Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

699 results found
Article

Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria, also referred as primary oxalosis, is a congenital autosomal recessive disease related to a liver enzyme deficiency leading to massive cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.  Please, refer on secondary oxalosis for a discussion on the acquired form of hyperoxaluria....
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Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity, recognised in the WHO classification of lymphoma. Epidemiology Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma accounts approximately 5% of large B-cell lymphoma, which is usually disseminated or found in the abdomen. There appears to b...
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Primary osteosarcoma (breast)

Primary osteosarcoma of the breast is an uncommon breast malignancy and is a sub type extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Epidemiology While it can present in a wide are group, the peak age at presentation is around the 6th decade 7. Pathology  The presence of bone in breast lesions is not diagnosti...
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Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well recognised condition. Epidemiology POL accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumours 5. Pathology The rarity of this condition is probably contr...
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Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumours 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma wit...
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Primary progressive aphasia

Primary progressive aphasia was first described in 1982 and is the umbrella term for the language-variant frontotemporal dementias associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) 3. Clinical presentation It is an insidious disorder characterised by gradual impairment of speech and lan...
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Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) refers to a clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is a much rarer type of pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma o...
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Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma

Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare tumour and refers to a situation where a synovial sarcoma arises from the lung as a primary site. It together with a pleural synovial sarcoma comes under the broader category of pleuro-pulmonary synovial sarcomas 3. Epidemiology It accoun...
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Primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung

Primary sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lung refer to a heterogeneous group of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Epidemiology They are thought to account for 0.2 to 1% of all lung cancers 1. A sarcomatoid histology may be present in 0.1-0.4% of non-small cell lung cancers 3.  Pathology T...
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Primary uveal malignant melanoma

Malignant uveal melanomas, also referred as choroidal melanomas, are the most common primary tumour of the adult eye 3.  Epidemiology Malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and is predominantly seen in Caucasians 5. The incidence of these tumours incre...
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Proliferative myositis

Proliferative myositis (PM) is a rare benign inflammatory myopathy. It is sometimes classified as a subtype of a pseudosarcomatous proliferative soft-tissue lesion. Epidemiology Thought to commonly occur in middle-aged adults (around 50 years), but has also been described in children. Clinica...
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Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumour marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquifying agent for seminal fluid and the normal amount in human serum is usually ver...
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Prostatic abscess

Prostatic abscesses can be a rare complication of prostatitis.  Epidemiology It has become relatively uncommon in clinical practice due to antibiotic therapy in those with prostatitis. It tends to affect diabetic and immunosuppressed patients. Most patients tend to present in the 5th to 6th de...
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Prostatic calcification

Prostatic calcification is a common finding, especially after the age of 50. They may be solitary but usually occur in clusters 7. Epidemiology They are rare in children, infrequent below 40, and common in those over 50. Their number and size increase with age 8. Clinical presentation Prosta...
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Prostatic carcinoma

Prostatic carcinoma ranks as the most common malignant tumour in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is by far the most common histological type and is the primary focus of this article. Epidemiology It is primarily a disease of the el...
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Prostatic infarction

Prostatic infarction refers to necrosis of the prostate gland tissue from a lack of blood supply. Pathology Histology Histology slices on biopsy specimens may show reactive atypia 3. Causes prostatic artery embolisation presumed pelvic ischaemia after cross-clamping of the aorta for coron...
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Prostatic tuberculosis

Prostatic tuberculosis or Tuberculous prostatitis is an uncommon extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology Primary tuberculosis of the prostate is rare. Genitourinary tuberculosis contributes to 5-10% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis in developed countries...
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Prostatitis

Prostatitis refers to an infection or inflammation of the prostate gland that presents as several syndromes with varying clinical features. Prostatitis is a clinical diagnosis and imaging is useful to evaluate abscess formation.  The National Institutes of Health (NIH) classified prostatitis in...
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Protoplasmic astrocytoma

Protoplasmic astrocytoma is a rare variant of diffuse low-grade astrocytomas with histological and imaging features which overlap with other entities.  Until recently they were classified as a subtype of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma, however, in the latest (2016) update to WHO classification o...
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Proximal focal femoral deficiency

Proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) is a congenital partial absence of the proximal end of the femur with shortening of the entire lower limb. The diagnosis and classification have been based mainly on plain radiograph findings. This method does not permit definite classification during the...
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Proximal humeral fracture

Proximal humeral fractures are common upper extremity fractures, particularly in older patients, and can result in significant disability. Epidemiology Proximal humeral fractures represent around 5% of all fractures ?.  They are most common in older populations and especially in those who are ...
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Psammomatous meningioma

Psammomatous meningioma is a histologic subtype of meningioma usually presented as a heavily calcified intracranial or spinal mass lesion. The meningothelial and psammomatous types are the most common involving the spine.  Please refer to the articles on meningioma and spinal meningioma for a b...
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Pseudoachalasia

Pseudoachalasia is achalasia-pattern dilatation of the oesophagus due to the narrowing of the distal oesophagus from causes other than primary denervation. One of the most common causes is malignancy (often submucosal gastric cancer) with extension in the lower oesophagus. The clinical and imagi...
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Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign, relatively uncommon form of stromal (mesenchymal) overgrowth within breast tissue that derives from a possible hormonal aetiology.  Epidemiology Typically affects women of reproductive age. It rarely affects males. Clinical presentatio...
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), also known as Grönblad–Strandberg syndrome is a systemic condition charaterised by degeneration of elastic fibers. It has multi-organ manifestations. Epidemiology Its prevalence is estimated to be around 1 in 25,000 9.  Clinical presentation Patients may prese...
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Psoas haematoma

Psoas haematomas are located in the retrofascial space, rather than in the retroperitoneal space, because the psoas muscles are located in the iliopsoas compartment posterior to the transversalis fascia, which is the posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum. Clinical presentation Presentation...
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Psoas muscle abscess

Psoas muscle abscess and fluid collections are located in the retrofascial space rather than in the retroperitoneal space because the psoas muscles are located in the iliopsoas compartment posterior to the transversalis fascia, which is the posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum. Clinical pr...
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Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. It is usually negative for rheumatoid factor, and hence classified as one of the seronegative spondyloarthritides. Epidemiology Overall prevalence is ~0.5% (range 0.1-1%), however, it affects up to 30% of patient...
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Pubic diastasis

A separation of the pubic symphysis without concomitant fracture constitutes pubic diastasis. Excessive lateral or anterior movement can be seen secondary to pubic diastasis and this can further lead to pubic symphysis dysfunction. Clinical presentation pain swelling patient’s legs will inv...
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Puerperal mastitis

Puerperal mastitis refers to mastitis occurring during pregnancy and lactation. Epidemiology It occurs most often during breast feeding and is rarely encountered during pregnancy. Pathology The source of infection is the nursing infants nose and throat; the organisms being Staphylococcus aur...
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Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare idiopathic condition characterised by widespread intra-alveolar deposition of spherical calcium phosphate microliths (calcospherites).  Epidemiology A slight female predilection may be present in the familial form 2. Most cases are reported in ...
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Pulmonary aplasia

Pulmonary aplasia is a rare congenital pathology in which there is unilateral or bilateral absence of lung tissue. It is distinguished from pulmonary agenesis, although similar, the main difference being that there is a short-blind ending bronchus in aplasia 3. It is usually unilateral, as bila...
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Pulmonary arterial aneurysm

Pulmonary arterial aneurysms (PAA's) refer a focal dilatation of the pulmonary arterial system. Epidemiology Overall it is considered a rare entity with autopsy prevalence rates of around 1 in 14,000 to 100,000 4-5. Pathology A true pulmonary artery aneurysm results from dilatation of all th...
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Pulmonary artery atresia

Pulmonary artery atresia (or sometimes known as pulmonary atresia) is one of congenital cardiovascular anomaly in which there is complete disruption between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the pulmonary trunk. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. Patholog...
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Pulmonary artery sarcoma

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are extremely rare tumours that originate from the intimal mesenchymal cells of the pulmonary artery. It is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism.  Epidemiology  Primary malignant tumours of the pulmonary arteries are very rare with an incidence of 0.00...
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Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum

Pulmonary atresia with intact interventricular septum (PA-IVS) is a subtype of pulmonary atresia that presents as cyanotic congenital heart disease.  Pathology PA-IVS is the combination of obstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract from pulmonary valve atresia without a ventricular septal defe...
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Pulmonary chondroma

Pulmonary chondromas are rare, benign cartilaginous tumours of the lungs, and form part of the Carney triad although they can also arise sporadically. Epidemiology Sporadic pulmonary chondromas occur most frequently in middle-aged males, while those associated with Carney triad occur most freq...
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Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis

Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, also known colloquially as valley fever, refers to lung involvement of the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, mainly Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasi. Epidemiology Coccidioidomycosis is endemic to many parts of North, Central, and South America 1. Wh...
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Pulmonary contusion

A pulmonary contusion refers to an interstitial and/or alveolar lung injury without any frank laceration. It usually occurs secondary to non-penetrating trauma.  Epidemiology While contusion can affect anyone, children are considered more susceptible due to chest wall greater pliability in tha...
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Pulmonary cryptococcosis

Pulmonary cryptococcosis is a form of pulmonary fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus gattii and C neoformans. The respiratory tract is the principal route of entry for infection via inhalation of fungal spores. Epidemiology Cryptococcosis predominantly occurs in immunocompromised patients b...
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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
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Pulmonary gas embolism

Pulmonary gas emboli are a specific type of pulmonary emboli.  Clinical presentation Presentation can vary dependant on the degree of air emboli where patients with small amount of air can be asymptomatic. Commonly reported clinical manifestations include sudden dyspnoea, chest pain, hypotensi...
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Pulmonary hydatid infection

Pulmonary hydatid infection is a common manifestation of hydatid disease. Epidemiology The lung is the second most common site of involvement with echinococcosis  granulosus in adults after the liver (10-30% of cases), and the most common site in children1. The coexistence of liver and lung di...
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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mmHg or greater at right heart catheterisation, which is a haemodynamic feature that is shared by all types of pulmonary hypertension in the Dana Point classification system. A resting mean pulmonary arterial p...
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Pulmonary hypoplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) refers to deficient or incomplete development of parts of the lung. It can develop as a result of a number of other in-utero anomalies. Epidemiology The true prevalence is not well known (1.4% of all births according to Knox et.al 13), but in cases of premature ruptur...
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Pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumour

Pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumours (PIP's) are solid, non-neoplastic masses which can mimic pulmonary malignancy. They should not be confused with pulmonary pseudotumours which usually refer to loculated collections of pleural fluid mimicking a pulmonary mass on chest radiography. Pathology ...
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Pulmonary interstitial emphysema

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) refers to the abnormal location of air within the pulmonary interstitium and lymphatics. It typically results from rupture of overdistended alveoli following barotrauma in infants who have hyaline membrane disease. Interstitial emphysema can also occasional...
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Pulmonary laceration

Pulmonary lacerations result from frank laceration of lung parenchyma secondary to trauma. There is almost always concurrent contusion. Epidemiology Contusions and lacerations follow blunt or penetrating chest trauma, and are almost always seen with other chest (and abdominal) injuries. While ...
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Pulmonary leukostasis

Pulmonary leukostasis is a medical emergency that is most commonly seen as a complication of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in blast crisis, and acute myeloid leukemia when white blood cell (WBC) counts are over 100 x 109/L (100,000/microL). It needs to be considered in any patient with myeloge...
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Pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) refers to a rare, fatal congenital abnormality of the lungs characterised by grossly dilated lymphatic channels in the sub pleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial areas 3. It is divided into two main types 1: cardiac-associated lymphangiectasia (seco...
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Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary. primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evidence of ex...
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Pulmonary mesenchymal cystic hamartoma

Pulmonary mesenchymal cystic hamartomas (PMHCs) are a rare subtype of pulmonary hamartomas. Pathology They usually comprise of multiple bilateral cysts and nodules. The cyst walled are lined with normal respiratory epithelium and the nodules are permeated by scattered airways that were also li...
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Pulmonary mucormycosis

Pulmonary mucormycosis is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal infection from a fungus belonging to the order Mucorales (the older term zygomycosis is no longer used). It has to be distinguished from the related counterpart invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) as modern first-line antifungals ty...
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Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection

Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a type of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection. It is relatively common and continues to pose significant therapeutic challenges. In addition, the role of MAC in pulmonary pathology remains controversial in many instances.  Epide...
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Pulmonary necrosis

Pulmonary necrosis is seen in a variety of pulmonary infections including 1:  Klebsiella pneumoniae - Klebsiella pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae - pulmonary haemophilus influenzae infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa - pulmonary pseudomonas aeruginosa infection polymic...
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Pulmonary nocardiosis

Pulmonary nocardiosis is an infrequent but severe opportunistic infection that is caused by Nocardia spp. It commonly presents as a subacute or chronic unilobar or multilobar consolidation, lung nodules or masses occasionally with cavitation in an immunocompromised people with cell immunity impa...
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Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (PNLH) is a type of benign lymphoproliferative disease that can affect the lung. Epidemiology It can present in any age group although the majority of cases present between 50 and 70 years of age 6. Clinical presentation Most cases are usually asymptoma...
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Pulmonary pneumocytoma

Pulmonary pneumocytomas, previously known as pulmonary sclerosing haemangiomas (PSH), also known as are rare benign neoplasms of the lung. Epidemiology Typically presents in middle age (30-50 years of age). There is a recognised female predilection.  Clinical presentation  Most patients are ...
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Pulmonary sequestration

Pulmonary sequestration, also called accessory lung, refers to the aberrant formation of segmental lung tissue that has no connection with the bronchial tree or pulmonary arteries. It is a bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (BPFM). There are two types: intralobar sequestration (ILS) extral...
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Pulmonary sequestration (intralobar)

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is a subtype of pulmonary sequestration.  Clinical presenation Patients usually present before the third decade with recurrent infection. Pathology It is the commoner type of pulmonary sequestration (four times commoner than extralobar sequestration),...
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Pulmonary tumourlet

Pulmonary tumourlets refer to a type of neuroendocrine cell proliferation in the lung. They are at the benign end of the spectrum of neuroendocrine cell proliferation. Epidemiology There is a recognised female predilection. Tumourlets are generally encountered in patients around 60 to 70 years...
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Pulmonary vein atresia

Pulmonary vein atresia represents a spectrum of disorder where the pulmonary veins fail to form in varying degrees. It can be broadly divided into unilateral pulmonary vein atresia bilateral pulmonary vein atresia -  common pulmonary vein atresia See also anomalous pulmonary venous drainage...
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Pulmonary vein stenosis

Pulmonary vein stenosis refers to a spectrum of condition characterised by narrowing to the pulmonary veins. It can be congenital or acquired. primary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in children secondary pulmonary vein stenosis - occurs in adults and usually associated with some identifiable...
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Pulmonary vein thrombosis

Pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially serious condition with a number of underlying possible aetiologies. Clinical presentation Often the signs and symptoms are non-specific and can range from acute (pulmonary infarction) to more insidious (progressive or recurrent pulmonary oede...
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Pulmonary venous varix

Pulmonary vein varix (PVV) also sometimes termed a pulmonary venous aneurysm refers to a localised aneurysmal dilatation of a pulmonary vein. As it involves a venous structure, the former term is usually considered more appropriate. They are rare and may be congenital or acquired. Clinical pres...
Article

Pyknodysostosis

Pyknodysostosis, also known as osteopetrosis acro-osteolytica or Toulouse-Lautrec syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia, characterised by osteosclerosis and short stature.  Pathology Pyknodysostosis is a lysosomal disorder due to genetic deficiency in Cathepsin K which has bee...
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Pyogenic meningitis

Pyogenic meningitis, also referred as bacterial meningitis, is a life-threatening CNS infectious disease affecting the meninges, with an elevated mortality and disability rates. Three bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis) account for the majority of ...
Article

Pyosalpinx

Pyosalpinx refers to a Fallopian tube that is filled, and often distended, with pus. Pathology A pyosalpinx often tends to be a complication of background pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Inflammation results in tubal and peritubal adhesions with superimposed obstruction of the fimbrial end....
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Pyriform aperture stenosis

Pyriform aperture stenosis refers to narrowing of the pyriform aperture and results from early fusion and hypertrophy of the medial nasal processes. Epidemiology Pyriform aperture stenosis is a rare cause of airway obstruction, and its prevalence is unknown. Pathology Associations alobar an...
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Q fever pneumonia

Q fever pneumonia refers to pulmonary infection with the organism Coxiella burnetii. It is sometimes classified as an atypical pneumonia. It can occur as either sporadic or outbreak cases. Clinical presentation The clinical picture is often dominated by fever, headaches and myalgias 5. A cough...
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Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
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Radial hemimelia

Radial hemimelia is a congenital absence of the radius bone of the forearm characterised by partial or total absence of the radius. Epidemiology It occurs in 1:30,000-100,000 live births, and is slightly more common in males than in females (sex ratio of 3:2). Pathology This deformity is bel...
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Radial neck fracture

Radial neck fractures are, together with the radial head fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Mechanism Radial neck fractures are almost always the result of a fall onto an outstretched hand. Force applied along the radius re...
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Radial scar

Radial scar, or complex sclerosing lesion, is a rosette-like proliferative breast lesion. It is not related to surgical scarring. Some authors, however, reserve the latter term to lesions over 1 cm 5.  It is an idiopathic process with sclerosing ductal hyperplasia.  Its significance is that it...
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Radiation-associated lens opacities

Radiation-associated lens opacities, also known as radiation-induced cataracts, address changes in the lens of the eye by radiation. Pathology The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Exposure to ionizing radiation can cause cataract formation which can develo...
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Radiation enteritis

Radiation enteritis is a bowel pathology resulting from toxic effects of radiotherapy on the bowel wall and vasculature.  Epidemiology 5-15% of patients treated with radiotherapy (usually > 4500cGy) develop chronic radiation enteropathy. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation is non...
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Radiation-induced glioma

Radiation-induced gliomas are a rare complication of cranial irradiation, occurring in less than 3% of cases 15 years post treatment. Glioblastomas correspond to three-quarters of all radiation induced gliomas.  The risk of developing a secondary CNS cancer following radiation exposure has been...
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Radiation-induced meningiomas

Radiation-induced meningiomas (RIM) are more frequently multiple and have a very long latency period. Meningiomas are a much more frequent complication of radiation exposure compared to sarcomas or gliomas. Epidemiology The exact incidence of radiation-induced meningiomas is unknown; one study...
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Radiation induced MRI signal changes in bone

Radiation induced MRI signal changes in bone are the earliest detectable changes in bone. They increase with increase in the radiation dose. Pathology 1st week: decreased marrow cellularity with oedema and haemorrhage 2nd week: increased marrow cellularity due to influx from unirradiated area...
Article

Radiation-induced rib fracture

A radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) refers to occurrence of a rib fracture following administration of radiation to the a region close to a rib or within a path of a rib. They are considered a relatively common occurrence, especially after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy...
Article

Radiation-induced sarcoma

Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) can originate in either the irradiated bone or soft tissues after a period of latency. They are usually high-grade tumours with a poor prognosis when compared with primary sarcomas. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma and osteosarcoma are the two most common histologic...
Article

Radiation induced vasculopathy

Radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy encompasses a complex and broad range of effects on the intra and extracranial vessels resulting from injury from radiation exposure. Clinical presentation Clinical symptoms are broad and depend on the underlying vasculopathy. Radiation-induced telangiec...
Article

Raghib syndrome

Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex, which consists of persistence of the left superior vena cava along with coronary sinus ostial atresia and atrial septal defect. It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement o...
Article

RANZCR examination

The RANZCR examination is set by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and consists of two parts: RANZCR part 1 typically first attempted during the first year of training, and is a barrier to progression into year 3 consists of written examinations in anatomy and phys...
Article

RANZCR part 2 examination

The RANZCR Part 2 examination is a set of written and viva examinations that are typically first attempted in the 4th year of radiology training, and are one of the requirements for the awarding of fellowship of the college (FRANZCR). In order to be eligible to sit the part 2 examination, traine...
Article

RANZCR pathology MCQ exam

The RANZCR pathology MCQ exam is part of the RANZCR part 2 examination. Format The examination consists of 100 multiple choice questions, each with a stem and 5 possible answers, and is of 2 hours in duration. Since August 2012 the examination has been delivered electronically. Currently it i...
Article

Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip

Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip is a rare chondrolysis of unknown aetiology which can progress to complete destruction of the femoral head. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. Epidemiology It is most common in middle age to elderly females in almost all reported case series. Clinica...
Article

Rapunzel syndrome

Rapunzel syndrome is the term for a trichobezoar (gastric 'hair ball') which has a tail-like extension  into the small bowel through the pylorus causing gastric outlet obstruction. Human hair (especially long hair) is resistant to digestion as well as peristalsis. So it tends to stay in the sto...
Article

Rectus sheath haematoma

Rectus sheath haematomas, as the term implies, occur when a haematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle / rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath haematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Clinical Pres...
Article

Recurrent breast cancer

The term recurrent breast cancer in medical imaging is given to recurrence of malignancy within the same breast at or close to the resection bed more than two years following surgical excision. Epidemiology The rate of local recurrence may be as high as 19% in 10 years. The maximum for recurre...
Article

Reed-Sternberg cells

Reed-Sternberg cells are a classical finding diagnostic of Hodgkin lymphoma. They are giant, multinucleated cells with abundant pale cytoplasm. Reed-Sternberg cells are rare, making up <1% of lymphoid tissue, with the background comprised of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and macrophages. 
Article

Relapsing polychondritis

Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare multi-systemic disease characterised by recurrent inflammation of cartilaginous structures in the body. It can also affect other proteoglycan-rich structures 1. Epidemiology The condition is extremely rare with an estimated incidence of ~1 in 285,000. Th...
Article

Renal amyloidosis

Renal amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity but can be associated with systemic amyloidosis. Renal involvement from amyloidosis in pathological specimens is quite common. However, renal function compromise is rare. Clinical presentation It usually manifests as nephrotic syndrome: fever a...

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