Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,051 results found
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14-3-3 protein

14-3-3 protein is found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and is currently used to help identify patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD).  In diagnosing sCJD, the sensitivity of 14-3-3 protein is 92% and its specificity is 80% 1. A negative 14-3-3 assay may be helpful in reducin...
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1p19q codeletion

1p19q codeletion stands for the combined loss of the short arm chromosome 1 (i.e. 1p) and the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q) and is recognised as a genetic marker predictive of therapeutic response to both chemotherapy and combined chemoradiotherapy and overall longer survival in patients with ...
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2-hydroxyglutarate

2-hydroxyglutarate is a metabolite that accumulates in the brains of patients with IDH-1 mutated (IDH-1 positive) brain tumours, particularly diffuse low-grade gliomas. Although not in widespread clinical use, it is likely that 2-hydroxyglutarate, which resonates at 2.25 ppm, will be able to be ...
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Adenoma-carcinoma sequence

The adenoma-carcinoma sequence refers to a stepwise pattern of mutational activation of oncogenes (e.g. K-ras) and inactivation of tumour suppressor genes (e.g. p53) that results in cancer. An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumour cells, these are often mutated or ...
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AFP reduction

Human AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) reduction is seen in pregnancy where it can be associated with:  certain chromosomal anomalies Down syndrome Turner syndrome trisomy 13 trisomy 18 Cornelia de-Lange syndrome 2
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Alzheimer type I glia

Alzheimer type I glia are a type of glial cell. They are large multinucleated astrocytes encountered in glial tumours and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) 1. 
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Alzheimer type II glia

Alzheimer type II glia are a type of glial cell. They are a pathological reactive astrocyte seen in the brain, unrelated to Alzheimer disease. They are seen most frequently in Wilson disease, but also in other systemic metabolic disorders, particularly those with elevated ammonia levels, typical...
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Aspergillus clavatus

Aspergillus clavatus is one of the species of Aspergillus that can cause pathology in humans. It is allergenic and causes a hypersensitivity pneumonitis called malt-workers lung. See also Aspergillus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus clavatus
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Astrocytes

Astrocytes are cells of the central nervous system which act as both physical and physiological support for the neurones that are embedded between them. They are particularly abundant in the grey matter, where they are the most abundant glial cells 1. They are highly branched and contribute to ...
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Atypical small acinar proliferation

Atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP) are premalignant lesions of the prostate, which can be found in as many as 5% of prostate biopsies. They are suspicious glands without adequate histologic atypia to establish a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. Some studies showed that there is ...
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CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
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CA 19-9 elevation

CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 or cancer antigen) is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepatopancreaticobiliary origin. It is non-specific, however, and can rise in both malignant and non-malignant co...
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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
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Charcot-Leyden crystals

Charcot-Leyden crystals consist of collections of bipyramidal crystalloid made up of eosinophilic membrane proteins, which occur in:  asthma other eosinophilic lung disease 2 certain cases of sinusitis (e.g. allergic fungal sinusitis) They may be detected in the sputum or sinus secretions wi...
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Choristoma

A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...
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Chromogranin A

Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic secretory glycoprotein found in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells and neurones, as is a member of the granin family of proteins. It can be used both for immunohistochemical stains and as a serum marker 4.  Immunohistochemistry Chromogranin A is us...
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Circumferential resection margin

The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a term used in rectal carcinoma excision surgery (such as total mesorectal excision (TME)). Pathologic evaluation of the resection margin on the excised rectum has been considered important for determining the risk of local recurrence. A margin of ≤...
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Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions

Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions (CAPSS) is a pathological entity encountered when breast biopsies are done for investigation of punctate or amorphous calcifications. CAPSS involves the terminal ductal and lobular units (TDLU's). It is sometimes classified under t...
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Cowdry bodies

Cowdry bodies are neuronal intranuclear inclusions seen in Herpes simplex virus infections.
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Cushing syndrome

Cushing syndrome is due to the effects of excessive glucocorticoids which may be exogenous or endogenous. Pathology In modern Western populations, iatrogenic steroid administration for treatment of inflammatory condition is the most common cause, e.g. asthma, rheumatoid arthritis. Endogenous ...
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Ependymal cells

Ependymal cells are one of the four main types of glial cells, and themselves encompass three types of cells 1:  ependymocytes: line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord tanycytes: line the floor of the third ventricle choroidal epithelial cells: line the surface o...
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Ependymal rosettes (ependymoma)

Ependymal rosettes correspond to a histologic architectural pattern that very characteristic of ependymomas, as tumour cells form structures similar to the lining of normal ventricles. They are characterised by a halo or spoke-wheel arrangement of tumour cells surrounding an empty central tubule...
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Ependymocytes

Ependymocytes are one of the three types of ependymal cells, which in turn are one of the four principles types of glial cells, and are found lining the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord 1.  They do not form a water-tight barrier between the cerebral spina...
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Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)

Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) is a commonly used target for immunohistochemisty, found on the surface of many epithelial cells and thus present in a wide variety of tumours. It also is sometimes seen within the cytoplasm of cells (e.g. perinuclear dot in ependymomas). 
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Extensive intraductal component (invasive ductal carcinoma)

Extensive intraductal component (EIC) in breast imaging evaluation is the pathological description where an invasive ductal carcinoma has a prominent intraductal component within it or if there is intraductal carcinoma, DCIS is present within sections of normal adjacent tissue. It is sometimes c...
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Faecal calprotectin

Faecal calprotectin (FCAL) is a protein which is a marker of inflammation of the gut used as a diagnostic tool and marker of disease activity for Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Biochemistry Calprotectin is a protein complex from the S-100 family, which is formed of three polypeptide cha...
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Fibrillary astrocytoma

Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type of diffuse low grade astrocytoma and as of the 2016 update to WHO classification of CNS tumours it no longer exists as a distinct entity, having been incorporated into the generic term diffuse astrocytoma 6.  Terminology Unlike the other variant...
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Flexner-Wintersteiner rosette

The presence of Flexner-Wintersteiner rosette is characteristic for retinoblastoma but is also seen in pineoblastoma and medulloepitheliomas. 
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Fracture healing

Fracture healing occurs naturally after traumatic bony disruption. This process begins with haemorrhage and progresses through three stages: inflammatory reparative remodelling This process can be supported by various treatment options with immobilisation a mainstay; inappropriate treatment ...
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Gallbladder volvulus

Gallbladder volvulus is a relatively rare condition in which there is a rotation of the gallbladder around the axis of the cystic duct and artery. Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific, however right upper quadrant pain and vomiting are similar to biliary colic. Laboratory evaluation...
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Gallstone pancreatitis

Gallstone pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis caused by gallstones, specifically distal choledocholithiasis. Gallstones is the cause for 35-40% of acute pancreatitis but this number has a wide regional variance.  Epidemiology Gallstone pancreatitis has a higher incidence in women (compared to ...
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Gallstones

Gallstones, also called cholelithiasis, are concretions that occur anywhere within the biliary system, most commonly within the gallbladder.  Terminology Gallstones (cholelithiasis) describes stone formation at any point along the biliary tree. Specific names can be given to gallstones dependi...
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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) peak

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system 1 and as such, is one of the compounds examined in MR spectroscopy.  It is present in the human brain at a concentration of about 1 mM, a whole order of magnitude lower than some of the more...
Article

Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
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Gangrenous cholecystitis

Gangrenous cholecystitis is the most common complication of acute cholecystitis, affecting ~15% (range 2-30%) of patients.  Pathology Gangrenous cholecystitis occurs as a result of ischaemia with necrosis of the gallbladder wall 4.  Risk factors male increasing age delayed surgery cardiov...
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Gartner duct cyst

Gartner duct cysts develop from embryologic remnants of the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct. They are often noticed incidentally on ultrasound or MRI. Clinical presentation They may cause mass effect on adjacent structures. Pathology Location Gartner duct cysts are located in the anterolateral ...
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Gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma, commonly referred to as gastric cancer, refers to a primary malignancy arising from the gastric epithelium. It is the most common gastric malignancy.  Epidemiology Gastric cancer is rare before the age of 40, but its incidence steadily climbs after that and peaks in the...
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Gastric antral vascular ectasia

Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), also known as watermelon stomach, is a rare condition affecting the stomach. It is one of the diagnoses to consider in older patients with severe anaemia and occult or profuse gastrointestinal bleeding (especially in those with cardiac, liver, or renal dis...
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Gastric antral web

Gastric antral webs are a ring of mucosa in the distal stomach (gastric antrum) that can lead to gastric outlet obstruction. A circumferential ring of mucosa has also been termed a "gastric antral diaphragm". Epidemiology Gastric antral webs are rare. There is an association with trisomy 21 an...
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Gastric lipoma

Gastric lipomas are a location-specific subtype of gastrointestinal lipomas and represent a rare benign mesenchymal tumours of the stomach. They can be definitively diagnosed on CT.  Epidemiology Gastric lipomas are rare, accounting for <5% of gastrointestinal lipomas and <1% of all gastric ne...
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Gastric polyps

Gastric polyps are uncommon findings, even on endoscopy where they are encountered in only 2-6% of patients.  Pathology There are a number of gastric polyp subtypes 1-3: non-neoplastic polyps hyperplastic polyps virtually no malignant potential typically small (<1cm), multiple, and sessile...
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Gastric volvulus

Gastric volvulus is a specific type of volvulus that occurs when the stomach twists on its mesentery. It should be at least 180° and cause bowel obstruction to be called gastric volvulus. Merely gastric rotation on its root is not considered gastric volvulus. Epidemiology Organo-axial volvulus...
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Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumour and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In genera...
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Gastrointestinal amyloidosis

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis is relatively common, although symptomatic involvement is more rare. It is diagnosed if there is persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with endoscopic biopsy proven amyloid deposition. Epidemiology Tends to affect middle-aged and older patients.  Clinical pres...
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Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias or angioectasias are one of the most common causes of occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding although they can commonly be an incidental finding.  Epidemiolo...
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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours (GI NETs) can be functional or non-functional: functional NETs can be challenging to localise as:  they are often small in size at the time of diagnosis  arise in many sites throughout the body non-functioning and/or malignant NETs often are larger at ...
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Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the oesophagus across the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS). Pathology Minor reflux disease In most patients with reflux disease, reflux is initiated...
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Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis refers to extra-abdominal herniation (evisceration) of fetal or neonatal bowel loops (and occasionally portions or the stomach and or liver) into the amniotic cavity through a para-umbilical abdominal wall defect.   Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 1-6 per 10,000...
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GATA2 deficiency

GATA2 deficiency is a germ-line disease expressed as a wide spectrum of phenotypes, including monocytopenia, myelodysplasia, myeloid leukaemias, and lymphoedema. It is a rare cause of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Clinical presentation GATA2 deficiency has considerably variable clinical mani...
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Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans. It is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase or beta-glucosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within the lysosomes of macrop...
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Gel bleed in breast implants

Gel bleed is a phenomenon associated with silicone breast implants. Pathology Gel bleed refers to microscopic diffusion of silicone gel through the breast implant elastomer shell. The implant shell, made of silicone, is a semipermeable membrane that allows for the egress or bleed of silicone n...
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Gemistocytic astrocytoma

Gemistocytic astrocytoma is a histologic subtype of low grade astrocytoma, with a poorer prognosis than other matched WHO grade tumours, and with no specific imaging features.  For a general discussion of clinical presentation, epidemiology, treatment please refer to the article on low grade as...
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Geophagy

Geophagy is the intentional ingestion of earth, soil or clay and is a form of pica. This practice is not uncommon in the southern regions of the United States or provinces of Africa. It may be seen in pregnant or iron-deficient patients 3. Although geophagia may be seen in the context of a varie...
Article

Germinal matrix haemorrhage

Germinal matrix haemorrhages, also know as periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhages (PVIH), correspond to the most common type of intracranial haemorrhage in neonates and are related to a perinatal stress affecting the highly vascularised subependymal germinal matrix. The majority of cases ...
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Germinoma

The term germinoma usually refers to a tumour of the brain (WHO Classification of CNS tumours), but can also refer to similar tumours of the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma All three tumours share similar histology. 
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Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease is a very rare type of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. It manifests with dementia and/or ataxia and is due to a mutation in the prion protein (PRNP) gene, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. 
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Gerstmann syndrome

Gerstmann syndrome, also known as angular gyrus syndrome, is a dominant hemisphere stroke syndrome consisting of four components:  agraphia or dysgraphia acalculia or dyscalculia finger agnosia left-right disorientation Pure Gerstmann syndrome is said to be without aphasia. History and ety...
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Gestational choriocarcinoma

Gestational choriocarcinoma (GC) is a type of choriocarcinoma that follows a gestational event. Similar to choriocarcinomas in general, it lies at the malignant end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease. Pathology Approximately 50% of gestational choriocarcinomas arise from a pr...
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Giant cell glioblastoma

Giant cell glioblastoma is a variant of glioblastoma (along with epithelioid glioblastoma and giant cell glioblastoma) recognised in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours 7. This tumour was previously called monstrocellular tumour due to the macro size of its cells. Epidemiology ...
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Giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath

Giant cell tumours of the tendon sheath (GCTTS), also known as pigmented villonodular tumour of the tendon sheath (PVNTS) or extra-articular pigmented villonodular tumour of the tendon sheath, are uncommon and usually benign lesions that arise from the tendon sheath. It is unclear whether these ...
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Giant cerebral aneurysm

Giant cerebral aneurysms are ones that measure >25 mm in greatest dimension.  Epidemiology Giant cerebral aneurysms account for ~5% of all intracranial aneurysms 1,3. They occur in the 5th-7th decades and are more common in females 2. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms ...
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Giant fibroadenoma

Giant fibroadenomas are fibroadenomas weighing more than 500 grams or measuring >5 cm in size 2. They are usually encountered in pregnant or lactating women.
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Gigantomastia

Gigantomastia (or macromastia) is a term given when there is massive breast enlargement. It is often associated with pregnancy. Gigantomastia is a very common condition characterised by proliferation of either breast fatty tissue or glandular tissue or both, resulting in rapid increase in breas...
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Glial cells

Glial cells, or neuroglia, are cells that surround the neurones of the central nervous system embedded between them, providing both structural and physiological support 1-3.  Together they account for almost half of the total mass 1 and 90% of all cells of the central nervous system 3. Glial ce...
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Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)

Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) is a commonly used target for immunohistochemistry and is positive in many glial cells and tumours of glial origin. GFAP is the building block for intermediate filaments which are abundant in the cytoplasms particularly of astrocytes. 
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Gliomatosis cerebri

Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare growth pattern of diffuse gliomas that involves at least three lobes by definition. There often is an important discordance between clinical and radiological findings, as it may be clinically silent while it appears as a very extensive process radiologically. Impor...
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Gliosarcoma

Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastoma (along with epithelioid glioblastoma and giant cell glioblastoma) recognised in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours 9. They are highly malignant (WHO grade IV) primary intra-axial neoplasms with both glial and mesenchymal elements. Ter...
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Gliosis

Gliosis is the focal proliferation of glial cells in the CNS in response to insult. By strict definition, gliosis is not synonymous with encephalomalacia which is the end result of liquefactive necrosis of brain parenchyma following an insult. Radiologically they share similar features and is of...
Article

Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular mus...
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Globus pharyngeus

Globus pharyngeus is the subjective feeling of a lump in the throat which can have a variety of causes. In modern practice globus is often evaluated by flexible nasoendoscopy in the first instance since many patients present to otolaryngology services. If no cause is identified or if nasoendosco...
Article

Glomus tympanicum paraganglioma

Glomus tympanicum paragangliomas (chemodectomas) are the most common middle ear tumour.  Epidemiology There is a female predominance (M:F = 1:3); presentation is most common when patients are more than 40 years old 1,2.  Clinical presentation May be incidental but symptomatic masses produce ...
Article

Glucagonoma

Glucagonomas are pancreatic endocrine tumours that secrete glucagon. Most lesions are malignant. Epidemiology They are rare with an incidence of 0.000005%. Equal incidence in middle-aged men and women.  Clinical presentation Most patients present with a necrolytic migratory rash and various ...
Article

Gluteal injection site granuloma

Gluteal injection site granulomas are a very common finding on CT and plain radiographs. They occur as a result of subcutaneous (i.e. intra-lipomatous) rather than intramuscular injection of drugs, which cause localised fat necrosis, scar formation and dystrophic calcification. Once familiar wi...
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Gnathic osteosarcoma

Gnathic osteosarcoma is a subtype of osteosarcoma that primarily affects the mandible (horizontal ramus) and maxilla (alveolar ridge, sinus floor, and palate). Epidemiology represents ~6% of osteosarcomas 3  60% in males has an older onset (~30 years) and a peak incidence: 30-40 years Clini...
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Goitre

Goitre refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can occur from multiple conditions. The definition of a goitre depends on age and sex; below are the upper limits of normal for thyroid gland volume 1: adult males: 25 mL adult females: 18 mL 13-14 years: 8-10 mL 3-4 years: 3 mL neonate...
Article

Gosselin fracture

The Gosselin fracture is a fracture of the distal tibia with a V-shaped fractured fragment and intra-articular involvement. History and etymology It is named after Leon Athanese Gosselin (1815–1887), a French surgeon.
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Gossypiboma

A gossypiboma, also called textiloma or cottonoid, refers to a foreign object, such as a mass of cotton matrix or a sponge, that is left behind in a body cavity during an operation. It is an uncommon surgical complication. The manifestations and complications of gossypibomas are so variable tha...
Article

Gout

Gout is a crystal arthropathy due to deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in and around the joints. Epidemiology Typically occurs in those above 40 years. There is a strong male predilection of 20:1. Pathology Characterised by monosodium urate crystals deposition in periarticular so...
Article

Graft versus host disease

Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a frequent complication of allogeneic post haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), commonly known as bone marrow transplantation. Anti-rejection drugs have reduced the incidence, although it does still frequently occur.  Pathology GvHD can present e...
Article

Graft versus host disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the thoracic manifestations that can complicate haematopoetic stem cell transplantation. Pulmonary GvHD can be broadly divided into acute and chronic disease 1-4: acute pulmonary GvHD pulmonary involvement is rare the median time of onset o...
Article

Granular cell tumour of the breast

A granular cell tumour (GCT) of the breast is an uncommon, usually benign tumour which is possibly of neural origin. Epidemiology They tend to occur at a younger age than other types of breast cancer 4. The age range of presentation, however, can be very variable although they occur more commo...
Article

Granular cell tumour of the pituitary region

Granular cell tumour of the pituitary region, also known as a pituitary choristoma, are rare low-grade tumours of the posterior pituitary and infundibulum.  Terminology Care must be taken when reading older literature as granular cell tumours of the pituitary region, and alternative names incl...
Article

Granulocytic sarcoma

Granulocytic sarcoma (also called myeloid sarcoma and chloroma) is a rare neoplasm comprised of myeloid precursor cells. It can occur in association with: acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) other myeloproliferative disorders such as myelofibrosis with myeloid meta...
Article

Granuloma annulare

Granuloma annulare is a benign idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the dermis, characterised by formation of dermal papules in young children. Clinical presentation Granuloma annulare has various clinical presentations: three cutaneous forms erythematous perforating generalised one subcut...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, is a multisystem systemic necrotising non-caseating granulomatous vasculitis affecting small to medium sized arteries, capillaries and veins, with a predilection for the respiratory system and kidneys 3. This ar...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (breast manifestations)

Breast involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis is seen in patients with avid systemic manifestations.  Clinical presentation Clinically they can mimic carcinoma as a palpable, tender mass. Pathology Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (or formerly known as Wegeners granulomatosis) is a ...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (orbital manifestations)

Ophthalmologic manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis), both ocular and orbital, have been reported in 40-50% of GPA patients 1-3 and can occur in either the classic or limited form of the disease. 4 Ophthalmologic disease occasiona...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (pulmonary manifestations)

This article discusses the pulmonary manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis). It is classified as a type of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. For a general discussion of the condition, please refer to the main article on granulomato...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (renal manifestations)

The renal manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis) are occult on imaging, especially when compared to the pulmonary changes. Approximately half of GPA patients have kidney disease at presentation. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (We...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (upper respiratory tract manifestations)

The upper respiratory tract manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis) are common and affect most patients. . Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), is a multi-system systemic necrotizing non-caseating granulomatous...
Article

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, sometimes termed granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, is a form of invasive fungal sinusitis. Reports describing the imaging findings have been uncommon 1. Epidemiology It is rare and been mainly reported in Sudan, India, Pakistan and sometimes in t...
Article

Granulomatous lung disease

Granulomatous lung disease refers a broad group of infectious and well as non infections conditions characterised by formation of granulomas. The spectrum includes infectious mycobacterial pulmonary tuberculosis pulmonary non tuberculous mycobacterial infection fungal pulmonary coccidioid...
Article

Granulomatous mastitis

Granulomatous mastitis is a very rare breast inflammatory disease of unknown origin that can clinically mimic carcinoma of the breast. Clinical presentation The condition generally manifests as a distinct, firm to hard mass that may involve any part of the breast. The subareolar regions may be...

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