

Dorsal dermal sinus (DDS) is an epithelium-lined tract from the skin to the spinal cord, cauda equina, or arachnoid. Pathology Dorsal dermal sinus is caused by incomplete separation of the superficial ectoderm from the neural ectoderm, resulting in a focal segmental adhesion. Later during emb...
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Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare idiopathic condition characterised by widespread intra-alveolar deposition of spherical calcium phosphate microliths (calcospherites).  Epidemiology A slight female predilection may be present in the familial form 2. Most cases are reported in ...
Article

Porencephaly

Porencephaly is a rare congenital disorder that results in cystic degeneration and encephalomalacia and the formation of porencephalic cysts. The term is used variably among radiologists with its broadest definition being a cleft or cystic cavity within the brain 9, and its more narrow definitio...
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Round atelectasis

Round atelectasis, also known as folded lung or Blesovsky syndrome, is an unusual type of lung atelectasis where there is infolding of a redundant pleura. The way the lung collapses can at times give a false mass-like appearance. Pathology Two theories have been put forward. The second theory ...
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Emphysematous pyelonephritis

Emphysematous pyelonephritis refers to a  morbid infection of kidneys, with characteristic gas formation within or around the kidneys. If not treated early, it may lead to fulminant sepsis and carries a high mortality. Clinical presentation The patient usually presents with flank pain, urinary...
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Mycobacterium bovis

Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and an obligate aerobe bacterium that is the cause of tuberculosis in cattle. M. bovis can also cause tuberculosis in other mammals including humans. Epidemiology In the United States, M. bovis accounts for ~ 2% of all ...
Article

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an extremely rare pulmonary disorder where there is a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is however recognised with increasing frequency. Epidemiology There may be an increased female predilection ...
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Ascites

Ascites is defined as an abnormal amount of intraperitoneal fluid. Clinical presentation Patients with a large volume of ascites can present with abdominal distension (which may be painful), nausea, vomiting, dyspnoea and peripheral oedema 7, 9. Pathology Ascitic fluid is traditionally chara...
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Coral reef aorta

Coral reef aorta (CRA) is a rare disease, described as rock-hard calcifications involving the arterial wall which protrude into the lumen. It predominantly involves the posterior thoracic and abdominal aorta. CRA luminal lesions can cause significant aortic stenosis. Epidemiology Patients usua...
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Humeral shaft fracture

Humeral shaft fractures are readily diagnosed and usually, do not require internal fixation.  Epidemiology Humeral shaft fractures account for 3-5% of all fractures 1,3. Although they occur in all age groups, a bimodal distribution is noted. The first peak is seen in the third decade in males ...
Article

Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy

Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE), also known as Binswanger disease or small vessel dementia, refers to slowly progressive exclusively white-matter multi-infarct dementia.  A genetically transmitted form of the disease is known as familial arteriopathic leukoencephalopathy or CA...
Article

Stump appendicitis

Stump appendicitis refers to inflammation of the residual appendiceal tissue post appendectomy. Partial removal of appendix with a residual stump, allows for a chance of recurrent appendicitis. Chances of a partial removal is found to be higher in cases where there is a wrong identification of ...
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Rectus sheath haematoma

Rectus sheath haematomas, as the term implies, occur when a haematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle / rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath haematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Pathology Ae...
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Pseudodacryocystitis

Pseudodacryocystitis refers to anterior ethmoidal sinus inflammation, usually with superimposed infection, extending into the adjacent lacrimal sac region and consequently giving a clinical presentation similar to dacryocystitis. The lacrimal system drainage is commonly shown patent on clinical...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is the most common histological subtype of cervical cancer and accounts for 80-90% of cases. Pathology Most cervical squamous cell carcinomas grow at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). In younger women, the SCJ is located outside the external uterine...
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Broncholithiasis

Broncholithiasis is a term given for the presence of calcified or ossified material within the lumen of the bronchus. Pathology A broncholith is usually formed by erosion by and extrusion of a calcified adjacent lymph node into the bronchial lumen and is usually associated with long-standing f...
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Lipoma

Lipomas are benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes. They are the most common soft tissue tumour, seen in ~2% of the population.  Epidemiology Patients typically present in adulthood (5th-7th decades). Clinical presentation Typically lipomas are subcutaneous in location and present in a...
Article

Tumefactive demyelinating lesion

Tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL), also sometimes referred to as monofocal acute inflammatory demyelination (MAID), is a locally aggressive form of demyelination, usually manifesting as a solitary lesion (or sometimes a couple of lesions) greater than 2 cm that may mimic a neoplasm on imagi...
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Bowel and mesenteric trauma

Bowel and mesenteric trauma can result from blunt force, penetrating and iatrogenic trauma. Epidemiology The bowel and mesentery are injured in ~2.5% (range 0.3-5%) of blunt force abdominal trauma 1,3,5,8. However not surprisingly, bowel and mesenteric injuries are more frequent after penetrat...
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Velamentous cord insertion

Velamentous cord insertion is one of the types of abnormal umbilical cord insertion into the placenta. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~1% in singleton and 9-15% in twin pregnancies, respectively 11. It is also more common in placenta previa than in normally located placentas. The prev...
Article

Lisfranc injury

Lisfranc injuries, also called Lisfranc fracture-dislocations, are the most common type of dislocation involving the foot and correspond to the dislocation of the articulation of the tarsus with the metatarsal bases. Pathology Anatomy The Lisfranc joint is the articulation of the tarsus with ...
Article

Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
Article

Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a rup...
Article

Mycotic aneurysm

Mycotic aneurysms are aneurysms arising from infection of the arterial wall, usually bacterial. It is a complication of the haematogenous spread of bacterial infection, classically from the heart.  Epidemiology The epidemiology of mycotic aneurysms mirrors that of identifiable risk factors:  ...
Article

Baker cyst

Baker cysts, or popliteal cysts, are fluid-filled distended synovial-lined bursa arising in the popliteal fossa between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the semimembranosus tendons via a communication with the knee joint. They are usually located at or below the joint line. Epidemiology...
Article

Splenic infarction

Splenic infarction is a result of ischaemia to the spleen, and in many cases requires no treatment. However, identification of the cause of infarction is essential.   Epidemiology Splenic infarcts can occur due to a number processes, involving either arterial supply, the spleen itself and the ...
Article

Erdheim-Chester disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Erdheim-Chester disease are uncommon. Epidemiology The lungs are affected in ~25% (range 20-35%) of cases 5.  Radiographic features HRCT chest Described findings include 1 symmetric reticular interstitial opacities smooth interlobular septal thickening and fiss...
Article

Scrotal pyocoele

Scrotal pyocoeles are purulent fluid collections in the scrotal sac that generally occur in conjunction with epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Scrotal pyocoeles are typically a complication of epididymo-orchitis and testicular abscess but can also occur following trauma or surgery. The purulent fl...
Article

Erdheim-Chester disease

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell, non-familial multisystemic granulomatosis, with widespread manifestations and of highly variable severity. The most common presenting symptom is bone pain. Epidemiology Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare, non-inherited disease of midd...
Article

Placental insufficiency

Placental insufficiency is a term given to a situation where the placenta cannot bring enough oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Clinical presentation Fetuses may present with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) (especially asymmetrical IUGR). Pathology It can be primarily caused...
Article

Ovarian tumours

Ovarian tumours are relatively common and account for ~6% of female malignancies. This article focuses on the general classification of ovarian tumours. For specific features, refer to the sub-articles. Pathology Subtypes Primary ovarian tumours Surface epithelial stromal ovarian tumours (60...
Article

Ovarian serous tumours

Ovarian serous neoplasms are the commonest subtypes of the epithelial ovarian tumours, being more prevalent than the mucinous ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: benign: serous cystadenoma / serous cystadenofibroma borderline...
Article

CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
Article

Human epididymis protein 4

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is an emerging serum biomarker in the assessment of epithelial ovarian tumours. HE4 is a member of the whey associated protein (WAP) gene cluster and has uncertain biological function 1. Early results indicate that HE4 has higher sensitivity and sensitivity than...
Article

Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary

Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a sub-type of epithelial ovarian tumours. The vast majority are malignant and invasive. On imaging, they are usually characterised as complex nonspecific solid-cystic masses and found associated with endometriosis.  Epidemiology Endometrioid carcinomas ...
Article

Astroblastoma

Astroblastomas are rare glial tumours usually found in the cerebral hemispheres of young adults and children.  Epidemiology They occur at all ages range from early childhood to 6th decade but are most commonly seen in children, adolescents, and young adults with a mean age between 10-30 years ...

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