Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

205 results found
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14-3-3 protein

14-3-3 protein is found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and is currently used to help identify patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD).  In diagnosing sCJD, the sensitivity of 14-3-3 protein is 92% and its specificity is 80% 1. A negative 14-3-3 assay may be helpful in reducin...
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1p19q codeletion

1p19q codeletion stands for the combined loss of the short arm chromosome 1 (i.e. 1p) and the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q) and is recognised as a genetic marker predictive of therapeutic response to both chemotherapy and combined chemoradiotherapy and overall longer survival in patients with ...
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2-hydroxyglutarate

2-hydroxyglutarate is a metabolite that accumulates in the brains of patients with IDH-1 mutated (IDH-1 positive) brain tumours, particularly diffuse low-grade gliomas. Although not in widespread clinical use, it is likely that 2-hydroxyglutarate, which resonates at 2.25 ppm, will be able to be ...
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Alzheimer type I glia

Alzheimer type I glia are a type of glial cell. They are large multinucleated astrocytes encountered in glial tumours and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) 1. 
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Alzheimer type II glia

Alzheimer type II glia are a type of glial cell. They are a pathological reactive astrocyte seen in the brain, unrelated to Alzheimer disease. They are seen most frequently in Wilson disease, but also in other systemic metabolic disorders, particularly those with elevated ammonia levels, typical...
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Astrocytes

Astrocytes are cells of the central nervous system which act as both physical and physiological support for the neurones that are embedded between them. They are particularly abundant in the grey matter, where they are the most abundant glial cells 1. They are highly branched and contribute to ...
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Choristoma

A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...
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Cowdry bodies

Cowdry bodies are neuronal intranuclear inclusions seen in Herpes simplex virus infections.
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Ependymal cells

Ependymal cells are one of the four main types of glial cells, and themselves encompass three types of cells 1:  ependymocytes: line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord tanycytes: line the floor of the third ventricle choroidal epithelial cells: line the surface o...
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Ependymal rosettes (ependymoma)

Ependymal rosettes correspond to a histologic architectural pattern that very characteristic of ependymomas, as tumour cells form structures similar to the lining of normal ventricles. They are characterised by a halo or spoke-wheel arrangement of tumour cells surrounding an empty central tubule...
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Ependymocytes

Ependymocytes are one of the three types of ependymal cells, which in turn are one of the four principles types of glial cells, and are found lining the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord 1.  They do not form a water-tight barrier between the cerebral spina...
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Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)

Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) is a commonly used target for immunohistochemisty, found on the surface of many epithelial cells and thus present in a wide variety of tumours. It also is sometimes seen within the cytoplasm of cells (e.g. perinuclear dot in ependymomas). 
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Fibrillary astrocytoma

Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type of diffuse low grade astrocytoma and as of the 2016 update to WHO classification of CNS tumours it no longer exists as a distinct entity, having been incorporated into the generic term diffuse astrocytoma 6.  Terminology Unlike the other variant...
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Flexner-Wintersteiner rosette

The presence of Flexner-Wintersteiner rosette is characteristic for retinoblastoma but is also seen in pineoblastoma and medulloepitheliomas. 
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Germinoma

The term germinoma usually refers to a tumour of the brain (WHO Classification of CNS tumours), but can also refer to similar tumours of the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma All three tumours share similar histology. 
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Glial cells

Glial cells, or neuroglia, are cells that surround the neurones of the central nervous system embedded between them, providing both structural and physiological support 1-3.  Together they account for almost half of the total mass 1 and 90% of all cells of the central nervous system 3. Glial ce...
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Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)

Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) is a commonly used target for immunohistochemistry and is positive in many glial cells and tumours of glial origin. GFAP is the building block for intermediate filaments which are abundant in the cytoplasms particularly of astrocytes. 
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Gliomatosis cerebri

Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare growth pattern of diffuse gliomas that involves at least three lobes by definition. There often is an important discordance between clinical and radiological findings, as it may be clinically silent while it appears as a very extensive process radiologically. Impor...
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Gliosarcoma

Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastoma (along with epithelioid glioblastoma and giant cell glioblastoma) recognised in the current (2016) WHO classification of CNS tumours 9. They are highly malignant (WHO grade IV) primary intra-axial neoplasms with both glial and mesenchymal elements. Ter...
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Gliosis

Gliosis is the focal proliferation of glial cells in the CNS in response to insult. By strict definition, gliosis is not synonymous with encephalomalacia which is the end result of liquefactive necrosis of brain parenchyma following an insult. Radiologically they share similar features and is of...
Article

Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular mus...
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Glomus tympanicum paraganglioma

Glomus tympanicum paragangliomas (chemodectomas) are the most common middle ear tumour.  Epidemiology There is a female predominance (M:F = 1:3); presentation is most common when patients are more than 40 years old 1,2.  Clinical presentation May be incidental but symptomatic masses produce ...
Article

Granular cell tumour of the pituitary region

Granular cell tumour of the pituitary region, also known as a pituitary choristoma, are rare low-grade tumours of the posterior pituitary and infundibulum.  Terminology Care must be taken when reading older literature as granular cell tumours of the pituitary region, and alternative names incl...
Article

Granulocytic sarcoma

Granulocytic sarcoma (also called myeloid sarcoma and chloroma) is a rare neoplasm comprised of myeloid precursor cells. It can occur in association with: acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) other myeloproliferative disorders such as myelofibrosis with myeloid meta...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, is a multisystem systemic necrotising non-caseating granulomatous vasculitis affecting small to medium sized arteries, capillaries and veins, with a predilection for the respiratory system and kidneys 3. This ar...
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Hemifacial hypertrophy

Hemifacial hyperplasia or hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental anomaly characterised by asymmetric growth of hard and soft tissues of the face 1. Epidemiology These asymmetries are often noted at birth and are usually accentuated with increasing age, especially around puberty 2. The...
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Hemimegalencephaly

Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital disorder of cortical formation with hamartomatous overgrowth all or a part of a cerebral hemisphere. This results from either increased proliferation or decreased apoptosis (or both) of developing neurons 2. Epidemiology Hemimegalencephaly is a cryptogen...
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Hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy (also known as portosystemic encephalopathy) refers to a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities occurring in patients with liver dysfunction and portal hypertension. It results from exposure of the brain to excessive amounts of ammonia. Terminology Hepatic encephalop...
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Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterised by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Worldwide prevale...
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HIV/AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immunosuppressed state, caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterised by opportunistic infections, neoplasms and neurological manifestations. Epidemiology According to the United Nations programme on HIV/AID...
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Homer Wright rosettes

Homer Wright rosettes are differentiated tumour cells grouped around a central region containing neuropil (therefore its association with tumors of neuronal origin). Pathology Examples of tumours where these can be seen include: medulloblastoma (the presence of Homer Wright rosettes in a post...
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Hydrocephalus ex vacuo

Hydrocephalus ex vacuo, also known as compensatory enlargement of the CSF spaces, is a term used to describe the increase in the volume of CSF, characterised on images as an enlargement of cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces, caused by encephalic volume loss. Terminology It can be clas...
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Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state

Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) (previously known as hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma (HONK)) is a serious metabolic derangement that can occur in patients with diabetes mellitus, predominantly those with type 2. While there are no distinct imaging features, it is useful for a radiologist t...
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Hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage

Hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages are common. In fact, hypertension is the most common cause of intracerebral haemorrhages. They can be conveniently divided according to their typical locations which include, in order of frequency:  basal ganglia haemorrhage (especially the putamen) thal...
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Hypertensive microangiopathy

Hypertensive microangiopathy, also referred to as chronic hypertensive encephalopathy (not to be confused with acute hypertensive encephalopathy, better known as PRES) results for the sustained effects of elevated systemic blood pressure on the brain.  Radiographic features MRI The key findin...
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Hypertrophic olivary degeneration

Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare condition characterised by a unique pattern of trans-synaptic degeneration. It is caused by a lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, resulting in hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus. The three corners of the triangle are: red n...
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Hypoglycaemic encephalopathy

Hypoglycaemic encephalopathy is a brain injury that results from prolonged or severe hypoglycaemia.  On imaging, it can manifest on MRI as bilateral areas of increased signal on both T2 and FLAIR affecting the posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral cortex (in particular parieto-occipi...
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Hyrtl’s fissure

Hyrtl's fissure (also known as tympanomeningeal fissure) is a congenital infra-labyrinthic fissure. It is a very rare cause of spontaneous CSF ottorhoea and meningitis. Development This fissure is present in the developing fetal petrous temporal bone and is typically ossified by 24 weeks. Rad...
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Intermediary injury

Intermediary injuries affect the basal ganglia and/or thalami and are associated with diffuse axonal injury and poor prognosis.  Pathology They are a shearing injury of the lenticulostriate arteries and result in haemorrhagic contusions, which are often bilateral. Radiographic features CT h...
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Intracranial dermoid cyst

Intracranial dermoid cysts are uncommon lesions with characteristic imaging appearances. They can be thought of as along the spectrum: from epidermoid cysts at one end (containing only desquamated squamous epithelium) and teratomas at the other (containing essentially any kind of tissue from all...
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Intracranial neuroentric cyst

Neurenteric cysts are developmental CNS lesions arising from endoderm.  Pathology They result from incomplete resorption of the neurenteric canal, a temporary connection between yolk sac and amnion during early embryogenesis. Intracranial neuroentric cysts are extra axial and in 80% of cases a...
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Intracranial tuberculous abscess

Intracranial tuberculous abscesses are an uncommon manifestation of CNS tuberculosis, far less frequently encountered than tuberculous meningitis or tuberculomas. Epidemiology The epidemiology of patients with tuberculous abscesses is essentially the same as that of other CNS manifestations of...
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Intracranial tuberculous granuloma

Intracranial tuberculous granulomas (also known as CNS tuberculomas) are common in endemic areas, and may occur either in isolation or along with with tuberculous meningitis. Epidemiology The epidemiology of patients with tuberculomas is the same as that of other CNS manifestations of tubercul...
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Intradiploic epidermoid cyst

Intradiploic epidermoid cysts represent epidermoid cysts that occur in the intradiploic space of the skull. Clinical presentation Painless slowly progressive scalp swelling. Pathology epidermoid cysts may be congenital (most common, arising from ectodermal inclusion during neural tube closur...
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Intradural extramedullary metastases

Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases. Please refer on leptomeningeal metastases (brain) to a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement. Epidemiology The age at presentation depends on tumour typ...
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Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
Article

Intraosseous meningioma

Intraosseous meningioma, also referred as primary intraosseous meningioma, is a rare subtype of meningioma that accounts for less than 1% of all osseous tumours. They fall under the subgroup of primary extradural meningiomas. Terminology It is important to note that it has been argued by some ...
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Intrasphenoidal encephalocele

Intrasphenoidal encephaloceles represent encephaloceles which extend into the sphenoid sinus yet confined by its floor 1. Clinical presentation Patients present with spontaneous cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea.  Pathology Intrasphenoidal encephaloceles are divided into medial perisell...
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Intravascular lymphoma

Intravascular lymphoma (IVL), also known as intravascular lymphomatosis, corresponds to a rare variant of extranodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma that affects small and medium sized vessels, and has no specific clinical or laboratory findings. CNS and skin manifestations are the most common for...
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Intraventricular metastases

Intraventricular metastases are a very rare finding. A few intracranial tumours and some extracranial tumours metastasize to the ventricles. The most common site of intraventricular metastasis is the trigone of the lateral ventricles due to high vascularity of the choroid plexuses. The next most...
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Ischaemic stroke

Ischaemic stroke results from a sudden cessation of adequate amounts of blood reaching parts of the brain. Ischaemic strokes can be divided according to territory affected or mechanism. Epidemiology Stroke is the second most common cause of morbidity worldwide (after myocardial infarction) and...
Article

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations are increasingly being recognised as key genetic prognostic markers for diffuse gliomas, and have been included in a recent (2016) update of diffuse astrocytomas in the WHO classification of brain tumours 7. Somatic mutations of IDH result in enchond...
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Isolated inferior vermian hypoplasia

Isolated inferior vermian hypoplasia (IIVH), also referred as part of Dandy-Walker variant (DWV), is a congenital malformation characterised by partial absence of the inferior portion of the cerebellar vermis. Terminology The term Dandy-Walker variant was created to include those malformations...
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John Cunningham virus

John Cunningham (JC) virus is a ubiquitous double-stranded DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family 1. It is the aetiological agent of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Epidemiology It was reported that ~70% of adults have been exposed to this virus; however, no clinical synd...
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Jugular foramen schwannoma

Jugular foramen schwannomas are a rare type of intracranial schwannoma that presents as a jugular fossa mass involving the jugular foramen. Epidemiology In those without neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), they tend to present between the 3rd to 6th decades of life. There is a recognised female pr...
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Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNA) are a rare benign but locally aggressive vascular tumour. Epidemiology Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas occur almost exclusively in males and usually in adolescence (~15 years). They account for only 0.5% of all head and neck tumours 2, but are ...
Article

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare organic aciduria but has characteristic MRI findings especially in the early stages 1. This can allow for early diagnosis, often prior to biochemical investigations. Epidemiology As it is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, consanguineous marriag...
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Lenticulostriate vasculopathy

Lenticulostriate vasculopathy (LSV), also known as thalamostriate or mineralising vasculopathy 1, refers to the ultrasound appearance of hyperechogenic linear or branching tubular streaks in the thalami or basal ganglia of neonates. Epidemiology LSV has been reported on roughly 2-5% of neonata...
Article

Leptomeningeal cyst

Leptomeningeal cysts, also known as growing skull fractures, are an enlarging skull fracture that occurs near post-traumatic encephalomalacia. The term cyst is actually a misnomer, as it is not a cyst, but an extension of the encephalomalacia. Hence, it is usually seen a few months post-trauma. ...
Article

Lipoma of the filum terminale

Fatty filum terminale, also known as lipoma of the filum terminale or filar lipoma, is a relatively common finding on imaging of the lumbar spine, and in most cases is an incidental finding of no clinical concern. However, in some patients it may be associated with signs and symptoms of tethered...
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Lipomyelomeningocele

Lipomyelomeningoceles are one of the forms of closed spinal dysraphism. They usually present as a subcutaneous fatty mass just above the intergluteal cleft. However, some lipomyelomeningoceles may occur at other locations along the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Lipomyelomeningoceles may ...
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Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist of fluid with remains...
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Lissencephaly type II

Lissencephaly type II is characterised by reduction in normal sulcation, associated with a bumpy or pebbly cortical surface (thus the term cobblestone lissencephaly), absent in lissencephaly type I. Unlike type I lissencephaly which is the result of neuronal undermigration, type II is due to ove...
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Lissencephaly type I - subcortical band heterotopia spectrum

Lissencephaly type I, also known as classic lissencephaly, is a heterogeneous group of disorders of cortical formation characterised by a smooth brain, with absent or hypoplastic sulci and is strongly associated with subcortical band heterotopia (see classification system for cortical malformati...
Article

Lobar haemorrhage

Lobar haemorrhage is a subtype of intracranial haemorrhage, which generally carries a poor prognosis. Epidemiology Primary lobar haemorrhages (usually due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy) are typically seen in elderly. Younger patients may also develop lobar haemorrhages, but in such cases they...
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Logopaenic dementia

Logopaenic dementia is an uncommon clinical variant of Alzheimer's disease and is a subtype of primary progressive aphasia, which itself is a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Terminology It is important to note, that the terminology of and classification of these related co...
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Luckenschadel skull

Luckenschadel skull, also known as lacunar skull or craniolacunae, is a dysplasia of the membranous skull vault and is associated with Chiari II malformations (seen in up to 80% of such cases). The inner table is more affected than the outer, with regions of apparent thinning (corresponding to n...
Article

Lymphocytic hypophysitis

Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH) is an uncommon non-neoplastic inflammatory condition that affects the pituitary gland. It is closely related to other inflammatory conditions in the region, namely orbital pseudotumour and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Epidemiology Lymphocytic hypophysitis is seen most fr...
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Lymphoma of the spinal cord

Lymphoma of the spinal cord is an uncommon manifestation of lymphoma. Although lymphoma more commonly involves the vertebral body (vertebral body tumours) or epidural compartment, intramedullary lymphoma may rarely occur.   Apparent intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma may often, in fact, repres...
Article

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG), also known as angiocentric lymphoma or angiocentric immunoproliferative lesion, is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Pathology There is a recognised association with antecedent infection with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV).   It can affect a variety of org...
Article

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (CNS manifestations)

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the central nervous system is uncommon, but represents the second most common site of involvement in patients with systemic lymphomatoid granulomatosis, after the lungs, which are most commonly involved. It is considered one of the immunodeficiency-associated CNS l...
Article

Medulloepithelioma

Medulloepitheliomas are rare, highly malignant, primitive embryonic tumor derived from the primitive medullary plate and neural tube. It is essentially a tumor of childhood with the age of onset between 6 months and 5 years. Pathology Medulloepitheliomas are classified as embryonal tumours in ...
Article

Meningothelial hyperplasia

Meningothelial hyperplasia is a poorly defined and likely reactive process characterised by a non-invasive, multicentric proliferation of meningothelial arachnoid cap cells. It is one of the causes of pachymeningeal dural thickening. It is not thought to a neoplastic process or even a precursor ...
Article

Meningothelial meningioma

Meningothelial meningioma (also known as syncytial or endothelial meningiomas) is the most common histological subtype of meningioma, found in ~60% of all meningiomas, most frequently combined with fibrous meningioma (40%) or in isolation (17%) 1.  Their epidemiology, clinical presentation, rad...
Article

Metachromatic leukodystrophy

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is the most common hereditary (autosomal recessive) leukodystrophy and is one of the lysosomal storage disorders. It has characteristic imaging features including peri-atrial and to a lesser extent frontal horns leukodystrophy as well as periventricular periven...
Article

Methanol poisoning

Methanol poisoning is a cause of an acute toxic leukoencephalopathy that also has eventual chronic sequelae.  Epidemiology Methanol poisoning or intoxication is rare, and often occurs after suicidal or accidental oral ingestion of methanol-containing agents, or after consumption of adulterated...
Article

Methotrexate-related leukoencephalopathy

Methotrexate-related leukoencephalopathy, resulting from administration of the drug methotrexate, is an uncommon yet important type of toxic encephalopathy. Methotrexate is administered via oral, intravenous, or intrathecal routes for many clinical indications, but its use as a chemotherapy agen...
Article

Microcystic meningioma

Microcystic architecture is a rare meningioma variant which leads to atypical imaging appearances and thus can pose a diagnostic challenge. They should not be confused with cystic meningiomas, which represent a variant where large cysts are present within or adjacent to the tumour.   These tumo...
Article

Microglia

Microglia are one of the four types of glial cell and are the central nervous system equivalent of monocyte-macrophage system 1,2. During health, they are essentially inactive with small cell bodies and numerous processes extending throughout the local parenchyma 1,2. When presented a condition ...
Article

Mild malformation of cortical development

Mild malformations of cortical development (mMCD), previously known as microdysgenesis 4, correspond to microscopic malformations of cortical development with heterotopic neurones and an abnormal cortical architecture 1.  For a broader view on malformations of cortical development refer on clas...
Article

Miliary cerebral metastases

Miliary cerebral metastases (or carcinomatosis encephalitis ) is a rare form of cerebral metastastic disease 1.   As with the use of miliary description in other conditions, the appearances are of innumerable tiny, punctate nodules, in this case scattered throughout the brain. The nodules may b...
Article

Mitochondrial membrane protein associated neurodegeneration

Mitochondrial membrane protein associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is an autosomal recessive form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Clinical presentation Lower limb spacity, dysarthria, dysphagia, dystonia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, optic atrophy, Parkinsonism and cogn...
Article

Motor neurone disease

Motor neurone diseases (MND) correspond to a group of neurological disorders that progressively destroy motor neurones, leading to increasing disability: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primary lateral sclerosis progressive muscular atrophy progressive bulbar palsy pseudobulbar palsy
Article

Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic, non inflammatory, non atherosclerotic progressive vasculo-occlusive disease involving the circle of Willis, typically the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries.  Terminology The term moyamoya disease should be reserved for an idiopathic, sometimes familial, ...
Article

Multicentric glioblastoma

Multicentric glioblastomas are uncommon and represent tumours which have multiple discrete areas of contrast enhancing tumour without connecting T2/FLAIR signal abnormality. They are considered to represent separate synchronous tumours. It must be noted that as imaging has improved, the frequenc...
Article

Multicystic encephalomalacia

Multicystic encephalomalacia (MCE) corresponds to a variant of encephalomalacia commonly seen in neonates in which numerous loculated lacy pseudocysts within the white matter and cortex are present as a result of an extensive brain insult.  It is a common feature observed in the neonatal hypoxi...
Article

Multifocal glioblastoma

Multifocal glioblastomas are tumours which have multiple discrete areas of contrast enhancing tumour embedded with, or connected by, T2/FLAIR signal abnormality. They are considered to be part of the one tumour.  Multifocal glioblastomas have been shown to have a poorer prognosis than solitary ...
Article

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumours

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumour (MVNT) is a newly recognised cytoarchitectural pattern in the recently revised 2016 edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumours. Radiologically, MVNTs appear as small 'bubbly' indolent subcortical tumours that sometimes present with seizures. Th...
Article

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a relatively common acquired chronic relapsing demyelinating disease involving the central nervous system, and is the second most common cause of neurological impairment in young adults, after trauma 19. Characteristically, and by definition, multiple sclerosis is diss...
Article

Multiple system atrophy

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disease (one of the synucleinopathies) characterised by varying degrees of cerebellar ataxia, autonomic dysfunction, parkinsonism and corticospinal dysfunction.  Epidemiology Multiple systemic atrophy is a sporadic disease, with a p...
Article

Multiple system atrophy (Parkinsonian manifestation)

The Parkinsonian type of multiple system atrophy, previously known as striatonigral degeneration, is a neurodegenerative disease, and one of the manifestations of multiple systemic atrophy (MSA). Terminology It is important to note that the current belief that olivopontocerebellar degeneration...
Article

Mycosis fungoides

Mycosis fungoides (MF), also known as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, is a type of malignant T-cell lymphoma that primarily involves the skin.  Epidemiology In the United States, it is more common in males and African Americans. In Europe, it accounts for ~6% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It is rar...
Article

Myelomeningocoele

Myelomeningocoele, also known as spina bifida cystica, is a complex congenital spinal anomaly that results in spinal cord malformation (myelodysplasia).  Epidemiology It is one of the commonest congenital CNS anomalies and thought to occur in approximately 1:500 of live births 5. There may be ...

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