Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

252 results found
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Asbestosis

Asbestosis refers to later development of diffuse interstitial fibrosis secondary to asbestos fibre inhalation and should not be confused with other asbestos related diseases. Epidemiology Asbestosis typically occurs 10-15 years following the commencement of exposure to asbestos and is dose re...
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Ascending aortic aneurysm

Ascending aortic aneurysms are the most common subtype of thoracic aortic aneurysms, and may be true or false injuries.  Epidemiology Ascending aortic aneurysms represent 60% of thoracic aortic aneurysms.  Clinical presentation Typically ascending aortic aneurysms are an incidental finding a...
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Aspergillus clavatus

Aspergillus clavatus is one of the species of Aspergillus that can cause pathology in humans. It is allergenic and causes a hypersensitivity pneumonitis called malt-workers lung. See also Aspergillus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus clavatus
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Asthma

Asthma is a relatively common condition that is characterised by at least partially reversible inflammation of the airways and reversible airway obstruction due to airway hyper-reactivity. It can be acute, subacute or chronic. Epidemiology Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in t...
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Atrio-oesophageal fistula

Atrial-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, dysphagia or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of atrial-...
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Atypical pneumonia

Atypical pneumonia refers to the radiological pattern associated with patchy inflammatory changes, often confined to the pulmonary interstitium, most commonly associated with atypical bacterial aetiologies such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophilia. Viral...
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BALT lymphoma

BALT lymphoma is an abbreviated term for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. These neoplasms fall under the broader umbrella of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. It is sometimes considered a type of primary pulmonary lymphoma. Clinical presentation Up to half of pat...
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Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multi-systemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in...
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Benign metastasising leiomyoma

Benign metastasising leiomyoma (BML) is a rare metastatic phenomenon that is observed when a pelvic leiomyoma is present. Epidemiology Women who have undergone hysterectomy for leiomyomas are most commonly affected. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic at presentation. A h...
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Bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement

Bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement can arise from many causes, which include: sarcoidosis infection tuberculosis mycoplasma histoplasmosis coccidioidomycosis malignancy lymphoma: more common in hodgkin lymphoma than non-hodgkin lymphoma. carcinoma inorganic dust disease silicosis ...
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Bronchial anthracofibrosis

Bronchial anthracofibrosis has been defined as luminal bronchial narrowing associated with anthracotic pigmentation on bronchoscopy without a relevant history of pneumoconiosis or smoking. However, there is a potential relationship between bronchial anthracofibrosis and tuberculosis (TB) 1. Co-...
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Bronchial arterial aneurysm

Bronchial arterial aneurysm refers to any form of aneurysmal dilatation involving any segment of the bronchial artery. The term is sometimes used synonymously with a bronchial arterial pseudoaneurysm 2. Epidemiology They are a rare entity and are reported in <1% of those who undergo selective ...
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Bronchial carcinoid tumour

Bronchial carcinoid tumours are carcinoid tumours primarily occurring in relation to a bronchus. They were previously incorrectly termed as bronchial adenomas. They usually occur in association with a segmental or larger bronchus. Epidemiology Typically affects patients from 3rd to 7th decades...
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Bronchogenic cyst

Bronchogenic cysts are congenital malformations of the bronchial tree (a type of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation). They can present as a mediastinal mass that may enlarge and cause local compression. It is also considered the commonest of foregut duplication cysts. Epidemiology Bronchoge...
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Broncholithiasis

Broncholithiasis is a term given for the presence of calcified or ossified material within the lumen of the bronchus. Pathology A broncholith is usually formed by erosion by and extrusion of a calcified adjacent lymph node into the bronchial lumen and is usually associated with long-standing f...
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Bronchopneumonia

Bronchopneumonia, also sometimes known as lobular pneumonia, is a radiological pattern associated with suppurative peribronchiolar inflammation and subsequent patchy consolidation of one or more secondary lobules of a lung in response to bacterial pneumonia.  Epidemiology Pneumonia is the most...
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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) refers to late pathological lung changes that develop several weeks later in infants on prolonged ventilation. Terminology BPD and chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLDP) have often been used interchangeably to describe the condition post-treatment of premat...
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Calcifying fibrous pseudotumour of the lung

Calcifying fibrous pseudotumours (CFPT) of the lung are very rare, benign lesions of the lung.  Pathology They are composed of hyalinised collagen with psammomatous-dystrophic calcification and a typical pattern of lymphocytic inflammation.  CFPTs usually occur within soft tissues but have be...
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Caplan syndrome

Caplan syndrome, also known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, is the combination of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and a characteristic pattern of fibrosis. Although first described in coal miners (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), it has subsequently been found in patients with a variety of pneumo...
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Capnothorax

A capnothorax, sometimes referred to as a carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumothorax, has been reported as a potential complication with laparoscopic surgeries. Epidemiology It has been reported with almost all laparoscopic surgeries and is more likely to occur with high CO2 pressures and prolonged sur...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
Article

Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subty...
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Cellular nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis

Cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonia is one of the two histological subtypes of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). It is less common compared with fibrotic NSIP but carries a much better prognosis.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific and include insidious onset of...
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Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema

Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema is the most common morphological subtype of pulmonary emphysema. Epidemiology It may be found in up to one-half of adult smokers at autopsy 1. Pathology The pathological process of centrilobular emphysema typically begins near the centre of the secondary pul...
Article

Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with...
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Charcot-Leyden crystals

Charcot-Leyden crystals consist of collections of bipyramidal crystalloid made up of eosinophilic membrane proteins, which occur in:  asthma other eosinophilic lung disease 2 certain cases of sinusitis (e.g. allergic fungal sinusitis) They may be detected in the sputum or sinus secretions wi...
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Chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis (CB) is often defined as the presence of productive cough for three months in two successive years in a patient in whom other causes of chronic cough, such as tuberculosis, lung cancer and heart failure, have been excluded. It can be an important pathological component of chro...
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Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a type of eosinophilic lung disease. It is an idiopathic condition and is characterised by chronic and progressive clinical features. Epidemiology Most patients are middle aged, and approximately 50% have background asthma. There is a greater female pred...
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Chronic pulmonary embolism

Chronic pulmonary emboli are mainly a consequence of incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboembolism. Radiographic features CTPA vascular CT signs include direct pulmonary artery signs complete obstruction partial obstruction eccentric thrombus calcified thrombus - calcific pulmonary ...
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Clear cell tumour of the lung

Clear cell tumour of the lung is a rare benign pulmonary neoplasm that contains an abundant amount of glycogen. It is often classified under the spectrum of perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas). Radiographic features Usually seen as a rounded, smooth-walled, and peripheral parenchym...
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Coal workers' pneumoconiosis

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational disease (type of pneumoconiosis) caused by exposure to coal dust free of silica (washed coal). Histologically, CWP is classified according to disease severity into simple (presence of coal macules) and complicated (with progressive massive fi...
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Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localised to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
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Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are a possible new addition to a growing list of smoking-related lung disease characterised by the coexistence of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with emphysema in smokers. Epidemiology It typicall...
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Common variable immunodeficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a condition that is associated with an impaired immune system. It is considered the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, and is characterised by recurrent respiratory tract infections. Clinical presentation The commonest presentation is t...
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Common variable immunodeficiency (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of common variable immunodeficiency can be variable. The respiratory system is one of the most commenly affected systems in common variable immunodeficiency.  Radiographic disease spectrum CT chest bronchiectasis with interstitial lung disease could either be due to ...
Article

Complete tracheal rings

Complete tracheal rings are a rare, isolated tracheal or tracheobronchial anomaly resulting from abnormal cartilage growth, forming a complete ring and often causing airway stenosis. Clinical presentation Clinically, it manifests as respiratory distress in infants or mild symptomatic airway co...
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Congenital lobar overinflation

Congenital lobar overinflation (CLO), previously called congenital lobar emphysema, is a congenital lung abnormality that results in progressive overinflation of one or more lobes of a neonate's lung.  On imaging, it classically presents on chest radiographs as a hyperlucent lung segment with o...
Article

Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and oesophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/ge...
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Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potentially symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditi...
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Crack lung

Crack lung is a term used to describe one of the respiratory complications of smoked crack cocaine. Clinical presentation Patients present with sympathetic hyperactivity such as tachycardia, hypertension, dilated pupils, and chest pain, productive cough, dyspnoea, and hypoxaemia along with fev...
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Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, a globally distributed fungus that is commonly found in soil, especially that containing pigeon and avian droppings. Infection is acquired by inhaling spores of fungus.  Epidemiology Occurs worldwide without any defined en...
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Cystic hygroma

Cystic hygroma, also known as cystic or nuchal lymphangioma, refers to the cystic variety of congenital lymphangioma which, most commonly, occur in the cervicofacial regions, particularly at the posterior cervical triangle.  Epidemiology  They usually occur in the fetal/infantile and paediatri...
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Cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is a type of viral pneumonitis and occurs due infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), which is a member of the Herpetoviridae family. Epidemiology CMV infection is particularly important in those who are immunocompromised (e.g. those with AIDS / allogenic bone mar...
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Desquamative interstitial pneumonia

Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) is an interstitial pneumonia closely related to, and thought to represent the end stage of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) 1. It is associated with heavy smoking. Epidemiology It is considered one of the rarest of idiopathi...
Article

Diaphragmatic eventration

Diaphragmatic eventration refers to an abnormal contour of the diaphragmatic dome. It typically affects only a segment of the hemidiaphragm, compared to paralysis/weakness where the entire hemidiaphragm is typically affected.  Pathology Diaphragmatic eventration is congenital in nature and due...
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Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an extremely rare pulmonary disorder where there is a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is however recognised with increasing frequency. Epidemiology There may be an increased female predilection ...
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Diffuse panbronchiolitis

Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) or Asian panbronchiolitis is an idiopathic progressive inflammatory small airway obstructive lung disease. Epidemiology There is striking predilection in east Asia (e.g. Japan, Korea, China). It tends to present in middle aged (~ 30-60-year-old) adults, often non...
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Dysphagia lusoria

Dysphagia lusoria is an impairment of swallowing due to compression from an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). Clinical presentation Most patients with aberrant right subclavian arteries do not have symptoms. Some present with mild dysphagia, while a small minority have a seve...
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Elastofibroma dorsi

Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft-tissue tumour with a characteristic location and imaging appearance. Epidemiology It is more frequently seen in older women, with a reported female predilection of 5-13:1. The estimated mean age at diagnosis around 65-70 years. Clinical presentation Elast...
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Empyema necessitans

Empyema necessitans (also sometimes spelt as empyema necessitasis) refers to extension of a pleural infection out of the thorax and into the neighbouring chest wall and surrounding soft tissues, e.g. extension of an empyema outwith the pleural cavity. Pathology It may either occur due the viru...
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Endogenous lipoid pneumonia

Endogenous lipoid pneumonia, also known as idiopathic lipoid pneumonia, is of the of the two types of lipoid pneumonias. It is also sometimes known as “cholesterol pneumonia” or “golden pneumonia” Please refer to the main article for a broad discussion, including clinical presentation, radiogra...
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Epipericardial fat necrosis

Epipericardial fat necrosis is a rare self-limiting cause of an acute chest pain in an otherwise healthy individuals. It occurs within the mediastinum outside the pericardium. Clinical presentation The patient presents with an acute chest pain that may mimic other cardiopulmonary causes. It is...
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Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of lung

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of lung is a very rare type of lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type. Pathology Diagnosis is based on the identification of myoepithelial cells, with spindle cells, clear cells, or plasmacytoid differentiation or a mixture of phenotypes, along with a var...
Article

Erdheim-Chester disease

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell, non-familial multisystemic granulomatosis, with widespread manifestations and of highly variable severity. The most common presenting symptom is bone pain. Epidemiology Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare, non-inherited disease of midd...
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Erdheim-Chester disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Erdheim-Chester disease are uncommon. Epidemiology The lungs are affected in ~25% (range 20-35%) of cases 5.  Radiographic features HRCT chest Described findings include 1 symmetric reticular interstitial opacities smooth interlobular septal thickening and fiss...
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Ewing sarcoma (chest wall)

Ewing sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT), also referred as Ewing sarcomas of the chest wall, are malignant tumours affecting children and young adults, originating either from the osseous structures or the soft tissues of the chest wall.  On imaging, they are usually characterised as a large extr...
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Extrapleural haematoma

Extrapleural haematoma (EPH) is a rare situation, which usually occurs due to rib fracture or blunt chest injury. Pathology EPH results from accumulation of blood in the extrapleural space where the overlying extrapleural fat is displaced centrally. Aetiology common: injury to intercostal ar...
Article

Fat embolism syndrome

Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare clinical condition caused by circulating fat emboli leading to a multisystemic dysfunction. The classical clinical triad consists of: respiratory distress cerebral abnormalities petechial haemorrhages Epidemiology It occurs in ~2.5% (range 0.5-4%) of th...
Article

Fibrothorax

Fibrothorax is defined as fibrosis within the pleural space, and occurs secondary to the inflammatory response to one of the following events:   tuberculosis / tuberculous pleuritis - particularly as a late sequelae 3 thoracic empyema asbestos related pleural disease rheumatoid arthritis ha...
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Fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonitis

Fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonitis is a histological subtype of non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP). It is considered the more common form 1. This pattern manifests as chronic interstitial inflammation obscured by interstitial fibrosis (with dense collagen), a temporal homog...
Article

Flail chest

Flail chest or flail thoracic segment occurs when three or more contiguous ribs are fractured in two or more places. Clinically, a segment of only one or two ribs can act as a flail segment, hence there is some controversy between the clinical and radiological definitions. Clinical presentation...
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Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung

Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung refers to an abnormal accumulation of non-malignant lymphocytic aggregates within the lung.  Terminology It iwas previously known as pulmonary pseudolymphoma. Clinical presentation Clinical features can vary from being asymptomatic to various symptoms s...
Article

Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
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Graft versus host disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the thoracic manifestations that can complicate haematopoetic stem cell transplantation. Pulmonary GvHD can be broadly divided into acute and chronic disease 1-4: acute pulmonary GvHD pulmonary involvement is rare the median time of onset o...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, is a multisystem systemic necrotising non-caseating granulomatous vasculitis affecting small to medium sized arteries, capillaries and veins, with a predilection for the respiratory system and kidneys 3. This ar...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (pulmonary manifestations)

This article discusses the pulmonary manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis). It is classified as a type of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. For a general discussion of the condition, please refer to the main article on granulomato...
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Granulomatous lung disease

Granulomatous lung disease refers a broad group of infectious and well as non infections conditions characterised by formation of granulomas. The spectrum includes infectious mycobacterial pulmonary tuberculosis pulmonary non tuberculous mycobacterial infection fungal pulmonary coccidioid...
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H1N1 influenza

H1N1 influenza is a strain of influenza that notably resulted in a pandemic in 2009. Pathology It is type of influenza A virus of swine origin. Clinical presenation There can be a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes with patient's ranging from being asymptomatic to having fulminating viral p...
Article

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Epidemiology Worldwide prevalence ~1.5 per 100,000. Wide geographic variability with much higher incidence in certain regions, e.g. 1 in 200 in Dutch Antilles, 1 in 3500 in France. Clinical presentation ...
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Heroin induced pulmonary oedema

Heroin induced pulmonary oedema is an aetiological subtype of non cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. It may be prevalent in up to 40% of patients admitted with a heroin overdose 2. It is defined by some authors as a syndrome in which a patient develops significant hypoxia (room air saturation< 90% w...
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HIV/AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immunosuppressed state, caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterised by opportunistic infections, neoplasms and neurological manifestations. Epidemiology According to the United Nations programme on HIV/AID...
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Hodgkin lymphoma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Hodgkin lymphoma are relatively rare, present in  5-12% of patients at the time of diagnosis. It is relatively more common with the nodular sclerosing subtype. Pulmonary involvement usually indicates stage IV disease.  Radiographic features Bilateral involvement is ...
Article

Horseshoe lung

Horseshoe lung is one of the rare congenital anomalies of the lung. A band of pulmonary parenchyma is formed extending between the right and left lungs. The pulmonary tissue can be seen either anterior to the aorta or posterior to the pericardium at the caudal end. Pathology Associations card...
Article

Hyper IgE syndrome

Hyperimmunoglobulin E (hyper IgE) syndrome (HIES), also known as Job syndrome, consists of heterogeneous group of complex hereditary combined B- and T-cell immune deficiency diseases characterised by recurrent Staph aureus chest infections, characteristic coarse facial appearance and dental prob...
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Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk

Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital anomaly comprising of pulmonary trunk enlargement with or without dilatation of the right and left pulmonary arteries. For this diagnosis, exclusion of pulmonary and cardiac diseases (mainly pulmonary valve stenosis) and confirma...
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Idiopathic giant bullous emphysema

Idiopathic giant bullous emphysema, also known as vanishing lung syndrome (VLS), is characterised by giant emphysematous bullae, which commonly develop in the upper lobes and occupy at least one-third of a hemithorax. It is a progressive condition that is also associated with several forms of em...
Article

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a clinical syndrome and considered the most common and the most lethal form of pulmonary fibrosis corresponding to the histologic and imaging pattern of UIP. It is more common in middle age or elderly men and diagnosed by:  histological or imaging pattern ...
Article

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is an uncommon form of pulmonary haemosiderosis. It is characterised by the triad of haemoptysis iron deficiency anemia diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, usually represented by diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage The diagnosis is usually made by exclusion 1. ...
Article

IgG4-related lung disease

IgG4-related lung disease is a recently described condition. It may occur with or without systemic involvement. It is considered part of the spectrum of IgG-4 related disease. Radiographic features CT On HRCT of the chest, it may be categorised into four major subtypes 5: solid nodular type ...
Article

Incomplete double aortic arch

Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare vascular ring anomaly wherein a segment of the minor aortic arch, usually the left, is atretic.  Clinical presentation As in the case of other vascular rings, this anomaly can cause 1: stridor wheezing dysphagia Some patients may reach adulthood with...
Article

Infectious bronchiolitis

Infectious bronchiolitis refers to subtype of bronchiolitis where there is an definite infective precipitant. It falls under the sub group in inflammatory bronchiolitides and by some authors is considered a type of cellular bronchiolitis 3. It tends to be more clinically severe in children than ...
Article

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behaviour.  Epidemiology It can occur at any age and there is currently no recognised gender predilection. Pathology Composed of spindle cells (key ...
Article

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the lung

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the lungs are a location specific type of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours. Epidemiology They are very rare with their incidence reported at approximately 0.04-1% of all the pulmonary neoplasms 1. While it can affect any age group, around 25% of case...
Article

Intercostal lung hernia

Intercostal lung hernia is defined as protrusion of the lung beyond the confines of the thoracic cage. It is an uncommon entity. Clinical presentation Hernias which are symptomatic may cause dyspnoea, chest wall pain or a visible or palpable chest bulge (most common in intercostal lung hernias...
Article

Intercostal nerve neurilemmoma

Intercostal nerve neurilemmomas, also known as intercostal nerve schwannoma or neurinoma, are nerve sheaths encapsulated tumours affecting intercostal nerves.   Please refer to the article on schwannomas for a broad discussion about these tumours.  Epidemiology They account for less than 10% ...
Article

Interstitial thickening

Interstitial thickening is pathological thickening of the pulmonary interstitium and can be divided into: interlobular septal thickening intralobular septal thickening See also Interlobular septa secondary pulmonary lobules HRCT terminology
Article

Intrapulmonary lipoma

Intrapulmonary lipomas are rare fat containing benign lung lesions. Epidemiology They mostly occur in the adult population, with occurence in the paediatric population is extremely rare. Pathology As with all lipomas they are composed of adipose tissue. The origin of the peripheral intrapulm...
Article

Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of lung

Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of lung is a subtype of invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. It was formerly known as mucinous bronchoalveolar carcinoma. Pathology Mucinous carcinomas originate from columnar mucus-containing cells (c.f. non-mucinous tumours which arise from Clara cells or typ...
Article

Kaposi sarcoma

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-to-intermediate grade mesenchymal tumour that involves the lymphovascular system. The tumour can involve the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and musculoskeletal systems. Pathology There are four recognised variants 1: classic (chronic): multiple distal lowe...
Article

Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterised by an abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately 1 in 12,000-60,000 ...
Article

Kyste hydatique

This originally French article needs further translation and merging with the existing English article on hydatid disease. Le kyste hydatique est une affection parasitaire due au taenia granulosis, considérée comme une zoonose atteignant aussi bien l'homme que les animaux, notamment les carnivo...
Article

Langerhans cell

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally found in epithelial surfaces, lymph nodes and other organs, and can also be found elsewhere, particularly in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. ...
Article

Large cell carcinoma of the lung

Large cell carcinoma of the lung is one of the histological types of non-small cell carcinomas of the lung. Epidemiology It is thought to account for approximately 10% of bronchogenic carcinoma 1. Clinical presentation Patient presents with dyspnea, chronic cough and haemoptysis. Pathology ...

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