Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,784 results found
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Ectopia cordis

Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital malformation where the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The four main ectopic positions are:: adjacent to the thorax: ~60 % abdominal: 15-30% thoraco-abdominal: 7-18%  cervical: ~3% Epidemiology The estimated ...
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Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
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Ectrodactyly

Ectrodactyly (also known as a split hand-split foot malformation, cleft hand or lobster claw hand) is a skeletal anomaly predominantly affecting the hands (although the feet can also be affected). The condition has a highly variable severity. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 1 in 9...
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Elastofibroma dorsi

Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft-tissue tumour with a characteristic location and imaging appearance. Epidemiology It is more frequently seen in older women, with a reported female predilection of 5-13:1. The estimated mean age at diagnosis around 65-70 years. Clinical presentation Elast...
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Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMR)

Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) are rare small round blue cell tumour of the central nervous system and are one of the most aggressive brain tumours usually encountered in children.  Terminology Previously embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) where known as e...
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Emphysematous cholecystitis

Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare form of acute cholecystitis where gallbladder wall necrosis causes gas formation in the lumen or wall. It is a surgical emergency, due to the high mortality from gallbladder gangrene and perforation. Epidemiology Men are affected twice as commonly as women...
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Emphysematous cystitis

Emphysematous cystitis (EC) refers to gas forming infection of the bladder wall. Epidemiology The condition is rare and usually confined to certain patient subgroups. Risk factors Risk factors include: diabetes mellitus considered the commonest predisposing factor 6 may be present in ~50%...
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Emphysematous pancreatitis

Emphysematous pancreatitis is an unusual complication of acute pancreatitis caused by necrotising infection of the pancreas. It is associated with gas-forming bacteria and characterized by the presence of gas within or around the pancreas.  Pathology Infection with gas-forming bacteria such as...
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Emphysematous pyelonephritis

Emphysematous pyelonephritis refers to a  morbid infection of kidneys, with characteristic gas formation within or around the kidneys. If not treated early, it may lead to fulminant sepsis and carries a high mortality. Clinical presentation The patient usually presents with flank pain, urinary...
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Empyema necessitans

Empyema necessitans (also sometimes spelt as empyema necessitasis) refers to extension of a pleural infection out of the thorax and into the neighbouring chest wall and surrounding soft tissues, e.g. extension of an empyema outwith the pleural cavity. Pathology It may either occur due the viru...
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Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is a rare disease that is also known as von Economo encephalitis. It affects the midbrain and basal ganglia, and the exact aetiology is unknown.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are initially that of pharyngitis followed by lethargy, extrapyramidal movements (parkin...
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Encephalocoele

Encephalocoele, also known as meningoencephalocele, is a form of neural tube defect and a type of cephalocoele where brain tissue and overlying meninges herniate out through a defect in the cranium.  Terminology It should be distinguished from cranial meningocele in which the lesion contains o...
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Encephalomalacia

Encephalomalacia is term given to describe softening or loss of brain parenchyma with or without surrounding gliosis, as a late manifestation of injury.  Clinical presentation asymptomatic  serve as a focus of seizure Pathology Encephalomalacia is the end result of liquefactive necrosis of ...
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Enchondroma

Enchondromas (or chondromas 7) are a relatively common benign medullary cartilaginous neoplasm with benign imaging features. They account for the E in the popular mnemonic for bubbly bone lesions FEGNOMASHIC. They are sometimes classified under the umbrella term low grade chondral series tumours...
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Endocardial fibroelastosis

Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is a rare cardiac condition which is classically described in the paediatric population (typically first two years). It is one of the causes for infants to present with unexplained heart failure.  Pathology The condition results from increasing amounts of fibro...
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Endocrine tumours of the pancreas

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas arise from the pancreatic islet cells and include some distinct tumours that match the cell type of origin.  Terminology Pancreatic endocrine tumours have commonly been referred to as "islet cell tumours", referring to the islets of Langerhans, from which they...
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Endogenous lipoid pneumonia

Endogenous lipoid pneumonia, also known as idiopathic lipoid pneumonia, is of the of the two types of lipoid pneumonias. It is also sometimes known as “cholesterol pneumonia” or “golden pneumonia” Please refer to the main article for a broad discussion, including clinical presentation, radiogra...
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Endolymphatic sac tumour

Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELST) are very rare, locally invasive tumours of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of these tumours is critical, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. Endolymphatic sac tumours do not metastasize but are highly locally aggressive.  Epi...
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Endometrial atrophy

Endometrial atrophy is a response to a hypo-oestrogenic state. If it occurs after menopause it can be more specifically termed postmenopausal endometrial atrophy.  Clinical presentation While most patients are asymptomatic, endometrial atrophy is one of the commonest cause of postmenopausal bl...
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Endometrial carcinoma

Endometrial carcinoma is generally considered the most common gynaecological malignancy 1,5. It frequently presents with vaginal bleeding and both ultrasound and pelvic MRI are useful modalities for evaluation. Epidemiology Incidence peaks at around the 6th decade, though 12% of cases present ...
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Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia refers to an increased proliferation of the endometrial glands relative to the stroma. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to the endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplasia affects women of a...
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Endometrial stromal tumours

Endometrial stromal tumours (EST) are an uncommon group of tumours arising from endometrial stromal cells. It accounts for <2% of all uterine malignancies and 10% of all uterine sarcomas. Epidemiology Half occur in premenopausal women, with most patients presenting in the 5th decade. Clinical...
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Endometrial thickness

Endometrial thickness is a commonly measured parameter on routine gynaecological ultrasound and MR imaging. The appearance, as well as the thickness of the endometrium, will depend on whether the patient is of reproductive age or post-menopausal and, if of reproductive age, at what point in the ...
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Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium

Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common histological subtype of endometrial carcinoma accounts for 85-90% of cases. It is considered a type I carcinoma of the uterus with slow progression and relatively good prognosis. Patients are usually 55 to 65 years old.  Pathology En...
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Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary

Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a sub-type of epithelial ovarian tumours. The vast majority are malignant and invasive. On imaging, they are usually characterised as complex nonspecific solid-cystic masses and found associated with endometriosis.  Epidemiology Endometrioid carcinomas ...
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Endometrioma

Endometriomas, also known as chocolate cysts or endometriotic cysts, are a localised form of endometriosis and are usually within the ovary. They are readily diagnosed on ultrasound, with most demonstrating classical radiographic features.  Epidemiology These occur women of reproductive age. ...
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Endometriosis of canal of Nuck

Endometriosis affecting the canal of Nuck is an extremely rare site for endometriosis. It is proposed that retrograde implantation of endometrial tissue into patent canal of Nuck could give rise to the condition. Clinical presentation The condition is presented as a painful inguinal swelling. ...
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Endometritis

Endometritis refers to inflammation or infection involving the endometrium. Endometritis can be acute or chronic and may arise in an obstetric setting, such as following delivery or miscarriage, or in a nonobstetric setting due to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or endometrial instrumentation....
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Enostosis

An enostosis (pl. enostoses, also known as a "bone island") is a common benign bone lesion, usually seen as an incidental finding. They constitute a small focus of compact bone within cancellous bone. Enostoses can be seen on radiographs, CT, and MRI, and are considered one of the skeletal “don’...
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En plaque meningioma

En plaque meningiomas refer to a specific meningioma macroscopic appearance characterised by diffuse and extensive dural involvement, usually with extracranial extension into calvarium, orbit, and soft tissues. These tumours are thought to have a collar-like or sheet-like growth along the dura m...
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Entero-enteric fistula

An entero-enteric fistula is one formed between two parts of the small bowel. The can result for a number of reasons most commonly with inflammatory bowel disease, in particular Crohn.
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Enteropathic arthritis

Enteropathic arthritis (EA) is a form of chronic, inflammatory arthritis associated with the occurrence of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and is classified as a form of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Epidemiology Approximately 20% of people with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis may...
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Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis

Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis is the most common neurological complication of enterovirus infection 1. Clinical presentation Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis causes acute and severe neurologic disorders such as ataxia, nystagmus, oculomotor palsies, or bulbar palsy. In some cases, neurologic af...
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Eosinophilic fasciitis

Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF), also known as Shulman syndrome, is an uncommon connective tissue disorder. Epidemiology It can potentially present at age. There is a recognized female predilection 3-4. Clinical presentation Patients typically present with pronounced extremity oedema and skin in...
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Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an uncommon disease characterised by diffuse infiltration of any or all layers of gut wall by eosinophils.  Epidemiology  EG is an uncommon but not rare disease with slight male predominance, it can affect any age group but usually patients present in their...
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Ependymal cells

Ependymal cells are one of the four main types of glial cells, and themselves encompass three types of cells 1:  ependymocytes: line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord tanycytes: line the floor of the third ventricle choroidal epithelial cells: line the surface o...
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Ependymal rosettes (ependymoma)

Ependymal rosettes correspond to a histologic architectural pattern that very characteristic of ependymomas, as tumour cells form structures similar to the lining of normal ventricles. They are characterised by a halo or spoke-wheel arrangement of tumour cells surrounding an empty central tubule...
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Ependymocytes

Ependymocytes are one of the three types of ependymal cells, which in turn are one of the four principles types of glial cells, and are found lining the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord 1.  They do not form a water-tight barrier between the cerebral spina...
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Epidermal inclusion cyst

Epidermal inclusion cysts are common cutaneous lesions that represent proliferation of squamous epithelium within a confined space in the dermis or subdermis. Terminology Synonyms include "epidermoid cyst" and "epidermoid inclusion cyst". These are occasionally termed "sebaceous cyst", althoug...
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Epididymitis

Epididymitis refers to inflammation of the epididymis, and may be associated with inflammation extending to the testis itself, in which case the term epididymo-orchitis is used. This should be distinguished from isolated orchitis, which is by comparison much less common.  Epidemiology There ar...
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Epidural angiolipoma

Epidural angiolipomas are rare benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes and abnormal vessels.  Epidemiology Epidural angiolipomas are more frequently encountered in women, and typically in middle age (40-50 years of age) 1.  Clinical presentation In keeping with the slow growth of these ...
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Epiglottitis

Epiglottitis is a life-threatening condition caused by inflammation of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds 1,  which can lead to acute airway obstruction. Hence, treatment should be urgent and performed by appropriately trained individuals, e.g. instrumentation of the trachea should be perfor...
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Epignathus

Epignathus is a term given to a very rare form of teratoid tumour that arises from the oropharyngeal region. Epidemiology There may be a slight female predilection ref. The estimated incidence is ~ 1 in 35,000 to 200,000 births. Clinical presentation The tumour classically presents in utero ...
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Epipericardial fat necrosis

Epipericardial fat necrosis is a rare self-limiting cause of an acute chest pain in an otherwise healthy individuals. It occurs within the mediastinum outside the pericardium. Clinical presentation The patient presents with an acute chest pain that may mimic other cardiopulmonary causes. It is...
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Epiphrenic diverticulum

Epiphrenic diverticula are pulsion diverticula of the distal oesophagus arising just above the lower oesophageal sphincter, more frequently on the right posterolateral wall. They are less frequent than traction mid oesophageal diverticula, but may have more clinical relevance.   Clinical prese...
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Epispadias

Epispadias is a rare congenital anomaly that is almost always associated with bladder exstrophy.  Epidemiology It occurs in 1 in 30,000 births, with a male: female ratio of 3:1. Clinical presentation In males, three types are described - glandular, penile and complete. Glandular form is most...
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Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)

Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) is a commonly used target for immunohistochemisty, found on the surface of many epithelial cells and thus present in a wide variety of tumours. It also is sometimes seen within the cytoplasm of cells (e.g. perinuclear dot in ependymomas). 
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Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of lung

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of lung is a very rare type of lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type. Pathology Diagnosis is based on the identification of myoepithelial cells, with spindle cells, clear cells, or plasmacytoid differentiation or a mixture of phenotypes, along with a var...
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Epithelioid glioblastoma

Epithelioid glioblastoma is a variant of glioblastoma (along with gliosarcoma and giant cell glioblastoma) only recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumours as part of the 2016 update 1.  Terminology Whether or not epithelioid glioblastomas are distinct from rhabdoid glioblastomas i...
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Epithelioid haemenagioendothelioma

Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare relatively low grade vascular tumour. It occurs around medium to large venous structures. Pathology It consists of rounded or slightly spindle-shaped eosinophilic endothelial (epitheloid) cells with rounded nuclei and prominent cytoplasmic vacu...
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Erb palsy

Erb palsy, also known as brachial plexus birth palsy, is a form of obstetric brachial plexus injury as a result of complications during delivery.  Clinical presentation The most common cause is due to excessive lateral traction or stretching of the fetal head and neck in opposite directions du...
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Erdheim-Chester disease

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell, non-familial multisystemic granulomatosis, with widespread manifestations and of highly variable severity. The most common presenting symptom is bone pain. Epidemiology Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare, non-inherited disease of midd...
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Erdheim-Chester disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Erdheim-Chester disease are uncommon. Epidemiology The lungs are affected in ~25% (range 20-35%) of cases 5.  Radiographic features HRCT chest Described findings include 1 symmetric reticular interstitial opacities smooth interlobular septal thickening and fiss...
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Essential thrombocythaemia

Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) refers to an acquired myeloproliferative neoplastic state characterised by an expansion of the megakaryocytic lineage, leading to an isolated elevation of platelets. It falls under the group of myeloproliferative disorders. It increases the risk of both thrombosis...
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Ethmocephaly

Ethmocephaly refers to a rare type of midline cranio-facial anomaly that is characterised by the presence of extreme hypotelorism, arrhinia and a midline proboscis.  Pathology Associations holoprosencephaly 1-2: particularly alobar holoprosencephaly See also cebocephaly
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Eustachian tube dysfunction

Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is considered by many to be the underlying cause of chronic otomastoiditis, although both the exact pathogenesis and role of ETD in chronic middle ear infections is unclear. Epidemiology ETD is estimated to be present in ~1% of the adult population. Pathology...
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Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common highly malignant primary bone tumour of childhood after osteosarcoma, typically arising from medullary cavity with invasion of Haversian system. They usually present as moth-eaten destructive permeative lucent lesions in the shaft of long bones with large ...
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Ewing sarcoma (chest wall)

Ewing sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT), also referred as Ewing sarcomas of the chest wall, are malignant tumours affecting children and young adults, originating either from the osseous structures or the soft tissues of the chest wall.  On imaging, they are usually characterised as a large extr...
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Excessive lateral pressure syndrome

Excessive lateral pressure syndrome (ELPS) is abnormal  lateral tilt of the patella without lateral translation and considered one of the relatively common causes of anterior knee pain. It can affect both adolescents or adults. Patients usually present with insidious onset anterior knee pain agg...
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Exencephaly

Exencephaly is a lethal congenital fetal brain developmental anomaly (neural tube defect) considered to be a precursor to anencephaly in the acrania-exencephaly-anencephaly sequence. Pathology It is characterised by calvarial absence and loss of fetal brain tissue to variable degrees and is co...
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Exophytic hepatic mass

Exophytic hepatic mass or tumour is a lesion which predominantly lies outside the margins of liver but originates from within the liver. Pathology Causes include 1: benign  hepatic haemangioma hepatic adenoma hepatic cyst hepatic angiomyolipoma focal nodular hyperplasia malignant  hepa...
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Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
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Extensive intraductal component (invasive ductal carcinoma)

Extensive intraductal component (EIC) in breast imaging evaluation is the pathological description where an invasive ductal carcinoma has a prominent intraductal component within it or if there is intraductal carcinoma, DCIS is present within sections of normal adjacent tissue. It is sometimes c...
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External auditory canal cholesteatoma

External auditory canal cholesteatomas are an uncommon locations for cholesteatomas, which are usually in the middle ear or petrous apex.  When they occur lateral to the tympanic membrane, they are referred to as external auditory canal cholesteatomas.   Epidemiology The external acoustic cana...
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External auditory canal osteoma

External auditory canal osteoma is a rare focal pedunculated bony overgrowth of the osseous external auditory canal. Radiographic features solitary pedunculated bony overgrowth of the external auditory canal usually at the bony cartilaginous junction unilateral large lesions may be associate...
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Extracranial meningioma

Extracranial meningiomas, also known as primary extradural meningiomas or ectopic meningioma, are a rare location-specific type of meningioma that arise outside the dural covering of the brain and spinal cord. They are essentially extracranial tumours, most often occurring in the head and neck, ...
Article

Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a physiologic compensatory event in many hematologic diseases. It occurs most commonly in the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes and less frequently in the lung, pleura, breast, thymus, small bowel, and central nervous system.1  EMH in the adrenal is uncommon,2...
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Extramedullary plasmacytoma

Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%. Epidemiology EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh de...
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Extramural vascular invasion

Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by tumour. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of haematogenous spread.  Radiographic featur...
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Extrapleural haematoma

Extrapleural haematomas are uncommon and usually seen in the context of rib fracture, subclavian venous catheter traumatic insertion, and blunt chest injury. Pathology Extrapleural haematomas result from the accumulation of blood in the extrapleural space where the overlying extrapleural fat i...
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Extrapontine myelinolysis

Extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM) is one of the complications occurring secondary to rapid correction of hyponatraemia, and is, along with central pontine myelinolysis encompassed by the more recent term osmotic demyelination syndrome. In the vast majority of cases it is associated with central p...
Article

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
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Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma

Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) is included in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) along with Ewing sarcoma of bone, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), peripheral neuroepithelioma, and thoracopulmonary PNET (Askin tumour). When compared with Ewing sarcoma of bone, extraskeletal Ewin...
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Extra skeletal osteosarcoma

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare mesenchymal malignant tumour that occurs in the retroperitoneum and soft tissue of extremities without any attachment to bone. Epidemiology ESOS in contrast to other subtypes of osteosarcoma occurs infrequently in individuals under 40 years of age, m...
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Exudative retinitis

Exudative retinitis (also known as retinal telangiectasis or Coats disease) is a rare congenital disease affecting the eyes and is a cause of leukocoria. Epidemiology The exact aetiology is unknown and the disease is a non hereditary disorder.  It occurs predominantly in young males, with the ...
Article

Fabry disease

Fabry disease is a multisystem disorder which results from an X-linked inborn error of metabolism. The disease is characterised by a deficiency in hydrolase alpha-galactosidase activity with a resultant abnormal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in various organ systems. In men, the co...
Article

Facial nerve choristoma

Facial nerve choristomas are rare, being characterised by non-neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibrous tissue. Facial nerve choristomas presumably can occur anywhere along the course of the facial nerve (CN VII), although the only cases reported are in the internal acoustic me...
Article

Factitious hyperthyroidism

Factitious hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis factitia refers to precipitation of thyrotoxicosis due to exogenous ingestion of thyroid hormone (e.g. levothyroxine). It has been rarely associated with myocardial ischaemia 2. Radiographic features Ultrasound The hypervascularity which is seen wi...
Article

Faecaloma

A faecaloma is a mass of faeces most frequently noted in the rectum and sigmoid colon, that is much harder than a faecal impaction due to coprostasis. Pathology Usually, the faecal matter accumulates in the intestine, then stagnates and increases in volume until the intestine becomes deformed ...
Article

Falx ossification

In discussing mineralisation of the falx cerebri, many radiology textbooks use the term falx calcification and make no mention of falx ossification.  Epidemiology Ossification of dural folds is relatively unusual; one study suggested a prevalence of falx ossification of 0.7% 1. Even though, os...
Article

Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome

Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPS) is characterised by the presence of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon. It is the most common of the polyposis syndromes. Terminology Familial polyposis coli, attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome are all variants...
Article

Familial multiple lipomatosis

Familial multiple lipomatosis (FML) is a hereditary syndrome of multiple encapsulated lipomas which are found on the trunk and extremities, with relative sparing of the head and shoulders.  It is clinically distinct from the similarly named multiple symmetric lipomatosis with which it is freque...
Article

Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaem...
Article

Fatal familial insomnia

Fatal familial insomnia is an extremely rare autosomally inherited prion disease 1. Unlike other prion diseases, it does not exhibit spongiform changes. The main pathological findings are gliosis in the inferior olivary nuclei and thalami.
Article

Fat embolism syndrome

Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare clinical condition caused by circulating fat emboli leading to a multisystemic dysfunction. The classical clinical triad consists of: respiratory distress cerebral abnormalities petechial haemorrhages Epidemiology It occurs in ~2.5% (range 0.5-4%) of th...
Article

Fat necrosis (breast)

Fat necrosis within the breast is a pathological process that occurs when there is saponification of local fat. It is a benign inflammatory process and is becoming increasingly common with the greater use of breast conserving surgery and mammoplasty procedures. Epidemiology Most at risk are mi...
Article

Fat pad impingement syndromes of the knee

In fat-pad impingement syndromes the aetiologies are different for each knee fat pad. In anterior suprapatellar fat pad impingment syndrome the cause is usually due to either a developmental cause related to the anatomy of the extensor mechanism, or may be related to abnormal mechanics. In this...
Article

Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome

Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a severe postinfectious neurological disorder that presents with status epilepticus in a previously normal child (or less commonly adult) after a febrile illness. Terminology FIRES has received several names in the literature: acute encep...
Article

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions. Pathology Aetiology iatrogenic anticoagulation therapy inadequate compression following endovascular intervention improper arterial puncture tec...
Article

Femoral hernia

Femoral hernias are a type of groin herniation and comprise of a protrusion of a peritoneal sac through the femoral ring into the femoral canal, posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament. The sac may contain preperitoneal fat, omentum, small bowel, or other structures. Epidemiology There...
Article

Femoro-acetabular impingement

Femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) refers to a clinical syndrome of painful, limited hip motion resulting from certain types of underlying morphological abnormalities in the femoral head/neck region and/or surrounding acetabulum. FAI can lead to early degenerative disease. Epidemiology Pincer...
Article

Fetal anaemia

Fetal anaemia can result from many causes. Pathology Aetiology haemolytic disease of the newborn fetomaternal ABO incompatibility fetomaternal rhesus (Rh) incompatibility fetal infections fetal parvovirus B19 infection haematopoetic abnomalities homozygous alpha thalassaemia 7 syndrome...
Article

Fetal ascites

Fetal ascites refers to the accumulation of free fluid in the fetal abdomen. It is often considered under the same spectrum of hydrops fetalis. Pathology Aetiology any condition that results in hydrops fetalis additional causes include idiopathic bowel perforation (e.g. meconium peritoniti...

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