Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,793 results found
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Tuberculous encephalopathy

Tuberculous (TB) encephalopathy is a rare manifestation of CNS tuberculosis and is exclusively seen in children and infants with pulmonary TB. It is characterised by cerebral oedema sometimes with features similar to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and may manifest with a variety of...
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Tuberculous meningitis

Tuberculous meningitis is the most common presentation of intracranial tuberculosis, and usually refers to infection of the leptomeninges. Uncommonly tuberculosis can be limited to the pachymeninges (dura mater), it is called as tuberculous pachymeningitis and is discussed separately.  The rema...
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Tuberculous otomastoiditis

Tuberculous otomastoiditis is an uncommon form of acute otomastoiditis that occurs secondary to tuberculosis infection, although its frequency is increasing as a result of greater population of immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Classically it is described as presenting with pa...
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Tuberculous pachymeningitis

Tuberculous pachymeningitis is a rare form of CNS tuberculosis characterised by a chronic tuberculous infection leading to a dura mater involvement. Common sites of involvement are cavernous sinuses, floor of middle cranial fossa and tentorium. This condition should not be confused with the com...
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Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease

Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease refers to pelvic inflammatory disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology Genital tract involvement may be present in ~1.5% of cases of those affected with tuberculosis 4. Pathology Infection almost always results from spread from an extrag...
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Tuberculous rhombencephalitis

Tuberculous rhombencephalitis is a particular form of neurotuberculosis that affects primarily the hindbrain (brainstem and cerebellum) and usually is manifested as a tuberculoma. Please refer to the article on rhombencephalitis for a general discussion of that entity. Epidemiology Studies ha...
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Tuberous breasts

Tuberous breasts are congenital deformities of breast. They are defined by reduced parenchymal volume and herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex. Epidemiology The exact incidence is not clear. However, it is a common cause of patients presenting with breast asymmetry. Pr...
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Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Clinical presentation Patients typically present with fever, elevated white blood cell count, lower abdominal-pelvic pain, and/or vaginal discharge. Fever and leukocytosis may sometimes be abse...
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Tubular adenoma of the breast

Tubular adenomas (TA) of the breast, also known as pure adenoma of the breast, are a rare benign breast lesion. It is a type of adenomatous breast lesion. Epidemiology They are typically found in young women and are usually palpated by the patient or her physician. Pathology On gross patholo...
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Tubular carcinoma of the breast

Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).  Epidemiology These account for ~1% of breast cancers. The peak age at presentation may be comparatively younger than with other types of breast cancer 7. Clinical presentation The vast majority of tubular carci...
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Tubular ectasia of the epididymis

Tubular ectasia of the epididymis results in enlargement of the epididymis with multiple cystic interfaces. It typically occurs in those with a prior vasectomy but can be also seen with other causes of obstruction of the ductus deferens. Radiographic features Ultrasound This can give a charac...
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Tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast

A tubulolobular carcinoma (TLC) of the breast is considered a subtype of breast cancer that features of both invasive lobular carcinoma and tubular carcinoma of the breast. It therefore exhibits features of both ductal and lobular differentiation. Multifocality, muticentricity and percentage of ...
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Tumefactive demyelinating lesion

Tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL), also sometimes referred to as monofocal acute inflammatory demyelination (MAID), is a locally aggressive form of demyelination, usually manifesting as a solitary lesion (or sometimes a couple of lesions) greater than 2 cm that may mimic a neoplasm on imagi...
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Tumefactive multiple sclerosis

Tumefactive multiple sclerosis is a term used to describe patients with established multiple sclerosis who develop large aggressive demyelinating lesions, similar/identical in appearance to those seen in sporadic tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDL). TDL is now considered to be a separate ent...
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Tumefactive perivascular spaces

Tumefactive perivascular spaces (TPVS) is a rare finding of enlargement of perivascular spaces. It is important to recognise this condition as it can be easily mistaken for a neoplasm and also rarely local mass effect from TPVS can result in complication. Clinical presentation Small case serie...
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Tumoral calcinosis

Tumoral calcinosis is a rare familial condition characterised by painless, periarticular masses. The term should be strictly used to refer to a disease caused by a hereditary metabolic dysfunction of phosphate regulation associated with massive periarticular calcinosis and should not be used to ...
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Tumour markers

Tumour markers are a group of molecules in serum that are elevated in various malignancies and are often used to monitor treatment response as well as alert for potential progressive disease when in remission. Commonly used markers include: AFP beta-hCG CA 19-9 CA-125 CEA chromogranin A P...
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Tumour pseudoprogression

Tumour pseudoprogression, also known just as pseudoprogression, corresponds to an increase of lesion size related to treatment, which simulates progressive disease. The term is largely used in brain tumours imaging follow-up, especially for high grade gliomas (e.g. glioblastoma), and is observed...
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Tumour-to-tumour metastasis

A tumour-to-tumour metastasis, also known as a collision tumour, is a rare metastatic process in which a primary malignant tumour ('donor') metastasises to another tumour ('recipient'), most commonly a benign tumour such as a meningioma. Epidemiology Tumour-to-tumour metastasis is considered v...
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Tunnel cluster

Tunnel cluster (TC) is a type of Nabothian cyst characterised by complex multicystic dilatation of the endocervical glands. Epidemiology Tunnel cluster is found in ~8% of adult women, 40% of whom are pregnant, almost exclusively multigravid women, and older than 30 years. Clinical presentatio...
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Twin anaemia polycythaemia sequence

The twin anaemia polycythaemia sequence (TAPS) is considered a variant of the twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Epidemiology TAPS may occur spontaneously in up to 5% of monochorionic twins and may also develop after incomplete laser treatment in TTTS cases 2. Pathology As with TTTS t...
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Twin growth discordance

In obstetric imaging, twin growth discordance refers to a significant size or weight difference between the two fetuses of a twin pregnancy. To be classified as a growth discordance, some consider that the estimated fetal weight (EFW) of the smaller twin should fall under the 10th centile. Epid...
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Twin reversed arterial perfusion

Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is considered a severe variant of the twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). The hallmark of this condition which only happens in monochorionic pregnancies is the lack of placental perfusion of one of the twins (so called acardiac twin), with a...
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Tympanic membrane retraction

Tympanic membrane retraction usually occurs when a portion of the tympanic membrane becomes weakened and is pulled inwards by the negative pressure within the middle ear.  Pathology As the tympanic membrane is pulled inwards (medially), it can become draped over the ossicles, resulting in a va...
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Type II collagenopathy

Type II collagenopathies are a group of conditions collectively characterised by abnormalities in synthesis of collagen type II. This usually occurs due to a mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Entities that fall under this group include: achondrogenesis type II platyspondylic lethal skeletal dyspla...
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Uhl anomaly

Uhl anomaly is an unusual cardiac disorder which affects the right ventricle where there is almost complete absence of right ventricular myocardium, normal tricuspid valve, and preserved septal and left ventricular myocardium. History and etymology It is named after Henry S D Uhl, who first de...
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Ulnar dimelia

Ulnar dimelia or mirror hand syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of the upper limb characterized by absence of the radial ray (including thumb), duplication of the ulna and duplication of the ulnar halves of the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges 1. Pathology Embryology The embryology of mi...
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Ulnar-sided wrist impaction and impingement syndromes

There are several distinct ulnar-sided wrist impaction and impingement syndromes. Underlying anatomical causes exist for each syndrome, however, repetitive or excessive use of the forearm and wrist can also contribute. ulnar impaction syndrome: positive ulnar variance ulnar impingement syndrom...
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Umbilical cord coiling index

Umbilical cord coiling index is defined as number of coils per one centimeter of length of the cord . Normal index is one coil for a length of five centimeters. If number of coils are more per centimeter it is called as hypercoiled and less than it is called as hypocoiled umbilical cord. This in...
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Umbilical cord haematoma

Umbilical cord haematoma is formation of a haematoma secondary to bleeding from the umbilical cord. Pathology The haematomas can be either spontaneous or iatrogenic. Spontaneous bleeding is very rare and documented to be around 0.02% of pregnancies. Majority of the cases are iatrogenic related...
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Umbilical hernia

Umbilical hernias are the most common ventral hernia and occur in the midline. Epidemiology Ten times more common in females 2 and represent ~5% of all abdominal hernias 4. Clinical presentation Umbilical hernias present in the midline as painless or painful mass.  Pathology Umbilical hern...
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Umbilical vein varix

Umbilical vein varix (UVV) refers to a focal dilatation of the umbilical vein. Pathology Location It tends to favour the intra-abdominal portion of the cord (typically between the abdominal wall and the liver) which is then termed a fetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein varix (FIUVV) or the in...
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Uncal herniation

Uncal herniation is a subtype of transtentorial downward brain herniation, usually related to cerebral mass effect increasing the intracranial pressure. Clinical presentation Abnormal posture and poor GCS. There may be pupillary dilation and loss of light reflex due to direct compression of th...
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Unclassified cerebellar dysplasia

Unclassified cerebellar dysplasia is defined as focal or diffuse dysplasia of cerebellar hemispheres or vermis not associated with other known malformations or syndromes. Clinical presentation Can present with hypotonia, microcephaly or speech delay. Radiographic features MRI brain asymmetr...
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Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis

Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA), also known as undifferentiated arthritis, is a non-specific mono- or polyarthropathy that lacks the clinical, serological and radiological features that would allow specific diagnosis. It often turns out to be an early presentation of a more well known ...
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Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia

Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a type of pulmonary vein atresia. Pathology It results from failure of incorporation of the common pulmonary vein into the left atrium. There is no recognised right or left predilection. Clinical presentation The condition usually present in infancy or ch...
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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Epidemiology The incidence of acute UGIB is ~100 per 100,000 adults per year. UGIB is twice as common in men as in women and increases in prevalence with age 5. The demographics of the affected in...
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Upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion

Upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion (cephalisation) reflects elevation of left atrial pressure and can occur with pulmonary oedema. It produces Stag-antler's sign on frontal chest x-ray. The normal left atrial pressure is 5-10 mmHg. An elevation of left atrial pressure to 10-15 mmHg will resu...
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Uraemic encephalopathy

Uraemic encephalopathy (UE) is an acquired toxic syndrome characterised by delirium in patients with untreated or inadequately treated end-stage renal disease. UE is often associated with lethargy and confusion in the acute phase, which can progress to seizures, coma, or both in the chronic phas...
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Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis

Ureteral pseudodiverticulosis is acquired false diverticula resulting from herniation of epithelium through the muscularis layer of the ureter and characterized by the presence of multiple outpouchings smaller than 5 mm. It is more commonly bilateral and located in the upper two-thirds of the ur...
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Ureteric calculi

Ureteric calculi or stones are those lying within the ureter, at any point from the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) to the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). They are the classic cause of renal colic-type abdominal pain. They are a subset of the broader topic of urolithiasis. Epidemiology The lifetim...
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Ureteric injury

Ureteric injury is a relatively uncommon, but severe event, which may result in serious complications as a diagnosis is often delayed.  Clinical presentation Ureteric injuries unreliably demonstrate macro- or micro-scopic haematuria as it may be absent in up to 25% of patients 5, 6. Classic cl...
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Ureteric rupture

Ureteric rupture is rare but has been described. It may be spontaneous or secondary to another pathology or intervention. Clinical presentation The most common symptoms are sudden, severe, persistent lower abdominal pain with severe peritoneal irritation. Abdominal compartment syndrome, respir...
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Ureteritis

Ureteritis refers to inflammation of the ureter, it is rare and is often associated with cystitis or pyelonephritis 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with symptoms of cystitis or pyelonephritis with suprapubic/flank pain, dysuria, haematuria and/or fever. White cell count may also...
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Ureteritis cystica

Ureteritis cystica or pyeloureteritis cystica is a benign condition of the ureters representing multiple small submucosal cysts.  Epidemiology Typically this condition is seen in diabetics, with recurrent urinary tract infection. As such is is most frequently seen in older patients and is more...
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Urethral calculus

Urethral calculi are an uncommon type of urolithiasis, accounting for ~1% of all urinary tract stones. Epidemiology They almost all occur in males 2 with two peak incidences - one in childhood and the other at 40 years 3. Clinical presentation Most commonly acute lower urinary tract symptoms...
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Urethral injury

Urethral injuries can result in long-term morbidity and most commonly result from trauma. The male urethra is much more commonly injured than the female urethra and is the focus of this article. Clinical presentation In the setting of trauma, the classic triad of blood of the external urethral...
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Urethral stricture

Urethral strictures are relatively common, and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection. Epidemiology The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the aetiology, but in general it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases. Clinical pr...
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Urinary bladder rupture

Urinary bladder rupture is usually seen in the context of significant trauma. Classification Bladder rupture can be categorised into five types depending on the location and extent of the rupture.  Bladder contusion This is commonly seen but sometimes not classed as true rupture, since it in...
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Urinoma

Urinomas, or uriniferous fluid collections, are urine collections usually found in the retroperitoneum, most commonly in the perirenal space, as a consequence of renal track leakage caused by urinary obstruction, trauma, or post-instrumentation.  Terminology Although there is no definitive dis...
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Urinothorax

Urinothorax is a rare cause of pleural effusion due to the accumulation of urine within the pleural space. Pathology The aetiology of urinothorax can be dichotomised as either due to obstructive uropathy or due to trauma (including iatrogenic post-surgical trauma) to the urinary system 1-3. Ur...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is one of the morphological and pathological patterns of interstitial lung disease. On imaging, it usually presents with a patchy craniocaudal gradient of peripheral septal thickening, bronchiectasis, and honeycombing.  Terminology In the past, the term UIP ...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia (American thoracic society criteria for histopathological diagnosis)

American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for histopathological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia​ (UIP) are as follows:  advanced subpleural or paraseptal fibrosis +/- honeycombing  patchy temporally heterogeneous fibrosis fibroblastic foci absence of features against UIP inflammato...
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Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare cause of secondary postpartum haemorrhage.  Clinical presentation UAP usually presents as delayed (secondary) postpartum haemorrhage, that is per vaginal bleeding which occurs more than 24 hours and up to 6 weeks postpartum. However, some reported ...
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Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also referred as uterine fibroids, are benign tumours of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatme...
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Uterine leiomyosarcoma

Uterine leiomyosarcomas are malignant uterine tumours that arises from the myometrium. The uterus is the commonest location for a leiomyosarcoma. Epidemiology Typically present in women in the 6th decade. They account for up to one-third of uterine sarcomas but only ~8% of all uterine cancers ...
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Uterine lymphoma

Uterine lymphoma refers to involvement of the uterus with lymphoma. Some authors also place lymphoma of the uterine cervix under this group. Epidemiology It is rare condition with initial uterine involvement occurring in only 1% of patients with lymphoma 3. However, uterine involvement is more...
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Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture is a rare but nevertheless potentially catastrophic complication that can occur in pregnancy.  Epidemiology The incidence rate in pregnancy is at 0.05% 6.   Clinical presentation Uterine rupture is usually an acute presentation with haemodynamic instability and abdominal disc...
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Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential

Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a recently defined entity by the World Health Organisation for a heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumours that cannot be histologically diagnosed as unequivocally benign or malignant 1. See also malignant neo...
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Vaginal leiomyoma

A vaginal leiomyoma is an extremely rare entity and falls under extra uterine pelvic leiomyomas.  Epidemiology They are extremely rare with only ~ 300 cases reported in literature 3. Pathology It may occur anywhere along the vaginal canal and is usually localized, mobile, non-tender, and cir...
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Vaginal lymphoma

Vaginal lymphoma can refer to: secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalised lymphoma relatively commoner usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2 primary vaginal lymphoma much rarer
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Van Buchem disease

Van Buchem disease (VBD) is an extremely rare hereditary sclerosing bone dysplasia, also known as hyperostosis corticalis generalisata. This disease is characterised most notably by mandibular enlargement and thickening of the skull. Epidemiology Less than 30 cases have been reported in the li...
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Variation in cord insertion

There can be several variations with cord insertion into the placenta: central insertion (~90%): normal situation eccentric cord insertion: lateral insertion of the umbilical cord >2 cm from the placental margin term sometimes used synonymously with marginal cord insertion marginal cord inse...
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Varicose veins

Varicose veins are dilated tortuous superficially located venous channels that accompany the superficial veins of the upper or lower limbs. Epidemiology Varicose veins are more common in women than men and are more common in the lower limb than in the upper limb 5. Risk factors include: pregn...
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Vasa praevia

Vasa praevia is a term given when there are abnormal fetal vessels within the amniotic membranes that either cross or run in extremely close proximity to the internal cervical os. Pathology Vasa previa can be of two types type I (present in ~ 90% of cases with vasa praevia 3): abnormal fetal ...
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Vascular calcification in breast

Vascular calcifications in the breast are calcifications associated with blood vessels.   Epidemiology They are most often seen in post menopausal women with arteriosclerotic heart disease.  Pathology Results due to calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial walls. Associations coro...
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Vascular dementia

Vascular dementia, also known as vascular cognitive impairment, is the second most common cause of dementia after the far more common Alzheimer's disease. It is primarily seen in patients with atherosclerosis and chronic hypertension and results from the accumulation of multiple white matter or ...
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Vascular Ehlers Danlos syndrome

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) is the most malignant form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This form is often accompanied by neurovascular complications secondary to vessel dissections and/or aneurysms. Epidemiology Vascular EDS represents about 4% of...
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Vasculitis

Vasculitis describes generalised inflammation of vessels. Vasculitides carry a broad range of clinical presentations and as a whole can involve almost any organ system. Pathology Some vasculitides are due to direct vessel injury from an infectious agent. However a large proportion show evidenc...
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Vasculopathies caused by varicella zoster virus

Vasculopathies caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) represent a group of illness involving both small and large CNS arteries caused by a inflammatory process involving the media and the vascular endothelium, usually in immunocompromised individuals due the viral reactivation and spread thought...
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Velamentous cord insertion

Velamentous cord insertion is one of the types of abnormal umbilical cord insertion into the placenta. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~1% in singleton and 9-15% in twin pregnancies, respectively 11. It is also more common in placenta previa than in normally located placentas. The prev...
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Venous vascular malformation of the facial nerve

Venous vascular malformations of the facial nerve, previously known as facial nerve haemangiomas, are rare benign vascular malformations of the facial nerve usually presenting as a facial nerve palsy, which can be rapid onset mimicking a Bell palsy.  Terminology As they do not appear to have c...
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Ventral cord herniation

Ventral cord herniation, also known by a variety of other terms such as spontaneous thoracic cord herniation or idiopathic spinal cord herniation, is a rare cause of focal myelopathy due to herniation of the thoracic cord through a dural defect.  Post surgical cord herniation can occur at any l...
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Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent defects in the interventricular septum that allow a haemodynamic communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and ma...
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Ventriculitis

Ventriculitis refers to inflammation, usually due to infection, of the ependymal lining of the cerebral ventricles. It is most often due to intraventricular rupture of brain abscess. Epidemiology Its epidemiology is varied and depends on the underlying cause.  meningitis (both pyogenic and vi...
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Verocay bodies

Verocay bodies are a histological feature of schwannomas and represent a particular growth pattern of Antoni type A pattern in which tumour cells form alternating parallel rows of nuclear palisades separated by regions of acellularity 1. 
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Vertebral artery dissection

Vertebral artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima. It is potentially lethal and can be difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically. Epidemiology Vertebral artery dissections have an incidence of 1-5 per...
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Vertebral artery ectasia

Vertebral artery ectasia refers to an abnormal dilatation of the vertebral artery. It is also known as a dolichoarterial loop (of Danziger). Clinical presentation Symptoms occur due to radicular compression or pathologic fracture (rare) from extensive bone erosion. Generally, patients present ...
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Vertebral haemangioma

Vertebral haemangiomas are the most common benign vertebral neoplasms. They are usually asymptomatic and incidentally detected due to their characteristic features on imaging for other reasons. Please refer on the article on primary intraosseous haemangioma for a general discussion in this enti...
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Vertebral metastases

Vertebral metastases represent the secondary involvement of the vertebral spine by haematogenously-disseminated metastatic cells. They must be included in any differential diagnosis of a bone lesion in a patient older 40 years. This article will focus only on the metastasis involving the bony s...
Article

Vertebral pneumatocyst

Vertebral pneumatocysts refer to the presence of air filled cavity within the vertebrae, more prevalent on the cervical spine. Intraosseous pneumatocysts are more common adjacent to the sacroiliac joint while it is rare in the vertebral column. Other causes of vertebral air e.g. Kummel disease, ...
Article

Vesico-vaginal fistula

Vesico-vaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina. Epidemiology The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1. ...
Article

Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioural disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position duri...
Article

Vimentin

Vimentin is a fairly widespread cytoskeletal component encoding for intermediate filaments. It can be used as a target for immunohistochemistry to help characterise numerous tissues and tumours. 
Article

Viral meningitis

Viral meningitides correspond to a relatively common and self-limited type of CNS infection clinically diagnosed based on the cerebrospinal fluid analysis and proportionally more frequent in young children than adults. Enteroviruses represent nowadays the most common cause of viral meningitis fo...
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Viral respiratory tract infection

Viral respiratory tract infection is a broad term given to pulmonary infection from various viral agents. Pathology They can be caused by any of a large number of viral agents, including but not limited to: RNA viruses orthomyxoviridae influenza pneumonia H1N1 pneumonia (swine influenza) ...
Article

Vitamin A

Vitamin A (the retinoids) are a group of fat soluble vitamins required for many physiological functions, mainly vision, reproduction and epithelial maintenance. In the retina, a specific retinoid 11-cis-retinal is formed by photo-isomerisation within the rods and cones. Related pathology Patho...
Article

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is a water soluble vitamin that is an important coenzyme for two reactions in the citric acid cycle (Kreb’s cycle). It therefore is vital for cellular ATP production, particularly in the central nervous system. Related pathology Pathological manifestations only occur with...
Article

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a water soluble vitamin synthesised by intestinal flora that forms a cobalt-based coenzyme that is required for two vital cellular reactions, namely the production of methionine (an amino acid) and the metabolism of odd-number carbon atom fatty acids. Related patholog...
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Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a water soluble vitamin that is an important component of the cofactors FAD and FMN. The flavoproteins contribute to many cellular reactions, including the metabolism of several other vitamins.  Deficiency is not reported but may be present with deficiencies of other ...
Article

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 (niacin or nicotinic acid) is a water soluble vitamin that is an important part of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) which is involved in many reactions of cellular metabolism. Related pathology Pathological manifestation occur in niacin deficiency known as pella...
Article

Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 (panthothenic acid) is a water soluble vitamin that is required to synthesise coenzyme A, a very important coenzyme in many reactions of cellular metabolism. Deficiency is not well characterised.
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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is a group water soluble vitamins that are deratives of pyridine, namely pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. All three form part of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) which is involved many cellular reaction including the synthesis of several amino acids and the metabolism ...

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