Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,793 results found
Article

Breast lymphoma

Breast lymphoma refers to involvement of the breast with lymphoma and may be primary or secondary. Epidemiology Both primary and secondary breast lymphoma are rare accounting for ~ 0.5% (range 0.3-1.1%) of all breast malignancies. Clinical presentation Breast lymphoma may present either as a...
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Breast sebaceous cyst

Breast sebaceous cyst, also sometimes known as an epidermal inclusion cyst or simply epidermoid cyst, is a benign breast lesion (BIRADS II).  For a general discussion of this entity outside the breast, please refer to epidermal inclusion cysts.  Terminology The two terms, breast sebaceous cys...
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Breast varix

Breast varix is, as the name suggests, varices in the breast that are focally dilated veins in the breast.  Pathology If varices are seen bilaterally then a cause for central venous obstruction (superior vena cava syndrome) could be the underlying aetiology with the varices being a part of the...
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Brenner tumour

Brenner tumours are an uncommon surface epithelial tumour of the ovary. It was originally known as a transitional cell tumour due to its histological similarity to the urothelium. Brenner tumours account for ~3% of ovarian epithelial neoplasms. They can very rarely occur in other locations, incl...
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Brodie abscess

Brodie abscess is an intraosseous abscess related to a focus of subacute pyogenic osteomyelitis. Unfortunately, there is no reliable way radiographically to exclude a focus of osteomyelitis. It has a protean radiographic appearance and can occur at any location and in a patient of any age. It mi...
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Bronchial anthracofibrosis

Bronchial anthracofibrosis has been defined as luminal bronchial narrowing associated with anthracotic pigmentation on bronchoscopy without a relevant history of pneumoconiosis or smoking. However, there is a potential relationship between bronchial anthracofibrosis and tuberculosis (TB) 1. Co-...
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Bronchial arterial aneurysm

Bronchial arterial aneurysm refers to any form of aneurysmal dilatation involving any segment of the bronchial artery. The term is sometimes used synonymously with a bronchial arterial pseudoaneurysm 2. Epidemiology They are a rare entity and are reported in <1% of those who undergo selective ...
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Bronchial carcinoid tumour

Bronchial carcinoid tumours are carcinoid tumours primarily occurring in relation to a bronchus. They were previously incorrectly termed as bronchial adenomas. They usually occur in association with a segmental or larger bronchus. Epidemiology Typically affects patients from 3rd to 7th decades...
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Bronchogenic cyst

Bronchogenic cysts are congenital malformations of the bronchial tree (a type of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation). They can present as a mediastinal mass that may enlarge and cause local compression. It is also considered the commonest of foregut duplication cysts. Epidemiology Bronchoge...
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Broncholithiasis

Broncholithiasis is a term given for the presence of calcified or ossified material within the lumen of the bronchus. Pathology A broncholith is usually formed by erosion by and extrusion of a calcified adjacent lymph node into the bronchial lumen and is usually associated with long-standing f...
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Bronchopneumonia

Bronchopneumonia, also sometimes known as lobular pneumonia, is a radiological pattern associated with suppurative peribronchiolar inflammation and subsequent patchy consolidation of one or more secondary lobules of a lung in response to bacterial pneumonia.  Epidemiology Pneumonia is the most...
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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) refers to late pathological lung changes that develop several weeks later in infants on prolonged ventilation. Terminology BPD and chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLDP) have often been used interchangeably to describe the condition post-treatment of premat...
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Brown tumour

Brown tumour, also known as osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC) or, rarely osteoclastoma, is one of the manifestations of hyperparathyroidism. It represents a reparative cellular process, rather than a neoplastic process. Histologically brown tumours are identical to giant cell tumour (both are osteo...
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Brucellosis

Brucellosis is a global zoonotic infection secondary to any of the four Brucella spp. that infect humans. It can be focal or systemic, but has a particular affinity for the musculoskeletal system.  Epidemiology Brucellosis occurs worldwide but is particularly prevalent in Mediterranean regions...
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Buerger disease

Buerger disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is non-necrotising arteritis found predominantly in young male smokers. Clinical presentation Patients may initially present with nonspecific symptoms such as hand and foot claudication, which eventually progresses to ischaemic ulcerat...
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Bullet and bodkin sign

Bullet and bodkin sign is the appearance of the ureter when there is an abrupt transition in the ureteral caliber. Bullet in the name is represented by the dilated proximal ureteric segment which appears to be perched on the constricted / non-dilated encased ureter which gives an appearance of a...
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Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that predominantly affects children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. The median age of Burkitt lymphoma is eight years, and it has a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is l...
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Burned out testis tumour

A burned out testis tumour may be present if there is metastatic retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, but the primary testicular tumor is a relatively occult, scarred intratesticular focus. Approximately 50% of the "burned out" tumors continue to harbor malignant cells. Pathology Retroperitoneal g...
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Bursitis

Bursitis is inflammation of the bursa, a synovial membrane, present in a number of joints. The inflammation may be acute or chronic, in the later case calcification may be apparent on plain radiographs. MRI best illustrates the bursa and related pathology. Specific pathological types calcific ...
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CA 19-9 elevation

CA 19-9 is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepato-pancreatico-biliary origin. It is nonspecific, however, and can rise in both malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Elevation of serum CA 19-9 has been...
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CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
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Caecal bascule

Caecal bascule is an uncommon type of caecal volvulus. It occurs in a large and mobile caecum that folds up over itself resulting in closed obstruction to the caecal pole and appendix. Clinical presentation and treatment are not significantly different to the more common axial caecal volvulus. ...
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Caecal volvulus

Caecal volvulus describes torsion of the caecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and faecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Caecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat youn...
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Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy

Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy (CSEP) is a rare type of abnormal implantation. It is often considered the rarest type of ectopic pregnancy, although some do not include it in this category as implantation occurs within the uterus. Epidemiology It has an estimated incidence of ~1:1800-2200 pr...
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Café au lait spots

Café au lait spots are a type of pigmented skin lesions which are classically described as being light brown in colour.   Conditions associated with them include: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome: typically irregular which has been likened to ...
Article

Caisson disease

Caisson disease is an uncommon diving-related decompression illness that is an acute neurological emergency typically occurring in deep sea divers.  Diving-related decompression illness is classified into two main categories 3: Arterial gas embolism secondary to pulmonary decompression barotra...
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Calcific bursitis

Calcific bursitis is the result of deposition calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. It is closely related to calcific tendinitis, and many authors refer to them as being the same condition. 
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Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, also known as a Pindborg tumour, is typically located in the premolar and molar region of the mandible, although up to a third are found in the maxilla. Epidemiology Usually they are seen in the 4th to 6th decades. They are rare tumours. Pathology As...
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Calcifying fibrous pseudotumour of the lung

Calcifying fibrous pseudotumours (CFPT) of the lung are very rare, benign lesions of the lung.  Pathology They are composed of hyalinised collagen with psammomatous-dystrophic calcification and a typical pattern of lymphocytic inflammation.  CFPTs usually occur within soft tissues but have be...
Article

Calciphylaxis

Calciphylaxis, or calcific ureamic arteriolopathy, is a rare condition which manifests as subcutaneous vascular calcification and cutaneous necrosis (small blood vessels of the fat tissue and the skin). Some authors describe as a syndrome of vascular calcification, thrombosis and skin necrosis. ...
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Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate disease (CPPD disease), also referred as pyrophosphate arthropathy and perhaps confusingly as pseudogout, is common, especially in the elderly, and is characterised by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate in soft tissues and cartilage. Terminology  CPPD is on...
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Calyceal microlithiasis

Calyceal microlithiasis or more specifically renal calyceal microlithiasis is defined as <3 mm hyperechoic foci noted within the renal calyces on gray scale ultrasonography 1. It has been considered as a precursor for renal stone formation.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomati...
Article

Camptocormia

Camptocormia (bent spine syndrome) is a rare syndrome characterised by involuntary flexion of the thoracolumbar spine with weight-bearing which reduces when laying down, and is due to isolated atrophy of the paraspinal muscles. Associations This condition may be associated Parkinson disease: ...
Article

Canavan disease

Canavan disease, also known as spongiform degeneration of white matter (not to be confused with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) or aspartoacylase deficiency, is a leukodystrophy clinically characterised by megalencephaly, severe mental and neurological deficits, and blindness.  Epidemiology Canavan...
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Caplan syndrome

Caplan syndrome, also known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, is the combination of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and a characteristic pattern of fibrosis. Although first described in coal miners (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), it has subsequently been found in patients with a variety of pneumo...
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Capnothorax

A capnothorax, sometimes referred to as a carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumothorax, has been reported as a potential complication with laparoscopic surgeries. Epidemiology It has been reported with almost all laparoscopic surgeries and is more likely to occur with high CO2 pressures and prolonged sur...
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Capsular contracture

Capsular contractures are a potential complication of a breast implant and refers to a tightening and hardening of the capsule that surrounds a breast implant. It is a condition that can distort the shape and cause pain in the augmented breast. It seems to be the commonest complication post-brea...
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Caput succedaneum

Caput succedaneum is a manifestation of birth trauma, and it consists of a subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid collection beneath the newborn's scalp. The fluid collection is extra-periosteal. It may be imaged with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Caput succedaneum results from pressure on the presenting...
Article

CARASIL

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is a systemic genetic disorder affecting the cerebral small vessels, spine and hair follicles. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pathway and should not be confused with its autosomal dom...
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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause an anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. The neurotoxicity could lead to acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology CO poisoning is related mostly to preventable causes such as malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and res...
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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
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Carcinoid cardiac lesions

Carcinoid cardiac lesions are a known complication of carcinoid tumours and are particularly prevalent in those who develop the carcinoid syndrome (up to 50%). Pathology There is thickening of the mural and valvular endothelial surfaces of right-sided cardiac structures. This is thought to occ...
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Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is the most common of three malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands, and are thought to arise from pre-existing pleomorphic adenomas (or benign mixed tumours) 1. Epidemiology These tumours usually occur in older patients (6th to 8th decade), who have had a p...
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Carcinoma of the cervix

Carcinoma of the cervix is a malignancy arising from the cervix and is considered the third most common gynaecologic malignancy (after endometrial and ovarian). Epidemiology It typically presents in younger women with the average age of onset at around 45 years.  Risk factors human papilloma...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
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Cardiac amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis is a significant source of morbidity among patients with systemic amyloidosis, and is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy outside the tropics. Amyloidosis represents the extra-cellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteinaceous material in various organs...
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Cardiac fibroma

Cardiac fibroma, also known as cardiac fibromatosis, are benign congenital cardiac tumours that usually manifest in children.  Epidemiology Cardiac fibroma is a tumour that primarily affects children (most cases is detected in infants or in utero). They are the second most common benign primar...
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Cardiac lymphoma

Cardiac lymphoma is a rare tumour of the myocardium and/or pericardium. It may be considered as primary or secondary. Epidemiology Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare occurrence, representing only 10% of primary malignant cardiac tumours (1% of all primary cardiac tumours). Secondary involveme...
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Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of commonest primary cardiac tumours and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumours.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumour in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are mor...
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Cardiac rhabdomyoma

Cardiac rhabdomyomas are a type of benign myocardial tumour and are considered the most common fetal cardiac tumour. They have a strong association with tuberous sclerosis. Epidemiology Cardiac rhabdomyomas are often multiple and can represent up to 90% of cardiac tumours in the paediatric pop...
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Cardiac sclerosis

Cardiac sclerosis, or "cardiac cirrhosis" is the end-point of passive hepatic congestion from heart failure.  Pathology Aetiology Causes of cardiac cirrhosis include 1: ischaemic heart disease: ~30% cardiomyopathy: ~25% valvular heart disease: ~25% restrictive lung disease: ~15% pericard...
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Cardiac tuberculosis

Cardiac tuberculosis refers to the rare infection of the cardiac musculature with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Generally associated with and occurring as a complication of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis. Pericardial and myocardial involvement is known. Endocardial spread may ...
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Cardiac venous malformations

Cardiac venous malformations (also known as cardiac haemangiomas) consists of a slow flow venous malformation and is composed of numerous non-neoplastic endothelial-lined thin-walled channels with interspersed fat and fibrous septae. Terminology It is important to note that according to newer ...
Article

Caroli disease

Caroli disease is a congenital disorder comprising of multifocal cystic dilatation of segmental intrahepatic bile ducts. However, some series show that extrahepatic duct involvement may exist 2. It is also classified as a type V choledochal cyst, according to the Todani classification. Epidemio...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also referred as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
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Carpal boss

The carpal boss is an unmovable hypertrophied bony protuberance at the base of the second or third metacarpals on the dorsal surface, near the capitate and trapezium.  Pathology The condition may represent either or a combination of: degenerative osteophyte formation os styloideum (an access...
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Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subty...
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Cataract

Cataract is an opacification or thickening of the lens within the globe and is the leading cause of blindness in the world 2.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity. The diagnosis is made clinically. Pathology Aetiology Common causes include: ...
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Cauda equina syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is considered a diagnostic and surgical emergency.  Epidemiology Cauda equina syndrome is rare with prevalence estimated at approximately 1...
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma...
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Celiac artery dissection

Celiac artery dissection is a type of arterial dissection. It is rarely seen as a primary phenomenon and is most often encountered due to propagation of an aortic dissection. Epidemiology Celiac artery dissection is usually iatrogenic but may also be secondary to: atherosclerosis trauma pre...
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Cellular nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis

Cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonia is one of the two histological subtypes of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). It is less common compared with fibrotic NSIP but carries a much better prognosis.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific and include insidious onset of...
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Cemento-ossifying fibroma

Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) are rare, benign neoplasms that usually arise from the mandible or maxilla. They most often arise from the tooth bearing areas of these bones. Terminology In the 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours, this tumour is referred to as "ossifyin...
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Cementoblastoma

Cementoblastoma is one of many mandibular lesions is a rare tumour of the cementum, with only approximately 100 cases reported. Key to diagnosis both radiologically and histologically is attachment to the tooth root.  Terminology Cementoblastomas have been previously described in the literatur...
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Central nervous system vasculitides

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade II neuroepithelial intraventricular tumours with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in you...
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Central tegmental tract high T2 signal

High T2 signal of the central tegmental tract, which connects the red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus, is an uncommon finding typically encountered in early childhood.    The central tegmental tract refers mainly to the extrapyramidal tracts connecting between the red nucleus and the infe...
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Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema

Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema is the most common morphological subtype of pulmonary emphysema. Epidemiology It may be found in up to one-half of adult smokers at autopsy 1. Pathology The pathological process of centrilobular emphysema typically begins near the centre of the secondary pul...
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Cephalocoele

Cephalocoele refers to the outward herniation of CNS contents through a defect in the cranium. The vast majority are midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.8-4:10,000 live births 13 with a well recognised geographical variation between sub-types. These may be a greater female predi...
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Cephalohaematoma

Cephalohaematomas are traumatic subperiosteal haematomas of the skull that are usually caused by birth injury. They are bound by the periosteum and, therefore, cannot cross sutures. Being bound by a suture line distinguishes them from subgaleal haematoma, which can cross sutures. Epidemiology ...
Article

Cephalopelvic disproportion

Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) occurs when there is a mismatch between the size of the fetal head and the maternal pelvis causing a difficulty in the safe passage of the fetus through the birth canal. Pathology Cephalopelvic disproportion may be caused by the fetal head outgrowing the capac...
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Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
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Cerebellar infarction

Cerebellar infarction is a relatively uncommon subtype of ischaemic stroke. It may involve any of the three arteries supplying the cerebellum: superior cerebellar artery (SCA): superior cerebellar arterial infarct anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA): anterior inferior cerebellar arteria...
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Cerebellitis

Acute cerebellitis (AC), also known as acute cerebellar ataxia, is a rare inflammatory process characterised by a sudden onset of cerebellar dysfunction usually affecting children. It is related as a consequence of a primary or secondary infection, or much less commonly as a result of post-vacci...
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Cerebral air embolism

Cerebral air embolism is rare but can be fatal. They may be venous or arterial and are often iatrogenic in cause.  Clinical presentation Presentation is often varied and non-specific but include confusion, motor weakness, decreased consciousness, seizure and vision loss.  Pathology Cerebral ...
Article

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebrovascular disorder caused by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in the tunica media and adventitia of leptomeningeal and cortical vessels of the brain. The resultant vascular fragility tends to manifest in normotensive elderly patients as lob...
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Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs), also known as classic brain AVMs, are a common form of cerebral vascular malformation and are composed of a nidus of vessels through which arteriovenous shunting occurs. Terminology This article corresponds to the classic form of arteriovenous malf...
Article

Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex and underlying connecting white matter accounts for the largest part of the human brain. It is composed of five different types of neurones arranged into distinct layers (in most places 6 layers) admixed with supporting glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia)...
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Cerebral fat embolism

Cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is one of a manifestations of fat embolism syndrome. Epidemiology It typically occurs in patients with bony fractures (usually long bones of the lower limb). Pathology Fat emboli usually reach the brain through a either right-to-left cardiac shunt or through an in...
Article

Cerebral haemorrhagic contusion

Cerebral haemorrhagic contusions are a type of intracerebral haemorrhage and are common in the setting of significant head injury. They are usually characterised on CT as hyperdense foci in the frontal lobes adjacent to the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and in the temporal poles. Epidemio...
Article

Cerebral hydatid disease

Cerebral hydatid disease (neurohydatidosis) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis. The larval stage is the cause of hydatid disease in humans 1. Epidemiology Cerebral hydatid disease is a rare parasitic infestation and accounts for 1-2 % of al...
Article

Cerebral malaria

Cerebral malaria is a rare intracranial complication of a malarial infection. Epidemiology Cerebral malaria is mainly encountered in young children and adults living or travelling in malaria-endemic areas. It is estimated to occur in ~2% of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, ...
Article

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), previously known as diffuse nidus type AVM, is a cerebral vascular malformation separated from classic brain AVM and characterised by the presence of normal brain parenchyma interspersed throughout the tangle of vessels that corresponds to the nidus 1,2. ...
Article

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) is a syndrome encompassing encompassing maxillofacial/intracranial vascular malformation complexes including Wyburn-Mason Syndrome and Sturge-Weber syndrome 1-4. Three types are described depending on location 2,6: CAMS I: medial prosencepha...
Article

Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with...
Article

Cervical canal stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis can be acquired (e.g. trauma, discs, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) or congenital. It refers to narrowing of the spinal canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine. Radiographic features normal AP diameter is ~17 ...
Article

Cervical spine floating pillar

A floating pillar, also referred as pedicolaminar fracture-separation injury, is characterised by fractures through the pedicle and lamina of a cervical spine vertebrae creating a free-floating articular pillar fragment. It is an unstable cervical spine fracture that results from hyperflexion–la...
Article

Cesarean section scar diverticulum

Cesarean section scar diverticulums are a defect in the lower uterine cavity at the site of the cesarean section scar.  Clinical presentation mostly asymptomatic postmenstrual spotting in a study was found to be the only finding in patients with bleeding disturbances Radiographic features ...
Article

Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also referred as trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemic to Central and South America....
Article

Chalasia

Chalasia is a condition most commonly identified in infants and young children, and is related to congential incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing unrestricted reflux of gastric contents. This contrasts with achalasia, where there is restriction at the gastroesphageal junction...
Article

Charcot joint

Charcot joint, also known as a neuropathic or neurotrophic joint, refers to a progressive degenerative/destructive joint disorder in patients with abnormal pain sensation and proprioception. Epidemiology In modern Western societies by far the most common cause of Charcot joints is diabetes, an...
Article

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are minute aneurysms which develop as a result of chronic hypertension and appear most commonly in the basal ganglia and other areas such as the thalamus, pons and cerebellum, where there are small penetrating vessels (diameter < 300 micrometres) 1-3. They should not ...
Article

Charcot-Leyden crystals

Charcot-Leyden crystals consist of collections of bipyramidal crystalloid made up of eosinophilic membrane proteins, which occur in:  asthma other eosinophilic lung disease 2 certain cases of sinusitis (e.g. allergic fungal sinusitis) They may be detected in the sputum or sinus secretions wi...

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