Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,776 results found
Article

Brucellosis

Brucellosis is a global zoonotic infection secondary to any of the four Brucella spp. that infect humans. It can be focal or systemic, but has a particular affinity for the musculoskeletal system.  Epidemiology Brucellosis occurs worldwide but is particularly prevalent in Mediterranean regions...
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Buerger disease

Buerger disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is non-necrotising arteritis found predominantly in young male smokers. Clinical presentation Patients may initially present with nonspecific symptoms such as hand and foot claudication, which eventually progresses to ischaemic ulcerat...
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Bullet and bodkin sign

Bullet and bodkin sign is the appearance of the ureter when there is an abrupt transition in the ureteral caliber. Bullet in the name is represented by the dilated proximal ureteric segment which appears to be perched on the constricted / non-dilated encased ureter which gives an appearance of a...
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Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that predominantly affects children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. The median age of Burkitt lymphoma is eight years, and it has a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is l...
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Burned out testis tumour

A burned out testis tumour may be present if there is metastatic retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, but the primary testicular tumor is a relatively occult, scarred intratesticular focus. Approximately 50% of the "burned out" tumors continue to harbor malignant cells. Pathology Retroperitoneal g...
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Bursitis

Bursitis is inflammation of abursa, a synovial membrane-lined space, present overlying a number of joints. The inflammation may be acute or chronic, in the later case calcification may be apparent on plain radiographs. MRI best illustrates the bursa and related pathology. Specific pathological ...
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CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
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CA 19-9 elevation

CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 or cancer antigen) is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepatopancreaticobiliary origin. It is non-specific, however, and can rise in both malignant and non-malignant co...
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Caecal bascule

Caecal bascule is an uncommon type of caecal volvulus. It occurs in a large and mobile caecum that folds up over itself resulting in closed obstruction to the caecal pole and appendix. Clinical presentation and treatment are not significantly different to the more common axial caecal volvulus. ...
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Caecal volvulus

Caecal volvulus describes torsion of the caecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and faecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Caecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat youn...
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Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy

Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy (CSEP) is a rare type of abnormal implantation. It is often considered the rarest type of ectopic pregnancy, although some do not include it in this category as implantation occurs within the uterus. Epidemiology It has an estimated incidence of ~1:1800-2200 pr...
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Café au lait spots

Café au lait spots are a type of pigmented skin lesions which are classically described as being light brown in colour.   Conditions associated with them include: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome: typically irregular which has been likened to ...
Article

Caisson disease

Caisson disease is an uncommon diving-related decompression illness that is an acute neurological emergency typically occurring in deep sea divers.  Diving-related decompression illness is classified into two main categories 3: Arterial gas embolism secondary to pulmonary decompression barotra...
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Calcific bursitis

Calcific bursitis is the result of deposition calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. It is closely related to calcific tendinitis, and many authors refer to them as being the same condition. 
Article

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, also known as a Pindborg tumour, is typically located in the premolar and molar region of the mandible, although up to a third are found in the maxilla. Epidemiology Usually they are seen in the 4th to 6th decades. They are rare tumours. Pathology As...
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Calcifying fibrous pseudotumour of the lung

Calcifying fibrous pseudotumours (CFPT) of the lung are very rare, benign lesions of the lung.  Pathology They are composed of hyalinised collagen with psammomatous-dystrophic calcification and a typical pattern of lymphocytic inflammation.  CFPTs usually occur within soft tissues but have be...
Article

Calciphylaxis

Calciphylaxis, or calcific ureamic arteriolopathy, is a rare condition which manifests as subcutaneous vascular calcification and cutaneous necrosis (small blood vessels of the fat tissue and the skin). Some authors describe as a syndrome of vascular calcification, thrombosis and skin necrosis. ...
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Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate disease (CPPD disease), also referred as pyrophosphate arthropathy and perhaps confusingly as pseudogout, is common, especially in the elderly, and is characterised by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate in soft tissues and cartilage. Terminology  CPPD is on...
Article

Calyceal microlithiasis

Calyceal microlithiasis or more specifically renal calyceal microlithiasis is defined as <3 mm hyperechoic foci noted within the renal calyces on gray scale ultrasonography 1. It has been considered as a precursor for renal stone formation.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomati...
Article

Camptocormia

Camptocormia (bent spine syndrome) is a rare syndrome characterised by involuntary flexion of the thoracolumbar spine with weight-bearing which reduces when laying down, and is due to isolated atrophy of the paraspinal muscles. Associations This condition may be associated Parkinson disease: ...
Article

Canavan disease

Canavan disease, also known as spongiform degeneration of white matter (not to be confused with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) or aspartoacylase deficiency, is a leukodystrophy clinically characterised by megalencephaly, severe mental and neurological deficits, and blindness.  Epidemiology Canavan...
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Caplan syndrome

Caplan syndrome, also known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, is the combination of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and a characteristic pattern of fibrosis. Although first described in coal miners (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), it has subsequently been found in patients with a variety of pneumo...
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Capnothorax

A capnothorax, sometimes referred to as a carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumothorax, has been reported as a potential complication with laparoscopic surgeries. Epidemiology It has been reported with almost all laparoscopic surgeries and is more likely to occur with high CO2 pressures and prolonged sur...
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Capsular contracture

Capsular contractures are a potential complication of a breast implant and refers to a tightening and hardening of the capsule that surrounds a breast implant. It is a condition that can distort the shape and cause pain in the augmented breast. It seems to be the commonest complication post-brea...
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Caput succedaneum

Caput succedaneum is a manifestation of birth trauma, and it consists of a subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid collection beneath the newborn's scalp. The fluid collection is extra-periosteal. It may be imaged with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Caput succedaneum results from pressure on the presenting...
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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause an anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. The neurotoxicity could lead to acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology CO poisoning is related mostly to preventable causes such as malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and res...
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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
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Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is the most common of three malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands, and are thought to arise from pre-existing pleomorphic adenomas (or benign mixed tumours) 1. Epidemiology These tumours usually occur in older patients (6th to 8th decade), who have had a p...
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Carcinoma of the cervix

Carcinoma of the cervix is a malignancy arising from the cervix and is considered the third most common gynaecologic malignancy (after endometrial and ovarian). Epidemiology It typically presents in younger women with the average age of onset at around 45 years.  Risk factors human papilloma...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
Article

Cardiac amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis is a significant source of morbidity among patients with systemic amyloidosis, and is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy outside the tropics. Amyloidosis represents the extra-cellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteinaceous material in various organs...
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Cardiac fibroma

Cardiac fibroma, also known as cardiac fibromatosis, are benign congenital cardiac tumours that usually manifest in children.  Epidemiology Cardiac fibroma is a tumour that primarily affects children (most cases is detected in infants or in utero). They are the second most common benign primar...
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Cardiac lymphoma

Cardiac lymphoma is a rare tumour of the myocardium and/or pericardium. It may be considered as primary or secondary. Epidemiology Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare occurrence, representing only 10% of primary malignant cardiac tumours (1% of all primary cardiac tumours). Secondary involveme...
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Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumours and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumours.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumour in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are...
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Cardiac rhabdomyoma

Cardiac rhabdomyomas are a type of benign myocardial tumour and are considered the most common fetal cardiac tumour. They have a strong association with tuberous sclerosis. Epidemiology Cardiac rhabdomyomas are often multiple and can represent up to 90% of cardiac tumours in the paediatric pop...
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Cardiac sclerosis

Cardiac sclerosis, or "cardiac cirrhosis" is the end-point of passive hepatic congestion from heart failure.  Pathology Aetiology Causes of cardiac cirrhosis include 1: ischaemic heart disease: ~30% cardiomyopathy: ~25% valvular heart disease: ~25% restrictive lung disease: ~15% pericard...
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Cardiac tuberculosis

Cardiac tuberculosis refers to the rare infection of the cardiac musculature with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Generally associated with and occurring as a complication of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis. Pericardial and myocardial involvement is known. Endocardial spread may ...
Article

Cardiac venous malformations

Cardiac venous malformations (also known as cardiac haemangiomas) consists of a slow flow venous malformation and is composed of numerous non-neoplastic endothelial-lined thin-walled channels with interspersed fat and fibrous septae. Terminology It is important to note that according to newer ...
Article

Caroli disease

Caroli disease is a congenital disorder comprising of multifocal cystic dilatation of segmental intrahepatic bile ducts. However, some series show that extrahepatic duct involvement may exist 2. It is also classified as a type V choledochal cyst, according to the Todani classification. Epidemio...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also referred as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
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Carpal boss

The carpal boss is an unmovable hypertrophied bony protuberance at the base of the second or third metacarpals on the dorsal surface, near the capitate and trapezium.  Pathology The condition may represent either or a combination of: degenerative osteophyte formation os styloideum (an access...
Article

Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subty...
Article

Cataract

Cataract is an opacification or thickening of the lens within the globe and is the leading cause of blindness in the world 2.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity. The diagnosis is made clinically. Pathology Aetiology Common causes include: ...
Article

Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma...
Article

Celiac artery dissection

Celiac artery dissection is a type of arterial dissection. It is rarely seen as a primary phenomenon and is most often encountered due to propagation of an aortic dissection. Epidemiology Celiac artery dissection is usually iatrogenic but may also be secondary to: atherosclerosis trauma pre...
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Cellular nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis

Cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonia is one of the two histological subtypes of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). It is less common compared with fibrotic NSIP but carries a much better prognosis.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific and include insidious onset of...
Article

Cementoblastoma

Cementoblastoma is one of many mandibular lesions is a rare tumour of the cementum, with only approximately 100 cases reported. Key to diagnosis both radiologically and histologically is attachment to the tooth root.  Terminology Cementoblastomas have been previously described in the literatur...
Article

Cemento-ossifying fibroma

Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) are rare, benign neoplasms that usually arise from the mandible or maxilla. They most often arise from the tooth bearing areas of these bones. Terminology In the 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours, this tumour is referred to as "ossifyin...
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Central nervous system vasculitides

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade II neuroepithelial intraventricular tumours with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in you...
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Central tegmental tract high T2 signal

High T2 signal of the central tegmental tract, which connects the red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus, is an uncommon finding typically encountered in early childhood.    The central tegmental tract refers mainly to the extrapyramidal tracts connecting between the red nucleus and the infe...
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Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema

Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema is the most common morphological subtype of pulmonary emphysema. Epidemiology It may be found in up to one-half of adult smokers at autopsy 1. Pathology The pathological process of centrilobular emphysema typically begins near the centre of the secondary pul...
Article

Cephalocoele

Cephalocoele refers to the outward herniation of CNS contents through a defect in the cranium. The vast majority are midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.8-4:10,000 live births 13 with a well recognised geographical variation between sub-types. These may be a greater female predi...
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Cephalohaematoma

Cephalohaematomas are traumatic subperiosteal haematomas of the skull that are usually caused by birth injury. They are bound by the periosteum and, therefore, cannot cross sutures. Being bound by a suture line distinguishes them from subgaleal haematoma, which can cross sutures. Epidemiology ...
Article

Cephalopelvic disproportion

Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) occurs when there is a mismatch between the size of the fetal head and the maternal pelvis causing a difficulty in the safe passage of the fetus through the birth canal. Pathology Cephalopelvic disproportion may be caused by the fetal head outgrowing the capac...
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Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
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Cerebellar infarction

Cerebellar infarction is a relatively uncommon subtype of ischaemic stroke. It may involve any of the three arteries supplying the cerebellum: superior cerebellar artery (SCA): superior cerebellar arterial infarct anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA): anterior inferior cerebellar arteria...
Article

Cerebellitis

Acute cerebellitis (AC), also known as acute cerebellar ataxia, is a rare inflammatory process characterised by a sudden onset of cerebellar dysfunction usually affecting children. It is related as a consequence of a primary or secondary infection, or much less commonly as a result of post-vacci...
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Cerebral air embolism

Cerebral air embolism is rare but can be fatal. They may be venous or arterial and are often iatrogenic in cause.  Clinical presentation Presentation is often varied and non-specific but include confusion, motor weakness, decreased consciousness, seizure and vision loss.  Pathology Cerebral ...
Article

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebrovascular disorder caused by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in the tunica media and adventitia of leptomeningeal and cortical vessels of the brain. The resultant vascular fragility tends to manifest in normotensive elderly patients as lob...
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Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs), also known as classic brain AVMs, are a common form of cerebral vascular malformation and are composed of a nidus of vessels through which arteriovenous shunting occurs. Terminology This article corresponds to the classic form of arteriovenous malf...
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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex and underlying connecting white matter accounts for the largest part of the human brain. It is composed of five different types of neurones arranged into distinct layers (in most places 6 layers) admixed with supporting glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia)...
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Cerebral fat embolism

Cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is one of a manifestations of fat embolism syndrome. Epidemiology It typically occurs in patients with bony fractures (usually long bones of the lower limb). Pathology Fat emboli usually reach the brain through a either right-to-left cardiac shunt or through an in...
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Cerebral haemorrhagic contusion

Cerebral haemorrhagic contusions are a type of intracerebral haemorrhage and are common in the setting of significant head injury. They are usually characterised on CT as hyperdense foci in the frontal lobes adjacent to the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and in the temporal poles. Epidemio...
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Cerebral hydatid disease

Cerebral hydatid disease (neurohydatidosis) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis. The larval stage is the cause of hydatid disease in humans 1. Epidemiology Cerebral hydatid disease is a rare parasitic infestation and accounts for 1-2 % of al...
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Cerebral malaria

Cerebral malaria is a rare intracranial complication of a malarial infection. Epidemiology Cerebral malaria is mainly encountered in young children and adults living or travelling in malaria-endemic areas. It is estimated to occur in ~2% of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, ...
Article

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), previously known as diffuse nidus type AVM, is a cerebral vascular malformation separated from classic brain AVM and characterised by the presence of normal brain parenchyma interspersed throughout the tangle of vessels that corresponds to the nidus 1,2. ...
Article

Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with...
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Cervical canal stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis can be acquired (e.g. trauma, discs, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) or congenital. It refers to narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine. Radiographic features normal AP diameter is ~17 ...
Article

Cervical spine floating pillar

A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterised by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...
Article

Cesarean section scar diverticulum

Cesarean section scar diverticulums are a defect in the lower uterine cavity at the site of the cesarean section scar.  Clinical presentation mostly asymptomatic postmenstrual spotting in a study was found to be the only finding in patients with bleeding disturbances Radiographic features ...
Article

Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also referred as trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemic to Central and South America....
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Chalasia

Chalasia is a condition most commonly identified in infants and young children, and is related to congential incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing unrestricted reflux of gastric contents. This contrasts with achalasia, where there is restriction at the gastroesphageal junction...
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Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are minute aneurysms which develop as a result of chronic hypertension and appear most commonly in the basal ganglia and other areas such as the thalamus, pons and cerebellum, where there are small penetrating vessels (diameter < 300 micrometres) 1-3. They should not ...
Article

Charcot joint

Charcot joint, also known as a neuropathic or neurotrophic joint, refers to a progressive degenerative/destructive joint disorder in patients with abnormal pain sensation and proprioception. Epidemiology In modern Western societies by far the most common cause of Charcot joints is diabetes, an...
Article

Charcot-Leyden crystals

Charcot-Leyden crystals consist of collections of bipyramidal crystalloid made up of eosinophilic membrane proteins, which occur in:  asthma other eosinophilic lung disease 2 certain cases of sinusitis (e.g. allergic fungal sinusitis) They may be detected in the sputum or sinus secretions wi...
Article

Chemotherapy induced cholangitis

Chemotherapy induced cholangitis is caused when intra-arterial chemotherapy is introduced to treat liver metastases. This causes strictures of the common hepatic duct and main ducts, but spares distal and proximal (i.e. common bile duct and intrahepatic ducts).  Radiographic features similar t...
Article

Cherubism

Cherubism has historically been considered a variant of fibrous dysplasia, but in reality is likely a distinct entity.  Epidemiology Cherubism is a rare disorder and the precise incidence is unknown. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern 2 and has variable penetrance, with onset in ...
Article

Chiari 1.5 malformation

Chiari 1.5 malformation, or bulbar variant of Chiari I malformation, is a term used in the literature to describe the combination of cerebellar tonsillar herniation (as seen in Chiari I malformation) along with caudal herniation of some portion of the brainstem (often obex of the medulla oblonga...
Article

Chiari III malformation

Chiari III malformation is an extremely rare anomaly characterized by a low occipital and high cervical encephalocele with herniation of posterior fossa contents, that is, the cerebellum and/or the brainstem, occipital lobe, and fourth ventricle.  Pathology Associations agenesis of the corpus...
Article

Choanal atresia

Choanal atresia refers to a lack of formation of the choanal openings. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Epidemiology It frequently presents in neonates where it is one of the commonest causes of nasal obstruction in this age group. There is a recognised female predilection. The incidence is ...
Article

Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumour arising from cholangiocytes in the biliary tree. It tends to have a poor prognosis and high morbidity. It is the second most common primary hepatic tumour, with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) accounting for 10-20% of primary liver tumours. Epide...
Article

Cholecystoduodenal fistula

Cholecystoduodenal fistula refers to a fistulous connection between the gallbladder and the duodenum. It is considered the most common type of enterobiliary fistulation. Clinical presentation Can vary but some can present with Bouveret syndrome 3 or a gallstone ileus. Radiographic features C...
Article

Choledocholithiasis

Choledocholithiasis denotes the presence of gallstones within the bile ducts (common hepatic duct / common bile duct). Epidemiology Choledocholithiasis is relatively common, seen in in 6-12% of patients who undergo cholecystectomy 2. Clinical presentation Stones within the bile duct are ofte...
Article

Cholesteatoma

Cholesteatoma is histologically equivalent to an epidermoid cyst and is composed of desquamated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium forming a mass. They usually present with conductive hearing loss. Pathology The mass is lined by epithelium (facing inwards) which continues to grow, the...
Article

Chondroblastoma

Chondroblastomas, also referred as Codman tumours, are rare benign cartilaginous neoplasms that characteristically arise in the epiphysis or apophysis of a long bone in young patients. Despite being rare, they are one of the most frequently encountered benign epiphyseal neoplasms in skeletally i...
Article

Chondrodysplasia punctata

Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is a collective name for a heterogenous group of skeletal dysplasias. Calcific stippling of cartilage and peri-articular soft tissues is often a common feature. Pathology Subtypes It can be broadly divided into rhizomelic and non-rhizomelic forms: rhizomelic c...
Article

Chondroid lipoma

Chondroid lipomas are rare benign soft tissue tumours that, as you might guess, contain a varied ratio of both fat and cartilage. These lesions can be diagnostically confusing as they may mimic or be confused with other fat containing neoplasms, most importantly those of much greater clinical si...
Article

Chondrolysis

Chondrolysis, also known as acute cartilage necrosis, is an acute cartilage destruction of the femoral head. It is one of the complications that are specifically associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). It is a poorly understood phenomenon. Epidemiology The quoted incidence is...
Article

Chondromalacia patellae

Chondromalacia patellae refers to softening and degeneration of the articular hyaline cartilage of the patella and is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain. Epidemiology Tends to occur in young adults. There is a recognised female predilection. Clinical presentation Patients with chondromal...
Article

Chondromyxoid fibroma

Chondromyxoid fibromas (CMFs) are extremely rare, benign cartilaginous neoplasms that account for <1% of all bone tumours. Epidemiology  The majority of cases occur in the second and third decades, with ~75% of cases occurring before the age of 30 years 1,12-15.  There is no recognised gender ...
Article

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle

Chordoid gliomas of the third ventricle are rare slow growing well-circumscribed low-grade tumours lesions that arise from the anterior wall or roof of the third ventricle.  Epidemiology Epidemiological data is limited due to the rare nature of this finding and less than 100 cases have been pu...
Article

Chordoid meningioma

Chordoid meningiomas are uncommon histological variants of meningiomas, and due to their predilection for rapid growth and local recurrence are designated as grade 2 tumours under the current WHO classification of CNS tumours.  Chordoid tumours are encountered in a very wide age range (possibly...

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