Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

395 results found
Article

14-3-3 protein

14-3-3 protein is found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and is currently used to help identify patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD).  In diagnosing sCJD, the sensitivity of 14-3-3 protein is 92% and its specificity is 80% 1. A negative 14-3-3 assay may be helpful in reducin...
Article

1p19q codeletion

1p19q codeletion stands for the combined loss of the short arm chromosome 1 (i.e. 1p) and the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q) and is recognised as a genetic marker predictive of therapeutic response to both chemotherapy and combined chemoradiotherapy and overall longer survival in patients with ...
Article

2-hydroxyglutarate

2-hydroxyglutarate is a metabolite that accumulates in the brains of patients with IDH-1 mutated (IDH-1 positive) brain tumours, particularly diffuse low-grade gliomas. Although not in widespread clinical use, it is likely that 2-hydroxyglutarate, which resonates at 2.25 ppm, will be able to be ...
Article

Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX)

Alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) is an important genomic marker of gliomas. Loss/mutation of ATRX is almost never seen in patients with 1p/19q co-deletion (i.e. they are essentially mutually exclusive). Oligodendrogliomas will, therefore, have intact ATRX and 1p19q c...
Article

Alzheimer type I glia

Alzheimer type I glia are a type of glial cell. They are large multinucleated astrocytes encountered in glial tumours and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) 1. 
Article

Alzheimer type II glia

Alzheimer type II glia are a type of glial cell. They are a pathological reactive astrocyte seen in the brain, unrelated to Alzheimer disease. They are seen most frequently in Wilson disease, but also in other systemic metabolic disorders, particularly those with elevated ammonia levels, typical...
Article

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor encephalitis

Anti N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies against the NMDA receptors. It is sometimes considered a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. It usually affects young patients particularly young females, in about 60% of whom ovarian ter...
Article

Arachnoiditis

Arachnoiditis is a broad term encompassing inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space. Terminology Arachnoiditis affecting the cauda equina may be referred to as spinal/lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis.  Clinical presentation Lumbar spine arachnoiditis can result in leg pain, sensory c...
Article

Ascending transtentorial herniation

Ascending transtentorial herniation is a situation where space occupying lesions in the posterior cranial fossa cause superior displacement of superior parts of the cerebellum through the tentorial notch.  Clinical presentation nausea and/or vomiting  rapid progression toward decreased level ...
Article

Astroblastoma

Astroblastomas are rare glial tumours usually found in the cerebral hemispheres of young adults and children.  Epidemiology They occur at all ages range from early childhood to 6th decade but are most commonly seen in children, adolescents, and young adults with a mean age between 10-30 years ...
Article

Astrocytes

Astrocytes are cells of the central nervous system which act as both physical and physiological support for the neurones that are embedded between them. They are particularly abundant in the grey matter, where they are the most abundant glial cells 1. They are highly branched and contribute to ...
Article

Atretic parietal cephalocoele

Atretic parietal cephalocoeles (APC) also known as atretic cephalocele, refers to small subscalp lesions that consist of dura, fibrous tissue, and dysplastic brain tissue. Epidemiology Common presentation in infants and young children.  Clinical presentation Palpable midline parietal soft ti...
Article

Atypical meningioma

Atypical meningioma refers to a more aggressive form of meningioma and denotes a WHO grade II tumour (along with two histological variants clear cell meningioma and chordoid meningioma). Atypical meningiomas account for 20-30% of all meningiomas 1,3.  It should be noted that epidemiology, clini...
Article

Autoimmune encephalitis

Autoimmune encephalitis (also known as autoimmune limbic encephalitis) is an antibody-mediated autoimmune-mediated inflammation of the brain, typically involving the limbic system, although all parts of the brain can be involved.  Autoimmune encephalitis can be divided broadly into two groups, ...
Article

Balo concentric sclerosis

Balo concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare and severe monophasic demyelinating disease, considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis, appearing as a rounded lesion with alternating layers of hyper and hypoattenuation giving it a characteristic 'bullseye' or 'onion bulb' appearance 1,9. Epidemiolog...
Article

Basal ganglia haemorrhage

Basal ganglia haemorrhage is a common form of intracerebral haemorrhage, and usually as a result of poorly controlled long-standing hypertension. The stigmata of chronic hypertensive encephalopathy are often present (see cerebral microhaemorrhages). Other sites of hypertensive haemorrhages are ...
Article

Basilar artery hypoplasia

Basilar artery hypoplasia is a rare vascular anomaly of the basilar artery. Pathology Associations Basilar artery hypoplasia is usually accompanied by one or more fo the following: persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses hypoplastic V4 segments of the vertebral arteries unilateral o...
Article

Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid space in infancy

Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infancy (BESS or BESSI) also known as benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) is, as the name implies, a benign enlargement of subarachnoid spaces seen in infancy. It usually involves the frontal lobe subarachnoid spaces, and it is characterised clini...
Article

Blunt cerebrovascular injury

Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is an uncommon but serious consequence of blunt trauma to the head and neck. Epidemiology It is often part of multi-trauma with a significant series of blunt trauma CTA reporting an incidence of approximately 1% 3. A large systematic review and meta-analysis...
Article

Brachial plexus injuries

Brachial plexus injuries are a spectrum of upper limb neurological deficits secondary to partial or complete injury to the brachial plexus, which provides the nerve supply of upper limb muscles.  Clinical presentation Trauma, usually by motor vehicle accidents, involves severe traction on the ...
Article

Brain abscess

Brain abscess is a potentially life threatening condition requiring rapid treatment, and prompt radiological identification. Fortunately, MRI is usually able to convincingly make the diagnosis, distinguishing abscesses from other ring enhancing lesions.  Epidemiology Demographics reflect at-ri...
Article

Café au lait spots

Café au lait spots are a type of pigmented skin lesions which are classically described as being light brown in colour.   Conditions associated with them include: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome: typically irregular which has been likened to ...
Article

Caisson disease

Caisson disease is an uncommon diving-related decompression illness that is an acute neurological emergency typically occurring in deep sea divers.  Diving-related decompression illness is classified into two main categories 3: Arterial gas embolism secondary to pulmonary decompression barotra...
Article

Canavan disease

Canavan disease, also known as spongiform degeneration of white matter (not to be confused with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) or aspartoacylase deficiency, is a leukodystrophy clinically characterised by megalencephaly, severe mental and neurological deficits, and blindness.  Epidemiology Canavan...
Article

Caput succedaneum

Caput succedaneum is a manifestation of birth trauma, and it consists of a subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid collection beneath the newborn's scalp. The fluid collection is extra-periosteal. It may be imaged with ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Caput succedaneum results from pressure on the presenting...
Article

CARASIL

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is a systemic genetic disorder affecting the cerebral small vessels, spine and hair follicles. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pathway and should not be confused with its autosomal dom...
Article

Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause an anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. The neurotoxicity could lead to acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology CO poisoning is related mostly to preventable causes such as malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and res...
Article

Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also referred as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
Article

Cataract

Cataract is an opacification or thickening of the lens within the globe and is the leading cause of blindness in the world 2.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity. The diagnosis is made clinically. Pathology Aetiology Common causes include: ...
Article

Cauda equina syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is considered a diagnostic and surgical emergency.  Epidemiology Cauda equina syndrome is rare with prevalence estimated at approximately 1...
Article

Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma...
Article

Central nervous system vasculitides

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
Article

Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade II neuroepithelial intraventricular tumours with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in you...
Article

Central tegmental tract high T2 signal

High T2 signal of the central tegmental tract, which connects the red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus, is an uncommon finding typically encountered in early childhood.    The central tegmental tract refers mainly to the extrapyramidal tracts connecting between the red nucleus and the infe...
Article

Cephalocoele

Cephalocoele refers to the outward herniation of CNS contents through a defect in the cranium. The vast majority are midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.8-4:10,000 live births 13 with a well recognised geographical variation between sub-types. These may be a greater female predi...
Article

Cephalohaematoma

Cephalohaematomas are traumatic subperiosteal haematomas of the skull that are usually caused by birth injury. They are bound by the periosteum and, therefore, cannot cross sutures. Being bound by a suture line distinguishes them from subgaleal haematoma, which can cross sutures. Epidemiology ...
Article

Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
Article

Cerebellar infarction

Cerebellar infarction is a relatively uncommon subtype of ischaemic stroke. It may involve any of the three arteries supplying the cerebellum: superior cerebellar artery (SCA): superior cerebellar arterial infarct anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA): anterior inferior cerebellar arteria...
Article

Cerebellitis

Acute cerebellitis (AC), also known as acute cerebellar ataxia, is a rare inflammatory process characterised by a sudden onset of cerebellar dysfunction usually affecting children. It is related as a consequence of a primary or secondary infection, or much less commonly as a result of post-vacci...
Article

Cerebral air embolism

Cerebral air embolism is rare but can be fatal. They may be venous or arterial and are often iatrogenic in cause.  Clinical presentation Presentation is often varied and non-specific but include confusion, motor weakness, decreased consciousness, seizure and vision loss.  Pathology Cerebral ...
Article

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebrovascular disorder caused by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in the tunica media and adventitia of leptomeningeal and cortical vessels of the brain. The resultant vascular fragility tends to manifest in normotensive elderly patients as lob...
Article

Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs), also known as classic brain AVMs, are a common form of cerebral vascular malformation and are composed of a nidus of vessels through which arteriovenous shunting occurs. Terminology This article corresponds to the classic form of arteriovenous malf...
Article

Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex and underlying connecting white matter accounts for the largest part of the human brain. It is composed of five different types of neurones arranged into distinct layers (in most places 6 layers) admixed with supporting glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia)...
Article

Cerebral fat embolism

Cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is one of a manifestations of fat embolism syndrome. Epidemiology It typically occurs in patients with bony fractures (usually long bones of the lower limb). Pathology Fat emboli usually reach the brain through a either right-to-left cardiac shunt or through an in...
Article

Cerebral haemorrhagic contusion

Cerebral haemorrhagic contusions are a type of intracerebral haemorrhage and are common in the setting of significant head injury. They are usually characterised on CT as hyperdense foci in the frontal lobes adjacent to the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and in the temporal poles. Epidemio...
Article

Cerebral hydatid disease

Cerebral hydatid disease (neurohydatidosis) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis. The larval stage is the cause of hydatid disease in humans 1. Epidemiology Cerebral hydatid disease is a rare parasitic infestation and accounts for 1-2 % of al...
Article

Cerebral malaria

Cerebral malaria is a rare intracranial complication of a malarial infection. Epidemiology Cerebral malaria is mainly encountered in young children and adults living or travelling in malaria-endemic areas. It is estimated to occur in ~2% of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, ...
Article

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), previously known as diffuse nidus type AVM, is a cerebral vascular malformation separated from classic brain AVM and characterised by the presence of normal brain parenchyma interspersed throughout the tangle of vessels that corresponds to the nidus 1,2. ...
Article

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome

Cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) is a syndrome encompassing encompassing maxillofacial/intracranial vascular malformation complexes including Wyburn-Mason Syndrome and Sturge-Weber syndrome 1-4. Three types are described depending on location 2,6: CAMS I: medial prosencepha...
Article

Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also referred as trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemic to Central and South America....
Article

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are minute aneurysms which develop as a result of chronic hypertension and appear most commonly in the basal ganglia and other areas such as the thalamus, pons and cerebellum, where there are small penetrating vessels (diameter < 300 micrometres) 1-3. They should not ...
Article

Chiari 1.5 malformation

Chiari 1.5 malformation, or bulbar variant of Chiari I malformation, is a term used in the literature to describe the combination of cerebellar tonsillar herniation (as seen in Chiari I malformation) along with caudal herniation of some portion of the brainstem (often obex of the medulla oblonga...
Article

Chiari III malformation

Chiari III malformation is an extremely rare anomaly characterized by a low occipital and high cervical encephalocele with herniation of posterior fossa contents, that is, the cerebellum and/or the brainstem, occipital lobe, and fourth ventricle.  Pathology Associations agenesis of the corpus...
Article

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle

Chordoid gliomas of the third ventricle are rare slow growing well-circumscribed low-grade tumours lesions that arise from the anterior wall or roof of the third ventricle.  Epidemiology Epidemiological data is limited due to the rare nature of this finding and less than 100 cases have been pu...
Article

Chordoid meningioma

Chordoid meningiomas are uncommon histological variants of meningiomas, and due to their predilection for rapid growth and local recurrence are designated as grade 2 tumours under the current WHO classification of CNS tumours.  Chordoid tumours are encountered in a very wide age range (possibly...
Article

Chorea

Chorea is a type of dyskinesia characterised by sudden, rapid, involuntary, and purposeless movements that happen during a person’s normal voluntary movement. It is a clinical symptom related to different aetiologies, such as infectious, inflammatory, vascular, hereditary (e.g. Huntington's dise...
Article

Choristoma

A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...
Article

Choroid plexitis

Choroid plexitis is a general term referring to an inflammatory process affecting the choroid plexus; it is usually due an infectious process. It is rarely seen as an isolated process and is commonly found in association with encephalitis, meningitis, or ventriculitis 1. The choroid plexus can a...
Article

Choroid plexus carcinoma

Choroid plexus carcinomas are malignant neoplasms arising from the choroid plexus. They are classified as a WHO grade III tumour and while there is considerable overlap in imaging characteristics it carries significantly poorer prognosis than both WHO grade II atypical choroid plexus papilloma, ...
Article

Choroid plexus cyst (antenatal)

Antenatal choroid plexus cysts are benign and are often transient typically resulting in utero from an infolding of the neuroepithelium.   They should not be confused with adult choroid plexus cysts (which are very commonly found at autopsy and likely degenerative), large intraventricular simpl...
Article

Choroid plexus hyperplasia

Choroid plexus hyperplasia (CPH), also known as villous hypertrophy of the choroid plexus, is a rare benign condition that is characterised by bilateral enlargement of the entire choroid plexus in lateral ventricles without any discrete masses. This can result in overproduction of CSF and commun...
Article

Choroid plexus metastases

Metastases to the choroid plexus from extracranial tumours are rare, but nonetheless should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intraventricular mass. They are most commonly found within the lateral ventricles, presumably because a large proportion of the choroid plexus is located th...
Article

Choroid plexus papilloma

Choroid plexus papillomas are an uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) neuroepithelial intraventricular tumour which can occur in both the paediatric (more common) and adult population.  On imaging, these tumours are usually identified in the fourth ventricle in adults and in the lateral ventricles in...
Article

Choroid plexus xanthogranuloma

Choroid plexus xanthogranulomas are common, incidental and almost invariably asymptomatic lesions. It is unclear in much of the literature whether they represent a distinct entity from adult choroid plexus cysts, but they share imaging characteristics and are only likely to be distinguishable on...
Article

Choroidal detachment

Choroidal detachment is a detachment of the choroid from the underlying sclera due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and occurs in some settings: transudative: trauma exudative: fluid accumulating in the suprachoroidal space secondary to many causes, most commonly inflammation (e.g. uve...
Article

Choroidal epithelial cells

Choroidal epithelial cells are one of the three types of ependymal cells, themselves a type of glial cell. They cover the surface of the choroid plexus 1. 
Article

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired demyelinating disease involving peripheral nerves, and is generally considered the chronic counterpart to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).  Clinical presentation Patients typically present with a gradual and protracted (> 2 ...
Article

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS)

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an uncommon and only recently described disorder characterised by infiltration of the brain by inflammatory cells. It has a predilection for the pons, with fairly characteristic curvilinea...
Article

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy that is thought to result from mild repetitive head trauma.  Epidemiology The exact incidence and prevalence is unknown. It is most commonly seen in amateur and professional sports players where head contact is common (e.g...
Article

Clear cell meningioma

Clear cell meningiomas are a histological variant of meningioma with poorer prognosis and a higher rate of recurrence. They are therefore considered WHO grade 2 tumours, regardless of mitotic index, cellular atypia/anaplasia, or presence of brain invasion.  Epidemiology Clear cell meningiomas ...
Article

Clinically unclassifiable parkinsonism

Clinically unclassifiable parkinsonism (CUP) is a term applied to patients who have some parkinsonism features, but who do not fulfil clinical criteria for a particular disorder such as:  Parkinson disease  progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)  multiple system atrophy (MSA-P)   corticobasal ...
Article

CNS capillary telangiectasia

CNS capillary telangiectasiae(s) are small, asymptomatic low flow vascular lesions of the brain.  Epidemiology As these lesions are asymptomatic, diagnosis usually matches the age of first imaging with MRI, and as such are most frequently found in middle-aged and elderly adults. Their incidenc...
Article

CNS cryptococcosis

CNS cryptococcosis results from infection of the central nervous system with the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It is the most common fungal infection and second most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. For a general discussion of infection with this organi...
Article

CoA synthase protein associated neurodegeneration

CoA synthase protein associated neurodegeneration (CoPAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Clinical presentation Patients typically present with a variety of symptoms including spastic-dystonic paraparesis, Parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, obsessive-compul...
Article

Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localised to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
Article

Cochlear incomplete partition type I

Cochlear incomplete partition type I  (IP-I) is a type of cochlear anomaly associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Radiographic features CT The main findings on CT are: absent modiolus absent interscalar septum wide (most common) or normal cochlear nerve canal Absence of these structu...
Article

Congenital muscular dystrophies (central nervous system manifestations)

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies presenting at birth with hypotonia, delayed motor development, and early onset of progressive muscle weakness, confirmed with a dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy.  Clinical presentation There is...
Article

Connatal cyst

Connatal cysts, also known as coarctation of the lateral ventricles or frontal horn cysts, are cystic areas adjacent to the superolateral margins of the body and frontal horns of the lateral ventricles and are believed to represent a normal variant. Epidemiology Incidence of 0.7% in low birth ...
Article

Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Pathology The conus medullari...
Article

Corpus callosum impingement syndrome

Corpus callosum impingement syndrome (CCIS) is caused by impingement of the corpus callosal fibers against inferior free margin of the falx cerebri due to longstanding and severe hydrocephalus and stretching of the lateral ventricles. this results in ischaemia and eventually atrophy of the neura...
Article

Cortical laminar necrosis

Cortical laminar necrosis, also known as pseudolaminar necrosis, is necrosis of neurons in the cortex of the brain in situations when supply of oxygen and glucose is inadequate to meet regional demands. This is often encountered in cardiac arrest, global hypoxia and hypoglycaemia.  Terminology ...
Article

Cortical vein thrombosis

Cortical vein thrombosis, also known as superficial cerebral vein thrombosis, is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the superficial cerebral veins besides the dural sinus, often coexisting with deep cerebral vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis. It has different clinica...
Article

Cowdry bodies

Cowdry bodies are neuronal intranuclear inclusions seen in Herpes simplex virus infections.
Article

Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis refers to premature closure of the cranial sutures. The skull shape then undergoes characteristic changes depending on which suture(s) close early. Epidemiology There is a 3:1 male predominance. Pathology Primary forms are either sporadic or familial. Secondary craniosynosto...
Article

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a spongiform encephalopathy that results in a rapidly progressive dementia and other non-specific neurological features and death usually within a year or less from onset.   On imaging, it classically manifests as T2/FLAIR hyperintensities within the basal gan...
Article

Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, a globally distributed fungus that is commonly found in soil, especially that containing pigeon and avian droppings. Infection is acquired by inhaling spores of fungus.  Epidemiology Occurs worldwide without any defined en...
Article

CSF rhinorrhoea

CSF rhinorrhoea refers to a symptom of CSF leakage extracranially into paranasal sinuses. It can occur whenever there is osseous or dural defect of the skull base. Pathology Aetiology acquired chronic elevated ICP (pseudotumour cerebri) with medial sphenoid meningocoele formation traumatic:...
Article

CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is an imaging technique used to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea or CSF otorrhea (CSF leaks), as CT allows the assessment of the bones of the base-of-skull.  Procedure pre-contrast CT is performed with thin slices 3-10 mL of an iodinated nonionic low-osmolar con...
Article

Cystic glioblastoma

Cystic glioblastoma is a descriptive term for one form of glioblastoma that contains a large cystic component, rather than being a pathological subtype.  Please refer to the main article on glioblastoma for a broad discussion on this tumour.  Radiographic features The main challenge in discri...
Article

Cytotoxic cerebral oedema

Cytotoxic cerebral oedema refers to a type of cerebral oedema, most commonly seen in cerebral ischaemia, in which extracellular water passes into cells, resulting in their swelling.  The term is frequently used in clinical practice to denote the combination of both true cytotoxic (cellular) oed...
Article

Dandy-Walker continuum

Dandy-Walker continuum, also referred as Dandy-Walker spectrum or Dandy-Walker complex, corresponds to a group of disorders believed to represent a continuum spectrum of posterior fossa malformations, characterised by a combined posterior fossa cyst communicating with the fourth ventricle as wel...
Article

Dandy-Walker variant

Dandy-Walker variant (DWv) is a less severe posterior fossa anomaly than the classic Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and is considered being on the lesser end of the disease spectrum in the Dandy-Walker continuum. Terminology This term was created to include those malformations that do not mee...
Article

Dehiscent jugular bulb

Dehiscent jugular bulbs are present when the sigmoid plate between a high riding jugular bulb and the middle ear is absent, allowing the wall of the jugular bulb to bulge into the middle ear cavity. Epidemiology The estimated incidence may be around 3.5-7 % of the symptomatic population (e.g. ...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.