Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

785 results found
Article

Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytoma is a relatively benign renal tumour. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...
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Renal replacement lipomatosis

Renal replacement lipomatosis is a rare condition characterised by fatty tissue proliferation in renal sinus and perinephric space with marked destruction/atrophy of renal parenchyma (due to chronic inflammation). Pathology It has been associated with ageing, calculus disease (nearly 70% of ca...
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Renal sinus lipomatosis

Renal sinus lipomatosis refers to a condition where there is excessive renal sinus fat replacement. Pathology It results from renal parenchymal atrophy, inflammation, calculous disease, ageing or exogenous or endogenous steroids. There is usually no or rarely little mass effect on collecting ...
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Renal trauma

Renal trauma can result from direct, blunt, penetrating and iatrogenic injury. Epidemiology Renal injuries account for ~10% of abdominal trauma, and thus the demographic of affected individuals reflects that population. The incidence of renal injuries increases in pre-existing congenital or ac...
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Renal tubular ectasia

Renal tubular ectasia is an incidental finding that is seen more commonly on intravenous pyelography (IVP), but which can also occasionally be seen on CT urography (CTU). Terminology Renal tubular ectasia is also known as benign renal tubular ectasia. The term "benign" was used to differentiat...
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Resorptive (obstructive) atelectasis

Resorptive or obstructive atelectasis is a form of lung collapse that is due to obstruction of the airways supplying a lung segment or lobe. It is a term used to distinguish atelectasis identified on imaging based on the underlying pathophysiology to guide diagnosis. Pathology As the name impl...
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Respiratory bronchiolitis

Respiratory bronchiolitis refers to a histological finding that can be often seen in heavy smokers. Pathology It consists of mild chronic inflammation and accumulation of pigmented macrophages within respiratory bronchioles and related alveoli 1-2. A small amount of fibrosis in the walls of re...
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Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease

Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) is a smoking related interstitial lung disease closely related to respiratory bronchiolitis, but demonstrating more severe histological, imaging and clinical findings. Epidemiology In all cases, RB-ILD is typically associated with he...
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Respiratory chain metabolic toxins

A number of toxins affect the respiratory chain and result in typical changes within the brain. Pathology carbon monoxide inhibits electron transfer and avidly binds to haemoglobin displacing oxygen globus pallidus typically affected see: carbon monoxide poisoning methanol metabolised to ...
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Respiratory distress syndrome

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a relatively common condition resulting from insufficient production of surfactant that occurs in preterm neonates.  On imaging, the condition generally presents as bilateral and relatively symmetric diffuse ground glass lungs with low volumes and a bell-s...
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Retained products of conception

Retained products of conception (RPOC) refer to the persistence of placental and/or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery, termination of pregnancy or a miscarriage.  Epidemiology Retained products of conception complicate ~1-5% of all pregnancies (routine vaginal deliveries 12).  Acc...
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Retrocalcaneal bursitis

Retrocalcaneal bursitis refers to inflammation of the retrocalcaneal bursa, which lies between the antero-inferior calcaneal tendon and posterosuperior calcaneus. It forms part of Haglund syndrome.  Please, note that two bursae lie near the calcaneal tendon insertion: the retrocalcaneal bursa (...
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Retroperitoneal fibrosis

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), is a condition that has previously been described as chronic periaortitis. It is an uncommon fibrotic reaction in the retroperitoneum that typically presents with ureteric obstruction. The disease is part of a spectrum of entities that have a common pathogenic pr...
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Retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical featur...
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Retropharyngeal abscess

Retropharyngeal abscess is a potentially life-threatening infection involving the retropharyngeal space which requires prompt diagnosis and aggressive therapy. Epidemiology Retropharyngeal abscesses are most frequently encountered in children, with 75% of cases occurring before the age of 5 ye...
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Retroplacental haemorrhage

Retroplacental haemorrhage (RPH) occurs when there is perigestational haemorrhage that is confined to the retroplacental space. Pathology This type of haemorrhage occurs behind the placenta. The haematoma therefore separates the placenta from the uterine wall. The source of bleeding is probabl...
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Rhabdoid meningioma

Rhabdoid meningioma is a rare and aggressive subtype of meningioma, it is classified as WHO grade III. Rhabdoid morphology is associated with a poor prognosis, regardless of tumour histogenesis. It resembles other types of rhabdoid tumors with great tendency for recurrence 1-2 . Extensive necros...
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Rhabdomyolysis

Rhabdomyolysis describes the breakdown of striated muscles with the release of intracellular contents and represents a severe muscle injury. MRI is the imaging modality of choice. Rhabdomyolysis is potentially life-threatening although recovery is excellent with early treatment. Clinical presen...
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Rhabdomyosarcomas (biliary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the biliary tract are rare tumours, usually identified in children, with a very poor prognosis. They are usually grouped under botryoid rhabdomyosarcomas. For a general discussion of this type of tumour, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology Rhabd...
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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder caused by type II hypersensitivity reaction following group A beta haemolytic streptococcus pharyngeal infection. Cross reaction of antibodies against protein M with other cells glycoproteins leads to involvement of other organs such as he...
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Rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease (not to be confused with rheumatoid heart disease) may refer to either the acute cardiac involvement or chronic cardiac sequelae following rheumatic fever. Carditis is a major Jones criterion of rheumatic fever. Epidemiology An increased prevalence in females have been ...
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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune multisystemic inflammatory disease which affects many organs but predominantly attacks the synovial tissues and joints. Epidemiology RA has an overall prevalence of 0.5-1%. There is a female predominance, with the disease being 2-3 times more c...
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Rheumatoid arthritis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic multi-system disease with predominant musculoskeletal manifestations. Being a disease that primarily attacks synovial tissues, RA affects synovial joints, tendons and bursae. Refer to the related articles for a general discussion of rheumatoid arthritis an...
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Rheumatoid arthritis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations are relatively common in rheumatoid arthritis, and like many of its non-articular manifestations, tend to develop later in the disease. Please refer to the related articles for a general discussion of rheumatoid arthritis, and for the specific discussion of its musculos...
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Rheumatoid pulmonary nodule

Rheumatoid pulmonary nodules are a rare pulmonary manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. They are thought to occur in <1% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Epidemiology They occur more often in men than in women and usually are seen in smokers with subcutaneous nodules and high rheumatoid...
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Rickets

Rickets, less commonly known as rachitis, essentially refers to osteomalacia in the paediatric population that occurs before fusion of the growth plate. Epidemiology Rickets is seen in a number of distinct populations which include 4: premature infants (especially if on parenteral nutrition) ...
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Riedel thyroiditis

Riedel thyroiditis is a very rare form autoimmune thyroiditis. It is sometimes considered as a manifestation of a wider systemic disease with fibrosis of the retroperitoneum, mediastinum, as well as lymphocytic infiltration of extraocular orbital muscles, salivary and lacrimal glands 4. Most rec...
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Rim sign in renal vascular compromise

Rim sign in renal vascular compromise is seen in major renal vascular compromise. It can be seen in: renal artery obstruction from embolism, thrombosis or dissection renal vein thrombosis acute tubular necrosis Radiographic features At contrast-enhanced CT or MRI, a thin (1-3 mm) rim of su...
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Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease

Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (R-ILD) or rituximab pneumonitis is a rare non-infectious pulmonary side effect of the monoclonal CD20 antibody rituximab used in therapy for certain oncological/haematological and rheumatological disorders. Terminology As a human/mouse chimeric mono...
Article

Rocker bottom foot

A rocker bottom foot (also known as a congenital vertical talus) is a congenital anomaly of the foot. It is characterised by a prominent calcaneus/heel and a convex rounded sole. Pathology It results from a dorsal and lateral dislocation of the talonavicular joint. Associations aneuploidic s...
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Romanus lesion

The Romanus lesion represents an early finding in inflammatory spondyloarthropathies, such as ankylosing spondylitis and enteropathic arthritis, and appears as irregularity and erosion involving the anterior and posterior edges of the vertebral endplates 1. Healing response to these inflammatory...
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Rosai-Dorfman disease

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes. Epidemiology The disease predominantly occurs in young adults with a mean age at presentation of 21 years....
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Rosenthal fibres

Rosenthal fibres are astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions, typically found in areas of longstanding gliosis. These elongated or "corkscrew" structures occur within astrocytic processes and are brightly eosinophilic (stain bright pink on the H&E stain) 1-3. They represent astrocytic processes swolle...
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Ross procedure

Ross procedure involves the use of a pulmonary homograft for surgical aortic valve replacement. Indications It can be used to treat a broad array of aortic valve pathologies, often aortic stenosis. Contraindications multivessel coronary artery disease multiple valvular pathologies in which...
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Rotator cuff tear

Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain mostly in older patients. Clinical presentation Prevalence of tear increases with age. Most significant findings are impingement and "arc of pain" sign (pain during descent of abducted arm) 1. Supraspinatus weakness, night p...
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Round atelectasis

Round atelectasis, also known as folded lung or Blesovsky syndrome, is an unusual type of lung atelectasis where there is infolding of a redundant pleura. The way the lung collapses can at times give a false mass-like appearance. Pathology Two theories have been put forward. The second theory ...
Article

Ruptured omphalocoele

Ruptured omphalocoele occurs when there is rupture of the outer membrane of an omphalocoele. When this happens the eviscerated fetal bowel looks free floating and distinction from gastroschisis becomes difficult. However the abdominal defect generally tends to be larger and may contain liver wit...
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Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a rup...
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S100

S100 is a family of cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins expressed in numerous cell lines which can be targetted by immunohistochemistry. Staining for S100 is helpful in characterising a number of tumours, including malignant melanoma, glial tumours, neurogenic tumours (e.g. schwannomas and neur...
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Sacral dimple

Sacral dimples are a clinical and radiological feature that is associated with occult spinal dysraphism (e.g. tethered cord syndrome) but are more frequently a non-significant isolated finding. Epidemiology Common in healthy children (~5%) 1. Pathology Simple sacral dimples have the followin...
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Sacral insufficiency fractures

Sacral insufficiency fractures are stress fractures, which are the result of normal stresses on abnormal bone, most frequently seen in the setting of osteoporosis. They fall under the broader group of pelvic insufficiency fractures. Clinical presentation They are usually seen in elderly female...
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Salpingitis isthmica nodosa

Salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN), sometimes also referred to as perisalpingitis isthmica nodosa - PIN, refers to nodular scarring of the fallopian tubes. In very early stages, the tubes may appear almost normal. As scarring and nodularity progress, the changes become more radiographically appar...
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Sarcoid-like post-immunotherapy granulomatosis

Sarcoid-like post-immunotherapy granulomatosis has been reported as an uncommon complication in patients treated with immunotherapy agents such as monoclonal antibodies. It was first reported in TNF inhibitors used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and has also been reported in various immunotherapy...
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Sarcoidosis (abdominal manifestations)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Virtually any organ system may be involved.  Although the involvement of abdominal viscera is less frequent than pulmonary and mediastinal disease when it occurs, it may m...
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Sarcoidosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac manifestations of sarcoidosis are present in up to 25% of patients with sarcoidosis, but only 5-10% of patients are symptomatic 1-2. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder characterised by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. For a general discussion of this condition please refer t...
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Sarcoidosis (orbital manifestations)

Orbital manifestations of sarcoidosis are common among patients with systemic sarcoidosis and can involve the lacrimal gland, the orbit, soft tissues of the orbit, and the optic nerve. Uveitis is by far the most common manifestation and is typically bilateral 5.  For a general discussion of the...
Article

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas (sRCC) may develop when one of the more common subtypes of renal cell carcinoma degenerates into a sarcoma. On imaging, they are generally large masses, with irregular contours, and malignant-appearing, but do not have specific imaging features. Epidemiology ...
Article

Scaphocephaly

Scaphocephaly (also known as dolichocephaly) is the most common form of craniosynostosis, where premature closure of the sagittal suture results in impediment to lateral growth of the skull while anteroposterior growth continues, producing a narrow elongated skull. Causes are primary, or seconda...
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Scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse

Scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) is a complication that can occur with scaphoid fractures, specifically non-union of scaphoid fractures. It is essentially the same sequela of wrist injury causing scapholunate dissociation as seen in scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC). Pathology In...
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Scapholunate advanced collapse

Scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) refers to a pattern of wrist malalignment that has been attributed to post-traumatic or spontaneous osteoarthritis of the wrist. It is a complication that can occur with undiagnosed or untreated scapholunate dissociation. It is essentially the same sequela o...
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Scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal arthritis

Scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal (STT or triscaphe joint) arthritis is common, occurring in ~40% of wrist radiographs. It is typically degenerative (i.e. osteoarthritis) and presents with radial-sided wrist pain in patient over 50 years. 
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Schiller-Duval body (histology)

Schiller-Duval body is a perivascular structure that can be found in 50% of testicular yolk sac tumours also known as endodermal sinus tumours. If present it is considered pathognomonic.  Pathology A central vessel is surrounded by tumour cells, and the cell-vessel complex is contained in a cy...
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Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis (also referred to as bilharzia or snail fever) is the result of infection by blood fluke (trematode worm) of the Schistosoma species. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Africa. It is prevalent in tropi...
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Schistosomiasis (hepatic manifestations)

Schistosomiasis hepatic manifestations are a chronic result of the deposition of eggs into small portal venules leading to periportal fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.   For a general view over this trematode infection, please refer to the main article on schistosomiasis.  Clinical presentation U...
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Schistosomiasis (urinary tract manifestations)

Bladder schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia of the bladder, is a major health problem in developing parts of the world predisposing individuals to squamous cell carcinoma. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Afric...
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Schneiderian papilloma

Schneiderian papillomas are uncommon sinonasal tumours that arise from the sinonasal Schneiderian epithelium.  Epidemiology Schneiderian papillomas account for ~2.5% (range 0.4-4.7%) of sinonasal tumours 2.  Pathology There are three distinct histological types 1,2,3: exophytic/fungiform pa...
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Schwannoma

Schwannomas are benign tumours of Schwann cell origin and are the most common tumour of peripheral nerves, and common posterior fossa masses.  This article provides a general overview of schwannomas. For a discussion of schwannomas located at specific sites, please refer to the relevant article...
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Scimitar sacrum

Scimitar sacrum, also known as sickle-shaped sacrum or hemisacral agenesis, is a unilateral, well marginated, crescent-shaped defect in the lateral sacrum. Pathology The expansion of a meningocoele causes scalloping and lateral displacement of the sacral plate. Associations Scimitar sacrum i...
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Scirrhous carcinoma (breast)

Scirrhous carcinoma of the breast is a pathological sub type of breast cancer. It is a sub type of invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified and present as a hard lump. The proportion of pathologic lymph node metastasis among scirrhous carcinomas is significantly higher than that among c...
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Scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract

Scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a subtype of primary adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Epidemiology It is the least common type of primary adenocarcinoma involving mainly the stomach and the colon. Pathology The tumour demonstrates an infiltrative behavi...
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Scleritis

Scleritis refers to inflammation of the sclera. It has a wide range of causes. Epidemiology It can affect age group but usually those between ages 30 and 50. There is a recognised increased female predilection (F:M of around 2:1). Pathology Information on the pathogenesis of scleritis is lim...
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Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
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Scleroderma (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma are common and variable. For a general discussion of scleroderma, please refer to the parent article: scleroderma. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Imaging findings demonstrate bone and soft tissue changes 2,3,4. The hands are the most comm...
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Scleroderma (renal manifestations)

Renal manifestations of scleroderma are common, affecting up to 25% of patients. Some patients (5-10%) can present with a scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). These patients have abrupt onset of hypertension, acute renal failure 4.  For a general discussion of scleroderma, please refer to the parent...
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Sclerosing adenosis of the breast

Sclerosing adenosis (SA) is a benign (non-cancerous) proliferative condition of the terminal duct lobular units characterised by an increased number of the acini and their glands. It is sometimes placed under the category of borderline breast disease. In women with sclerosing adenosis, multiple...
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Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia of breast

Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (SLH) of the breast, also known as fibro-adenomatoid mastopathy, is an uncommon benign proliferative breast lesion. Epidemiology It tends to occur more often in adolescent and young adult patients (peak age in the thirties). In the United States, there may be a g...
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Sclerosing papilloma (breast)

Sclerosing papillomas of the breast are a sub type of intraductal papilloma of breast. It is termed when a papillary lesion form well-defined solid masses with a dominant sclerosed architecture 2. It is usually a histological diagnosis and usually cannot be differentiated from a non sclerosing p...
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Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary

Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is a rare ovarian neoplasm. It is considered a subtype of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumour and is included in the fibroma-thecoma group of ovarian tumors 9. Epidemiology It occurs predominantly in young women, peaks around 2nd to 3rd decades of lif...
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Sclerotic skull lesion

Sclerotic skull lesion can result from a number of causes. They include: hyperostosis frontalis interna (normal variant) osteoma fibrous dysplasia meningioma-associated calvarial metastasis See also lytic skull lesions calvarial thickening calvarial thinning
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Scrotal cystocele

Scrotal cystoceles are a type of urinary bladder hernia, where the bladder herniates into the scrotum. Clinical presentation asymptomatic voiding problems scrotal swelling Radiogaphic features Ultrasound Scrotal sac will contain fluid. Emptying of a scrotal cystocele with voiding is an im...
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Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematocoeles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testicle. Pathology A haematocele normally occurs following trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a haematocoele 4. Radiogr...
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Scrotal pyocoele

Scrotal pyocoeles are purulent fluid collections in the scrotal sac that generally occur in conjunction with epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Scrotal pyocoeles are typically a complication of epididymo-orchitis and testicular abscess but can also occur following trauma or surgery. The purulent fl...
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Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma (secondary hepatic lymphoma) is common, much more so than primary hepatic lymphoma.  Clinical presentation Hepatomegaly with deranged liver function tests is the most common presentation. Jaundice is common. Rarely, patients may present with acute li...
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Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma, also referred as secondary bone lymphoma, is much more common than primary bone lymphoma, occurring in ~15% of disseminated lymphomas. Terminology Secondary bone lymphoma is defined as lymphoma involving the bone with nodal disease occurring wit...
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Secondary involvement of the ovary with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the ovary with lymphoma is more common than primary ovarian lymphoma. It usually occurs a late manifestation of an advanced systemic disease, and are almost always of the non-Hodgkin type.
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Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma (secondary pleural lymphoma) is very common, occurring in ~20% of lymphomas. It may be a result of an extension of lymphoma into the visceral or parietal pleura or be a complicating pleural effusion and is a poor prognostic factor.  Epidemiology...
Article

Secondary pulmonary haemosiderosis

Secondary pulmonary haemosiderosis (SPH) is a form of pulmonary haemosiderosis. This is considered the less common form and is usually due to conditions such as collagen vascular diseases, coagulation disorders and congestive heart failure 3 (especially mitral stenosis).
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Secondary pulmonary lymphoma

Secondary pulmonary lymphoma (SPL) refers to pulmonary involvement with lymphoma when the condition is not limited to the lung and has mediastinal lymph node involvement or evidence of extrathoracic dissemination for at least three months after the initial diagnosis. This is a more common form o...
Article

Secondary synovial chondromatosis

Secondary synovial chondromatosis (SOC) is a disorder that results in intra-articular loose bodies as a result of trauma, osteoarthrosis, or neuropathic arthropathy. It is quite distinct to primary synovial chondromatosis. Pathologically concentric rings of growth may be seen. Radiographic feat...
Article

Second branchial cleft fistula

Second branchial cleft fistulae are congenital anomalies of embryonic development of branchial apparatus with the external cutaneous ostium in the lateral neck connecting to the tonsillar fossa. They can be diagnosed as a result of typical clinical presentation and the diagnosis can be confirmed...
Article

Second-impact syndrome

Second-impact syndrome (SIS) is a rare traumatic brain injury occurs in athletes receiving a second head injury while still symptomatic from a prior head injury. Epidemiology Second-impact syndrome is common in young athletes. Clinical presentation The typical second-impact syndrome scenario...
Article

Secretory meningioma

Secretory meningiomas are an uncommon histological variant of benign (WHO grade I) meningiomas whose claim to fame is a predilection for causing significant peritumoural oedema 1,2.  It is not clear that epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment or prognosis differ substantially from more ...
Article

Sedimentation sign in tumoral calcinosis

Sedimentation sign in tumoral calcinosis represents the fluid-calcium levels caused by calcium layering within the cystic spaces of the lesion. 
Article

Segmental fracture

Segmental fracture is a fracture composed of at least two fracture lines that together isolate a segment of bone, usually a portion of the diaphysis of a long bone. This fracture pattern is frequently associated with high energy mechanism and devascularisation of the segmental fracture fragment(...
Article

Segmental renal hypoplasia

Segmental renal hypoplasia (also known as the Ask-Upmark kidney) is a type of renal hypoplasia. It is often found in young females with severe hypertension. The aetiology is unknown but has been postulated to be congenital or a sequelae of pyelonephritis. It is associated with severe juvenile hy...
Article

Semicircular canal dysplasia

Semicircular canal dysplasia is relatively common of the labyrinthine anomalies. About 40% of patients with a malformed cochlea will have associated lateral semicircular canal (SCC) dysplasia.1 The other two common labyrinthine anomalies include SCC aplasia and SCC dehiscence. Pathology Latera...
Article

Seminal vesicle cyst

Seminal vesicle cysts can be congenital or acquired. Congenital It is the presence of cysts within the seminal vesicles since birth. It is seen rarely and occurs probably due to an obstruction at the junction of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct. It is associated with many other urogeni...
Article

Sepsis associated encephalopathy

Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a clinical term used to express a diffuse brain dysfunction, from mild delirium to deep coma, occurring secondary to a sepsis without overt central nervous system infection. It usually occurs in critically ill patients in intensive care units, especially...
Article

Septic arthritis

Septic arthritis is a destructive arthropathy caused by an intra-articular infection that usually is related to severe symptoms such as pain and decreased range of motion. This condition requires prompt treatment aiming to avoid permanent damage to joint, which may result in chronic deformity or...
Article

Septic pulmonary emboli

Septic pulmonary emboli refers to the embolisation of infectious particles (intravascular thrombus containing microorganisms) into the lungs via the pulmonary arterial system.  Pathology Septic emboli can occur from varying sources which embolise 5: tricuspid valve endocarditis infection els...
Article

Septo-optic dysplasia

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), also known as de Morsier syndrome, is a condition characterised by optic nerve hypoplasia and absence of septum pellucidum and, in two-thirds of patients hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. It is best thought of as being part of the holoprosencephaly spectrum (see cl...
Article

Seroma

Seromas are collections of serous fluid that usually occur as a complication of surgery, but can also be seen post-trauma. It is most commonly associated with post-breast surgery, where a potential space is left. Terminology Seromas are distinct from a haematoma as it contains almost no red bl...
Article

Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas (or microcystic adenoma) is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical presentation M...

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