Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

6 results found
Article

CA 15-3

Carcinoma antigen 15-3, usually shortened to CA 15-3 is a tumour marker used in monitoring breast cancer. The test detects levels of MUC-1, a mucin protein in the blood. MUC-1 is thought to be important in the invasiveness and metastasisation of cancer cells. Physiology MUC-1 is a normal epith...
Article

Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions

Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions (CAPSS) is a pathological entity encountered when breast biopsies are done for investigation of punctate or amorphous calcifications. CAPSS involves the terminal ductal and lobular units (TDLU's). It is sometimes classified under t...
Article

Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individual articles....
Article

Metaplasia

Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett oesophagus: normal squamous epithelium replac...
Article

Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumour marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquefying agent for seminal fluid; only a tiny amount leaks into the blood, therefore...
Article

Sentinel lymph node

The sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are defined as those lymph nodes that directly drain a malignancy, or alternatively can be considered as the first node(s) that a tumour metastasises to. History and etymology "Sentinel node" as the initial draining node of a malignancy was first used in a paper...

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