Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,793 results found
Article

Intratesticular varicocoele

Intratesticular varicocele is a rare entity, occurring in ~2% of symptomatic population. Pathology It is defined as dilated intratesticular veins seen in relation to the mediastinum testis and extending peripherally. It is usually seen in the presence of ipsilateral extratesticular varicocele....
Article

Intrauterine growth restriction

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly defined as an estimated fetal weight (EFW) at one point in time during pregnancy being at or below the 10th percentile for gestational age 2. Some authors define the term IUGR when fetal biometric parameters fall under the 5th percentile or fal...
Article

Intravascular lymphoma

Intravascular lymphoma (IVL), also known as intravascular lymphomatosis, corresponds to a rare variant of extranodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma that affects small and medium sized vessels, and has no specific clinical or laboratory findings. CNS and skin manifestations are the most common for...
Article

Intraventricular metastases

Intraventricular metastases are a very rare finding. A few intracranial tumours and some extracranial tumours metastasize to the ventricles. The most common site of intraventricular metastasis is trigone of lateral ventricles due to a high vascular supply of choroid plexus. Next common sites are...
Article

Intussusception

Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighbouring loop of bowel by peristalsis. It is also known as bowel telescoping into itself. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude s...
Article

Invasive ductal carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma is a subset of ductal carcinoma. It is an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissues. It is the most frequently seen breast malignancy.  Epidemiology  Peak age of presentation is about 50 to 60 years. Clinical present...
Article

Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast

Infiltrating or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) "not otherwise specified" (NOS). Epidemiology They represent 5-10% of all breast cancer. The mean age at presentation may be higher than...
Article

Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of lung

Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of lung is a subtype of invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. It was formerly known as mucinous bronchoalveolar carcinoma. Pathology Mucinous carcinomas originate from columnar mucus-containing cells (c.f. non-mucinous tumours which arise from Clara cells or typ...
Article

Inverted papilloma

Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology  The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
Article

Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischaemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and...
Article

Iselin disease

Iselin disease is a benign and self-limiting condition, defined as apophysitis of base of 5th metatarsal. Epidemiology It is most commonly seen in males with sport injuries and is often also seen in adolescents.  Pathology It is due to repetitive traction of peroneus brevis tendon at the sit...
Article

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations are increasingly being recognised as key genetic prognostic markers for diffuse gliomas, and have been included in a recent (2016) update of diffuse astrocytomas in the WHO classification of brain tumours 7. Somatic mutations of IDH result in enchond...
Article

Isolated inferior vermian hypoplasia

Isolated inferior vermian hypoplasia (IIVH), also referred as part of Dandy-Walker variant (DWV), is a congenital malformation characterised by partial absence of the inferior portion of the cerebellar vermis. Terminology The term Dandy-Walker variant was created to include those malformations...
Article

Isolated periaortitis

Isolated periaortitis is a non-aneurysmal form of chronic periaortitis. Pathology Periaortitis may be a local immune response to antigens like oxidized-low density lipoproteins and ceroid found in the atherosclerotic plaques of the abdominal aorta. The disease tends primarily to involve the va...
Article

Jaccoud arthropathy

Jaccoud arthropathy (JA) is a deforming non erosive arthropathy characterised by ulnar deviation of the second to 5th fingers with MCP subluxation. Pathology It was traditionally described as occurring post rheumatic fever. It is also seen in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
Article

Jackstone calculus

Jackstone calculus is the name assigned to the appearance of a subset of urinary calculi. Pathology Jackstone calculi are almost always composed of calcium oxalate dihydrate. They are nearly always created, and thus, located, in the bladder rather than the upper urinary tract. They are compos...
Article

Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of many viral encephalitides and results from infection with the Japanese encephalitis virus. Clinical presentation At the onset of the disease patients present with severe rigors, fevers and headache. As it progresses to the acute encephalitic stage, meningo-...
Article

Jaundice

Jaundice refers to a clinical sign of hyperbilirubinemia (>2.5 mg/dl) which has many causes. It is often a clue to a diagnosis. It can be largely divided into two types: non-obstructive, i.e. pre-hepatic and hepatic causes obstructive, i.e. post-hepatic causes Imaging has a major role in dete...
Article

Jejunoileal diverticula

Jejunoileal diverticula, also referred to as jejunal diverticula or diverticulosis as most of the diverticula are located in the jejunum, are outpouchings from the jejunal and ileal wall on their mesenteric border that represent mucosal herniation through sites of wall weakening 1. See also Pl...
Article

Jod-Basedow phenomenon (thyroid)

Jod-Basedow phenomenon is hyperthyroidism following iodine intake in a person with long term underlying thyroid disease. Pathology Jod-Basedow phenomenon occurs due to either overactivation of the entire thyroid gland or, more commonly, autonomous nodules within the gland after iodine repletio...
Article

John Cunningham virus

John Cunningham (JC) virus is a ubiquitous double-stranded DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family 1. It is the aetiological agent of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Epidemiology It was reported that ~70% of adults have been exposed to this virus; however, no clinical synd...
Article

Jugular foramen schwannoma

Jugular foramen schwannomas are a rare type of intracranial schwannoma that presents as a jugular fossa mass involving the jugular foramen. Epidemiology In those without neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), they tend to present between the 3rd to 6th decades of life. There is a recognised female pr...
Article

Jumper's knee

Jumper's knee is a chronic insertional injury of the posterior and proximal fibres of the patella tendon, at the site of its origin at the inferior pole of the patella. Many authors equate jumper's knee to the adult form of Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease 1 . Some suggest instead that jumper's...
Article

Juvenile fibroadenoma (breast)

A juvenile fibroadenoma of the breast is a term given to a fibroadenoma presenting in children or adolescents. These may account for ~0.5-2% of all fibroadenomas, and are rapidly growing masses that cause asymmetry of the breast, distortion of the overlying skin, and stretching of the nipple. 1...
Article

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is the most common chronic arthritic disease of childhood and corresponds to a group of different subtypes. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~13 per 100,000 per annum 3. By definition, symptoms must start ...
Article

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNA) are a rare benign but locally aggressive vascular tumour. Epidemiology Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas occur almost exclusively in males and usually in adolescence (~15 years). They account for only 0.5% of all head and neck tumours 2, but are ...
Article

Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast

Juvenile papillomatosis (JP) of the breast is a relatively common benign localised proliferative lesion in the breast. Epidemiology As the name implies, it is mainly seen in young women (mean age ~19-23 years 4,6) and is unusual in women over 30 years old. Clinical presentation Patients pres...
Article

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour (JGCT) is an infrequent renal tumour of the juxtaglomerular cells. These cells secrete renin and often cause severe hypertension and hypokalaemia. Epidemiology JGCT affects all age groups, but is most common in adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence in t...
Article

Kaposi sarcoma

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-to-intermediate grade mesenchymal tumour that involves the lymphovascular system. The tumour can involve the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and musculoskeletal systems. Pathology There are four recognised variants 1: classic (chronic): multiple distal lowe...
Article

Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterised by an abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately 1 in 12,000-60,000 ...
Article

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a small to medium vessel vasculitis predominantly affecting young children. It can affect any body organ but there is a predilection for the coronary vessels. Pathology An autoimmune aetiology has been postulated. It is generally self limiting but acute fatalities are ...
Article

Keratocystic odontic tumour

Keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT or KOT), previously known as odontogenic keratocysts, are benign cystic neoplasms involving the mandible or maxilla and are believed to arise from dental lamina. They are locally aggressive and tend to recur after excision.  On imaging, they typically appe...
Article

Keratosis obturans

Keratosis obturans (KO) is a rare external auditory canal disease characterised by abnormal accumulation and consequently occlusion and expansion of the bony portion of the EAC by a plug of desquamated keratin. It can be confused by EAC cholesteatoma but they are completely different entities re...
Article

Kienböck disease

Kienböck disease is the eponymous name given to avascular necrosis (aseptic necrosis) involving the lunate.  Epidemiology The age distribution for Kienbock disease depends on gender. The condition is most common within the dominant wrist of young adult men where it appears to be due to repeate...
Article

Kikuchi level

The Kikuchi level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration of a sessile early invasive colorectal cancer1. Preoperative assessment of the level of invasion using this classification may decrease the incidence of unnecessary surgery for sessile polyps.  Levels o...
Article

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) (also known as subacute necrotising lymphadenitis or subacute necrotising histiocytosis) is an idiopathic disease characterised usually by cervical lymph node enlargement (80%). Epidemiology It typically affects young women. Clinical presentation It usually pre...
Article

Kirner deformity

Kirner deformity is characterised by a curvature of the distal phalynx of the 5th digit in both a palmar and radial direction. Epidemiology The deformity typically presents in late childhood to early adolescence, although a mild deformity may be present at birth. Both sexes are affected, altho...
Article

Klatskin tumour

Klatskin tumour is a term that was traditionally given to a hilar cholangiocarcinoma, occuring at the bifurcation of the common hepatic duct. Typically, these tumours are small, poorly differentiated, exhibit aggressive biologic behaviour, and tend to obstruct the intrahepatic bile ducts. Epide...
Article

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a syndrome combination of capillary malformations, soft-tissue or bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins or venous malformations. It is considered an angio-osteo-hypertrophic syndrome. KTS classically comprises a triad of: port wine nevi bony or soft t...
Article

Kniest dysplasia

Kniest dysplasia is rare type of short limbed skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Genetics It is thought to carry an autosomal dominant inheritance. Kniest dysplasia is one of a spectrum of skeletal disorders caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a prote...
Article

Köhler disease

Köhler disease is an eponymous term referring to chilhood onset avascular necrosis of the navicular bone in the foot. Mueller Weiss syndrome is the adult counterpart of navicular bone avascular necrosis. 4,5 Epidemiology It typically presents in the paediatric population (4-6 years age) and th...
Article

Krabbe disease

Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy, is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy.  Clinical presentation Can vary and depends on age of onset 5. hypertonia irritability delayed milestones loss of developed milestones fever myoclonus opisthotonus nystagmus Pathology ...
Article

Krukenberg tumour

Krukenberg tumour, also known as carcinoma mucocellulare, refers to the "signet ring" subtype of metastatic tumour to the ovary. The colon and stomach are the most common primary tumours to result in ovarian metastases, followed by the breast, lung, and contralateral ovary. Epidemiology The tu...
Article

Kümmell disease

Kümmell disease is an eponymous name for avascular necrosis and collapse of a vertebral body. Pathology Kümmell disease represents delayed (usually two weeks) vertebral body collapse due to ischaemia and non-union of the anterior vertebral body wedge fractures after major trauma. Risk factors...
Article

Kuru

Kuru is a human prion disease that occurs in parts of Papua New Guinea. It is an acquired disease, transmitted from cultural practices of mortuary feasts. Kuru was common before the 1960s with only rare cases currently reported. Unlike sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, cerebellar ataxia is a m...
Article

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is a term used to describe the sagittal curvature of the thoracic spine.   Pathology An increased kyphotic angle is seen in the following conditions: Scheuermann disease spondyloarthropathies osteoporosis vertebral body fracture ​compression pathological A decreased kyphotic an...
Article

Kyste hydatique

This originally French article needs further translation and merging with the existing English article on hydatid disease. Le kyste hydatique est une affection parasitaire due au taenia granulosis, considérée comme une zoonose atteignant aussi bien l'homme que les animaux, notamment les carnivo...
Article

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare organic aciduria but has characteristic MRI findings especially in the early stages 1. This can allow for early diagnosis, often prior to biochemical investigations. Epidemiology As it is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, consanguineous marriag...
Article

Labyrinthitis ossificans

Labyrinthitis ossificans (LO), also known as labyrinthine ossification, represents pathological ossification of the membranous labyrinth as a response to an insult to the inner ear. Clinical presentation It is usually associated with profound sensorineural hearing loss.  Pathology It most co...
Article

Lactating adenoma

Lactating adenomas are a benign breast tumour that typically occur in the peri-partum period, and are one of the most prevalent breast lesions during puerperium 4. Clinical presentation Lactating adenomas commonly present as painless breast masses late in pregnancy or in the postpartum period....
Article

Lacuna magna

Lacuna magna (a.k.a. sinus of Guérin) is a congenital blind-ended pouch located dorsal to navicular fossa of penis separated by fold and both share an external common opening to external urethral meatus. This diverticulum is located above and parallel to the urethra.  Epidemiology Although it ...
Article

Ladd bands

Ladd bands are the most commonly encountered form of peritoneal bands in disarrangement of intestines, e.g. intestinal malrotation. Pathology Classically they extend from the abnormally positioned caecum to peritoneum and liver, crossing the duodenum in their course. Extension, however, can in...
Article

Langerhans cell

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally found in epithelial surfaces, lymph nodes and other organs, and can also be found elsewhere, particularly in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. ...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
Article

Large bowel lymphoma

Large bowel (colorectal) lymphoma is a very rare tumour, accounting for < 0.5% of primary colorectal malignancies, ~1.5% of all lymphomas, and ~15% of gastrointestinal lymphoma. Large bowel lymphoma differs from gastric and small bowel lymphoma in clinical presentation, management and prognosis....
Article

Large cell carcinoma of the lung

Large cell carcinoma of the lung is one of the histological types of non-small cell carcinomas of the lung. Epidemiology It is thought to account for approximately 10% of bronchogenic carcinoma 1. Clinical presentation Patient presents with dyspnea, chronic cough and haemoptysis. Pathology ...
Article

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is classified as a subtype of large cell carcinoma of the lung. It is also classified as a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumour. Epidemiology The incidence peaks around the 6th decade 6. There is an increased male predilection 7. Pathology L...
Article

Laryngeal trauma

Laryngeal trauma is uncommon in the setting of external blunt or penetrating trauma. The larynx may also be injured internally, for example during endotracheal intubation. Clinical presentation Symptoms include hoarseness, laryngeal pain, dyspnoea, and/or dysphagia. Also, stridor, haemoptysis,...
Article

Laryngocoele

Laryngocoeles refer to dilatations of the laryngeal ventricular saccule located in paraglottic space of supraglottis. On imaging, these lesions are generally characterised as well-defined, thin-walled, fluid or air-filled cystic lesions in the paraglottic space. The communication with the laryn...
Article

Lateral epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as “tennis elbow,” is an overuse syndrome of the common extensor tendon and predominantly affects the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. Epidemiology Lateral epicondylitis occurs with a frequency seven to ten times that of medial epicondylitis. As w...
Article

Lateral patellar dislocation

Lateral patellar dislocation refers to lateral displacement followed by dislocation of patella due to disruptive changes to the medial patellar retinaculum. Epidemiology Patellar dislocation accounts for ~3% of all knee injuries and is commonly seen in those individuals who participate in spor...
Article

Left ventricular aneurysm

Left ventricular aneurysms are discrete, dyskinetic areas of the left ventricular (LV) wall with a broad neck (as opposed to left ventricular pseudoaneurysms), thus often termed true aneurysms. Epidemiology True LV aneurysms develop in less than 5% of all patients with ST-elevation myocardial ...
Article

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that result from contained myocardial rupture, and are a rare complication of a myocardial infarction (MI). They should not be confused with left ventricular aneurysms, which are true aneurysms containing all the layers (endocardium, myocardiu...
Article

Legionella pneumonia

Legionella pneumonia, also known as Legionnaires' disease, refers to pulmonary infection primarily with the organism Legionella pneumophila. It is sometimes classified as atypical pneumonia.  Epidemiology Legionella pneumonia tends to be more prevalent amongst immunocompromised patients. Legio...
Article

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign tumour predominantly found in women, although men can also be affected. The most common presenting complaints are urinary voiding symptoms such as obstruction and irritation.  It exhibits characteristics similar to those of uterine leiomyomas on...
Article

Leiomyoma of the uterine cervix

Leiomyomas of the uterine cervix are an unusual variation in terms of location for a uterine leiomyoma. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~5% (range 0.6-10%) of uterine leiomyomas 1,4. Clinical presentation Clinical symptoms of cervical leiomyomas, including hypermenorrhea, dysmenor...
Article

Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumour and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumours 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyo...
Article

Leprosy

Leprosy, previously known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and present mainly in tropical developing nations.  Epidemiology It is most common in tropical developing countries and is endemic in over 100 countries. Worldwide there is a prevalenc...
Article

Leptomeningeal cyst

Leptomeningeal cysts, also known as growing skull fractures, are an enlarging skull fracture that occurs near post-traumatic encephalomalacia. The term cyst is actually a misnomer, as it is not a cyst, but an extension of the encephalomalacia. Hence, it is usually seen a few months post-trauma. ...
Article

Lesser sac hernia

Lesser sac hernias are a type of internal hernia, where abdominal contents protrude through the foramen of Winslow, hence they are also known as foramen of Winslow hernia.  Epidemiology Lesser sac hernias are rare, accounting for <0.1% of abdominal hernias and 8% of internal hernias 1, 2. Pat...
Article

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract is a squamous metaplasia of the urothelium (keratinisation).  Clinical presentation Clinically the condition presents with haematuria in one-third of cases, dysuria, frequency and nocturia, and thus it can mimic cystitis. Passage of the desquamated keratinised ...
Article

Limbus vertebra

Limbus vertebra is a well-corticated osseous density, usually of the anterosuperior vertebral body corner, that occurs secondary to herniation of the nucleus pulposus through the the vertebral body endplate beneath the ring apophysis (see ossification of the vertebrae). These are closely related...
Article

Limy bile

Limy bile stands for the presence of a viscous substance in the dependent parts of the gallbladder and/or bile ducts, almost entirely composed of calcium carbonate, and therefore highly radiopaque. Terminology The terms limy bile and calcium milk gallbladder can be used interchangeably for inc...
Article

Lipoblastoma

Lipoblastoma is a rare, benign, encapsulated tumour arising from embryonic white fat.  It occurs primarily in infancy and early childhood (more than 90% before age 3). It most often occurs in the extremities and trunk, although it can be seen in other areas 1. The entity was originally describe...
Article

Lipoblastoma of lung

Lipoblastoma of the lung is a fat derived thoracic tumour. Epidemiology They occur during infancy and early childhood. More than 90% of cases are diagnosed in children less than 3 years of age, with nearly 75% occurring before the age of 12 months Pathology Lipoblastomas are rare soft-tissue...
Article

Lipoblastomatosis

Lipoblastomatosis is an uncommon presentation of a benign fatty neoplasm. The condition is more common in infants and young children. It differs from a lipoblastoma in that it is extensive and infiltrative.  Pathology Lipoblastomatosis consists of immature adipose tissue surrounding myxomatous...
Article

Lipoma

Lipomas are benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes. They are the most common soft tissue tumour, seen in ~2% of the population.  Epidemiology Patients typically present in adulthood (5th-7th decades). Clinical presentation Typically lipomas are subcutaneous in location and present in a...
Article

Lipoma of the filum terminale

Fatty filum terminale, also known as lipoma of the filum terminale or filar lipoma, is a relatively common finding on imaging of the lumbar spine, and in most cases is an incidental finding of no clinical concern. However, in some patients it may be associated with signs and symptoms of tethered...
Article

Lipomatosis of the ileocaecal valve

Lipomatosis of the ileocaecal valve is a benign condition usually detected incidentally during investigation of other conditions. However, it may itself cause certain vague abdominal symptoms and may be missed on preliminary ultrasound unless a high level of suspicion is present. Epidemiology ...
Article

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the inter-atrial septum

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterised by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum. It is commonly found in elderly and obese patients as an asymptomatic incidentally discovered finding.  Epidemiology The ...
Article

Lipomyelocele

Lipomyelocele is one of the most common closed spinal dysraphism. It is seen in thoracolumbar region and usually presents as a fatty subcutaneous mass. It is twice as common as lipomyelomeningocele. Clinical presentation Affected individuals are usually asymptomatic at birth, but many (~ 50%)...
Article

Lipomyelomeningocele

Lipomyelomeningoceles are one of the forms of closed spinal dysraphism. They usually present as a subcutaneous fatty mass just above the intergluteal cleft. However, some lipomyelomeningoceles may occur at other locations along the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Lipomyelomeningoceles may ...
Article

Liposclerosing myxofibrous tumour

Liposclerosing myxofibrous tumours (LSMFT), also known as polymorphic fibro-osseous lesions of bone, are rare benign fibro-osseous lesions that have a predilection for the intertrochanteric region of the femur. Clinical presentation It is slightly more common in males with mean age of 30-40 ye...
Article

Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist fluid with remains of...
Article

Lisfranc injury

Lisfranc injuries, also called Lisfranc fracture-dislocations, are the most common type of dislocation involving the foot and correspond to the dislocation of the articulation of the tarsus with the metatarsal bases. Pathology Anatomy The Lisfranc joint is the articulation of the tarsus with ...
Article

Lissencephaly type I - subcortical band heterotopia spectrum

Lissencephaly type I, also known as classic lissencephaly, is a heterogeneous group of disorders of cortical formation characterised by a smooth brain, with absent or hypoplastic sulci and is strongly associated with subcortical band heterotopia (see classification system for cortical malformati...
Article

Lissencephaly type II

Lissencephaly type II is characterised by reduction in normal sulcation, associated with a bumpy or pebbly cortical surface (thus the term cobblestone lissencephaly), absent in lissencephaly type I. Unlike type I lissencephaly which is the result of neuronal undermigration, type II is due to ove...
Article

Listeria rhombencephalitis

Listeria rhombencephalitis is a particular form of listerial encephalitis that affects primarily the hindbrain (brainstem and cerebellum). Listeria monocytogenes is cited as the most common etiology for rhombencephalitis, typically seen in the elderly, and resulting in significant morbidity and ...
Article

Lithium-induced renal disease

Lithium-induced renal disease is characterised by a progressive decline in renal function, evidenced by increasing serum creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. The lithium salt causes direct injury to the renal tubules. The duration of lithium therapy increases the risk of progression to...
Article

Lithopaedion

Lithopaedions, also referred as stone babies, are a rare phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~ 1.5 to 1.8% of abdominal ectopic pregnancies 4. Pathology If the dead fetus is too large to be re-absorbe...
Article

Lobar haemorrhage

Lobar haemorrhage is a subtype of intracranial haemorrhage, which generally carries a poor prognosis. Epidemiology Primary lobar haemorrhages (usually due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy) are typically seen in elderly. Younger patients may also develop lobar haemorrhages, but in such cases they...
Article

Lobar pneumonia

Lobar pneumonia (also known as non-segmental pneumonia or focal non-segmental pneumonia 7) is a radiological pattern associated with homogenous, fibrinosupparative consolidation of one or more lobes of a lung in response to bacterial pneumonia.  The radiological appearance of lobar pneumonia is...
Article

Lobular breast carcinoma

Lobular breast carcinoma is a subtype of breast cancer can range from lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) to invasive lobular carcinoma. Pathology Multicentricity and bilaterality tend to be quite common with lobular breast carcinomas.

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.