Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

174 results found
Article

Ascites

Ascites is defined as an abnormal amount of intraperitoneal fluid. Clinical presentation Patients with a large volume of ascites can present with abdominal distension (which may be painful), nausea, vomiting, dyspnoea and peripheral oedema 7, 9. Pathology Ascitic fluid is traditionally chara...
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Atrio-oesophageal fistula

Atrial-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, dysphagia or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of atrial-...
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Atrophic gastritis

Atrophic gastritis is a chronic condition of autoimmune and non-autoimmune aetiology.  Pathology Two types of atrophic gastritis have been described 1-3: type A: autoimmune gastric body and fundus atrophy secondary to antiparietal cell antibodies decreased secretion of acid and intrinsic fa...
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Autosplenectomy

Autosplenectomy denotes spontaneous infarction of the spleen with resulting hyposplenism. Epidemiology Autosplenectomy is most frequently encountered in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, although it has also been reported in pneumococcal septicaemia 1, and SLE 2. The demographics t...
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Barrett oesophagus

Barrett oesophagus is a term for intestinal metaplasia of the oesophagus. It is considered the precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Barrett oesophagus is thought to have a prevalence of 3-15% in patients with reflux oesophagitis. Mean age at diagnosis is 55 years old 5...
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Boerhaave syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome refers to an oesophageal rupture secondary to forceful vomiting and retching. Epidemiology It tends to be more prevalent in males, with alcoholism a risk factor. The estimated incidence is ~ 1:6000. Clinical presentation They are often associated with the clinical triad of...
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Bowel and mesenteric trauma

Bowel and mesenteric trauma can result from blunt force, penetrating and iatrogenic trauma. Epidemiology The bowel and mesentery are injured in ~2.5% (range 0.3-5%) of blunt force abdominal trauma 1,3,5,8. However not surprisingly, bowel and mesenteric injuries are more frequent after penetrat...
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Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstructions are common and account for 20% of admissions with "surgical abdomens". Radiology is important in confirming the diagnosis and identifying the underlying cause. Bowel obstructions are usually divided according to where the obstruction occurs, and since imaging appearances, und...
Article

CA 19-9 elevation

CA 19-9 is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepato-pancreatico-biliary origin. It is nonspecific, however, and can rise in both malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Elevation of serum CA 19-9 has been...
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Caecal bascule

Caecal bascule is an uncommon type of caecal volvulus. It occurs in a large and mobile caecum that folds up over itself resulting in closed obstruction to the caecal pole and appendix. Clinical presentation and treatment are not significantly different to the more common axial caecal volvulus. ...
Article

Caecal volvulus

Caecal volvulus describes torsion of the caecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and faecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Caecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat youn...
Article

Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
Article

Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subty...
Article

Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma...
Article

Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also referred as trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemic to Central and South America....
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Chalasia

Chalasia is a condition most commonly identified in infants and young children, and is related to congential incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing unrestricted reflux of gastric contents. This contrasts with achalasia, where there is restriction at the gastroesphageal junction...
Article

Cholecystoduodenal fistula

Cholecystoduodenal fistula refers to a fistulous connection between the gallbladder and the duodenum. It is considered the most common type of enterobiliary fistulation. Clinical presentation Can vary but some can present with Bouveret syndrome 3 or a gallstone ileus. Radiographic features C...
Article

Chronic mesenteric ischaemia

Chronic mesenteric ischaemia is an uncommon type of intestinal ischaemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three times more common in women. Clinic...
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Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis represents the end result of a continuous, prolonged, inflammatory and fibrosing process that affects the pancreas. This results in irreversible morphologic changes and permanent endocrine and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Epidemiology The most common cause of chronic p...
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Circumferential resection margin

The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a term used in rectal carcinoma excision surgery (such as total mesorectal excision (TME). Pathologic evaluation of the resection margin on the excised rectum has been considered important for determining the risk of local recurrence. A margin of ≤1...
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Clostridium difficile colitis

Clostridium difficile colitis, also known as pseudomembranous colitis, is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, and increasingly encountered in sick hospitalised patients. If undiagnosed and untreated, it continues to have high mortality. It may be classified as a form of infectious...
Article

Colon polyp

Colon polyps are mucosal outgrowths of the colon wall. They are of interest to physicians and radiologists because of the accepted progression of adenomatous polyps to colon carcinoma. Pathology adenomatous colon polyps tubular polyps tubulovillous polyps villous colon polyps dysplastic co...
Article

Colovaginal fistula

Colovaginal fistula is one form of genitourinary fistula. It is also sometimes classed under a type of gastro-intestinal fistula. Pathology It refers to a communication between the colon (practically the rectum or sigmoid colon) with the vagina. At times, specific terms are used dependent on ...
Article

Colovesical fistula

Colovesical fistulas are communications between the lumen of the colon and that of the bladder, either directly or via an intervening abscess cavity (foyer intermediaire). When the communication is between the rectum and urinary bladder, the term rectovesical fistula is used. Epidemiology The ...
Article

Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare anatomical abnormalities linked to abnormal embryological venous development. They can be extrahepatic or intrahepatic. In either case, the underlying abnormality is shunting of blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system thus avoid...
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Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and oesophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/ge...
Article

Cornual ectopic pregnancy

Cornual ectopic pregnancies are rare and represent a gestational sac within the cornua of a bicornuate or septate uterus.  Terminology Although sometimes interchangeably used with interstitial pregnancy, cornual pregnancy specifically refers to the presence of a gestational sac within a rudime...
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Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm is also known as cricopharyngeal achalasia, although some authors distinguish between these entities, and may present as a cause of dysphagia. Terminology There is confusing use of the terms cricopharyngeal muscle spasm, cricopharyngeal achalasia and cricopharyngea...
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CT hypotension complex

CT hypotension complex refers to the predominantly abdominal imaging features that occur in the context of profound hypotension. Multiple abdominal organs can display atypical appearances not related to the initial trauma but reflect alterations in perfusion secondary to hypovolemia which affect...
Article

De Garengeot hernia

De Garengeot hernia is defined as a femoral hernia containing the appendix. It is a rare phenomenon, with only 1% of all femoral hernias containing the appendix (and usually found incidentally at surgery), and only 0.08-0.13% containing an incarcerated acute appendicitis (sometimes detected on p...
Article

Desmoplastic small round cell tumour

Desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) is a rare and highly aggressive primary peritoneal malignancy. It is seen usually in young adoloscent and has male predominance with a mean survival of 2-3 years. Clinical presentation It usually presents with a palpable abdominal mass and abdominal...
Article

Diffuse oesophageal spasm

Diffuse/distal oesophageal spasm (DOS) is a motility disorder of the oesophagus. On barium swallow, DOS may appear as a corkscrew or rosary bead oesophagus, but this is uncommon. Manometry is the gold-standard diagnostic test.  Diffuse oesophageal spasm differs from hypercontracting oesophagus ...
Article

Diffuse peritoneal leiomyomatosis

Diffuse/disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL), also known as leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterised by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum. Epidemiology DPL is usual...
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Dorsal pancreatic agenesis

Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is an extremely rare congenital pancreatic anomaly.  While complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is extremely rare, partial agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is thought to be most common than ventral pancreatic agenesis 4. Clinical presentation While many pati...
Article

Duodenal diverticulitis

Duodenal diverticulitis is a rare, inflammatory complication of duodenal diverticula.  Clinical presentation While the vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, patients with diverticulitis usually present with epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting.  Radiographic features CT duodenal diver...
Article

Duodenitis

Duodenitis is a term given to inflammation of the duodenum. Pathology Aetiology A duodenitis can result from both intrinsic processes within the duodenum as well as from processes occuring outside the duodendum. It can occur from infective as well as non-infective inflammatory processes. Non...
Article

Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD) (also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola) is a viral haemorrhagic disease caused by the Ebola Filovirus. Ebola is an extremely virulent virus with case fatality rates of approximately 70% 1. Epidemiology First recognized in 1967 after polio vaccin...
Article

Emphysematous pancreatitis

Emphysematous pancreatitis is an unusual complication of acute pancreatitis caused by necrotising infection of the pancreas. It is associated with gas-forming bacteria and characterized by the presence of gas within or around the pancreas.  Pathology Infection with gas-forming bacteria such as...
Article

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas arise from the pancreatic islet cells and include some distinct tumours that match the cell type of origin.  Terminology Pancreatic endocrine tumours have commonly been referred to as "islet cell tumours", referring to the islets of Langerhans, from which they...
Article

Entero-enteric fistula

An entero-enteric fistula is one formed between two parts of the small bowel. The can result for a number of reasons most commonly with inflammatory bowel diease, in particular Crohns.
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Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an uncommon disease characterised by diffuse infiltration of any or all layers of gut wall by eosinophils.  Epidemiology  EG is an uncommon but not rare disease with slight male predominance, it can affect any age group but usually patients present in their...
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Epiphrenic diverticulum

Epiphrenic diverticula are pulsion diverticula of the distal oesophagus arising just above the lower oesophageal sphincter, more frequently on the right posterolateral wall. They are less frequent than traction mid oesophageal diverticula, but may have more clinical relevance.   Clinical prese...
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Extramural vascular invasion

Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by tumour. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of haematogenous spread.  Radiographic featur...
Article

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
Article

Faecaloma

A faecaloma is a mass of faeces most frequently noted in the rectum and sigmoid colon, that is much harder than a faecal impaction due to coprostasis. Pathology Usually, the faecal matter accumulates in the intestine, then stagnates and increases in volume until the intestine becomes deformed ...
Article

Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome

Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPS) is characterised by the presence of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon. It is the most common of the polyposis syndromes. Terminology Familial polyposis coli, attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome are all variants...
Article

Femoral hernia

A femoral hernia is a type of groin herniation and comprises of a protrusion of a peritoneal sac through the femoral ring into the femoral canal, posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament. The sac may contain preperitoneal fat, omentum, small bowel, or other structures. Epidemiology Ther...
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Fetal enteric duplication cyst

Fetal enteric duplication cysts are enteric duplication cysts presenting in utero. Pathology They result from an abnormal recanalisation of the gastrointestinal tract. They comprise of a two-layer smooth muscle wall and an internal epithelium of a respiratory or intestinal type. These cysts ma...
Article

Fibrosing colonopathy

Fibrosing colonopathy a condition characterised by progressive submucosal fibrosis, particularly of the proximal colon. It is associated with high dose lipase supplementation used to treat exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas, such as in treatment for cystic fibrosis. Epidemiology It is more...
Article

Fundic gland polyp

Fundic gland polyps (FGP) are the most common type of gastric polyp. Epidemiology FGPs occur most commonly in middle-aged females. They have been reported to be identified in ~1% of gastroscopies 3,4.  Clinical presentation FGPs are usually an asymptomatic, incidental finding 1.  Pathology ...
Article

Gallstone pancreatitis

Gallstone pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis caused by gallstones, specifically distal choledocholithiasis. Gallstones is the cause for 35-40% of acute pancreatitis but this number has a wide regional variance.  Epidemiology Gallstone pancreatitis has a higher incidence in women (compared to ...
Article

Gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma, commonly referred to as gastric cancer, refers to a primary malignancy arising from the gastric epithelium. It is the most common gastric malignancy.  Epidemiology Gastric cancer is rare before the age of 40, but its incidence steadily climbs after that and peaks in the...
Article

Gastric antral vascular ectasia

Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), also known as watermelon stomach, is a rare condition affecting the stomach. It is one of the diagnoses to consider in older patients with severe anaemia and occult or profuse gastrointestinal bleeding (especially in those with cardiac, liver, or renal dis...
Article

Gastric antral web

Gastric antral webs are a ring of mucosa in the distal stomach (gastric antrum) that can lead to gastric outlet obstruction. A circumferential ring of mucosa has also been termed a "gastric antral diaphragm". Epidemiology Gastric antral webs are rare. There is an association with trisomy 21 an...
Article

Gastric lipoma

Gastric lipomas are a location-specific subtype of gastrointestinal lipomas and represent a rare benign mesenchymal tumours of the stomach. They can be definitively diagnosed on CT.  Epidemiology Gastric lipomas are rare, accounting for <5% of gastrointestinal lipomas and <1% of all gastric ne...
Article

Gastric polyps

Gastric polyps are uncommon findings, even on endoscopy where they are encountered in only 2-6% of patients.  Pathology There are a number of gastric polyp subtypes 1-3: non-neoplastic polyps hyperplastic polyps virtually no malignant potential typically small (<1cm), multiple, and sessile...
Article

Gastric volvulus

Gastric volvulus is a specific type of volvulus that occurs when the stomach twists on its mesentery. It should be at least 180° and cause bowel obstruction to be called gastric volvulus. Merely gastric rotation on its root is not considered gastric volvulus. Epidemiology Organo-axial volvulus...
Article

Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumour and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In genera...
Article

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the oesophagus across the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS). Pathology Minor reflux disease In most patients with reflux disease, reflux is initiated...
Article

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis is relatively common, although symptomatic involvement is more rare. It is diagnosed if there is persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with endoscopic biopsy proven amyloid deposition. Epidemiology Tends to affect middle-aged and older patients.  Clinical pres...
Article

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias or angioectasias are one of the most common causes of occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding although they can commonly be an incidental finding.  Epidemiolo...
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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours (GI NETS) can be functional or non-functional: functional NETS can be challenging to localise as:  they are often small in size at the time of diagnosis  arise in many sites throughout the body non-functioning and/or malignant NETs often are larger at ...
Article

Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis refers to extra-abdominal herniation (evisceration) of fetal or neonatal bowel loops (and occasionally portions or the stomach and or liver) into the amniotic cavity through a para-umbilical abdominal wall defect.   Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 1-6 per 10,000...
Article

Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans. It is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase or beta-glucosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within the lysosomes of macrop...
Article

Geophagy

Geophagy is the intentional ingestion of earth, soil or clay and is a form of pica. This practice is not uncommon in the southern regions of the United States or provinces of Africa. It may be seen in pregnant or iron-deficient patients 3. Although geophagia may be seen in the context of a varie...
Article

Globus pharyngeus

Globus pharyngeus is the subjective feeling of a lump in the throat which can have a variety of causes. In modern practice globus is often evaluated by flexible nasoendoscopy in the first instance since many patients present to otolaryngology services. If no cause is identified or if nasoendosco...
Article

Glucagonoma

Glucagonomas are pancreatic endocrine tumours that secrete glucagon. Most lesions are malignant. Epidemiology They are rare with an incidence of 0.000005%. Equal incidence in middle-aged men and women.  Clinical presentation Most patients present with a necrolytic migratory rash and various ...
Article

Gossypiboma

A gossypiboma, also called textiloma or cottonoid, refers to a foreign object, such as a mass of cotton matrix or a sponge, that is left behind in a body cavity during an operation. It is an uncommon surgical complication. The manifestations and complications of gossypibomas are so variable tha...
Article

Graft versus host disease

Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a frequent complication of allogeneic post haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), commonly known as bone marrow transplantation. Anti-rejection drugs have reduced the incidence, although it does still frequently occur.  Pathology GvHD can present e...
Article

Haemangiopericytoma of the spleen

Haemangiopericytomas of the spleen are a very rare vascular neoplasm with only a few case reports available at the time of writing. Clinical presentation Splenic haemangiopericytomas are typically asymptomatic or can result in splenomegaly. Pathology These are a soft tissue vascular neoplasm...
Article

Haemochromatosis (pancreatic manifestations)

Pancreatic manifestations of haemochromatosis typically occur with primary haemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease.  Pathology Iron deposition can occur in the pancreas with primary hemochromatosis. Pancreatic involvement is uncommon in patients wi...
Article

Haemorrhagic pancreatitis

Haemorrhagic pancreatitis is a possible uncommon complication that can occur with pancreatitis and is characterised by bleeding within or around the pancreas. It is usually considered a late sequela of acute pancreatitis. Pathology Haemorrhage can occur in patients with severe necrotising panc...
Article

Haemosuccus pancreaticus

Haemosuccus pancreaticus, also known as pseudohaemobilia or haemoductal pancreatitis, is defined as upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage originating from the pancreatic duct into the duodenum via the ampulla of Vater, or major pancreatic papilla. Epidemiology male:female ratio is 7:1 high...
Article

Haggitt level

The Haggitt level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration from a malignant polypoidal lesion. Levels of invasion 0: carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma 1: invasion of the submucosa, but limited to the head of the polyp 2: invasion extending into the...
Article

Hepatic and splenic tuberculosis

Hepatic and splenic tuberculosis refers to tuberculosis affecting liver and spleen. It generally occurs due to spread from primary site of infection, commonly from pulmonary tuberculosis. Pathology Two types of lesions are known: micronodular (common) macronodular (rare) Radiographic featur...
Article

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast canc...
Article

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Epidemiology Worldwide prevalence ~1.5 per 100,000. Wide geographic variability with much higher incidence in certain regions, e.g. 1 in 200 in Dutch Antilles, 1 in 3500 in France. Clinical presentation ...
Article

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is an inherited condition which predisposes to a host of malignancies, including colorectal carcinoma. It is considered the most frequent form of hereditary colorectal cancer. Diagnosis requires evaluation using cl...
Article

Hereditary pancreatitis

Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare subtype of chronic pancreatitis that has an autosomal dominant inheritance. As a congenital condition, presentation with acute pancreatitis attacks typically occurs in childhood, and features of chronic pancreatitis with parenchymal and ductal calcifications and...
Article

Herpes oesophagitis

Herpes oesophagitis is one of the infectious oesophagitis that usually affects immunocompromised patients.  Epidemiology  It occurs as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with AIDS. It has also been described in immunocompetent individuals 3. Pathology...
Article

High-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms

High-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (HAMN) are rare mucinous tumours of the appendix showing high-grade cytologic atypia, c.f. low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMN). The distinction between both LAMN and HAMN is done on a histologic ground and those tumours basically look the sam...
Article

Hirschsprung disease

Hirschsprung disease is the most common cause of neonatal colonic obstruction (15-20%). It is commonly characterised by a short segment of colonic aganglionosis affecting term neonates, especially boys.  Epidemiology Hirschsprung disease affects approximately 1:5000-8000 live births. In short ...
Article

HIV oesophagitis

HIV oesophagitis is a possible cause of odynophagia in immunosuppressed patients with HIV. Epidemiology The actual incidence and prevalence of Idiopathic oesophagitis of HIV are unknown. Most of the patients have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and CD4 count <100 3. Clinical present...
Article

HIV/AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immunosuppressed state, caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterised by opportunistic infections, neoplasms and neurological manifestations. Epidemiology According to the United Nations programme on HIV/AID...
Article

Infectious colitis

Infectious colitis refers to inflammation of the colon due to an infective cause, including bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infections. Epidemiology In Western countries, bacterial infection is the most common cause, while in developing countries parasitic infection is much more common. ...
Article

Inguinal hernia

Inguinal herniation is a type of abdominal wall hernia 1. Epidemiology They are the commonest type abdominal wall herniation (up to 80% 3) and are most often acquired. There is recognised male predilection with a M:F ratio of up to 7:1 3. Classification It is broadly divided into two types: ...
Article

Insulinoma

Insulinomas are the most common sporadic endocrine tumour of the pancreas. Epidemiology Account for 40% of syndromic pancreatic endocrine tumours. Overall incidence of ~0.0003%. Clinical presentation Typically insulinomas present with Whipple's triad consisting of: fasting hypoglycemia (<50...
Article

Interstitial oedematous pancreatitis

Interstitial oedematous pancreatitis is one of the two subtypes of acute pancreatitis. It is normally referred to as "acute pancreatitis" or "uncomplicated pancreatitis" in day-to-day use. Please refer to the article on acute pancreatitis for further details. 
Article

Intestinal angioedema

Intestinal angioedema is oedema into the submucosal space of the bowel wall following protein extravasation from "leaky" vessels. It can affect both the small and large bowel. Clinical presentation Patients often present with nonspecific findings of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Patho...
Article

Intestinal malrotation

Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anatomical anomaly that results from an abnormal rotation of the gut as it returns to the abdominal cavity during embryogenesis. Although some individuals live their entire life with malrotated bowel without symptoms, the abnormality does predispose to mid...
Article

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6. Main duct type (see below) appears to present a decade or so earlier on average than bran...
Article

Intraperitoneal focal fat infarction

Intraperitoneal focal fat infarction (IFFI) refers to a group of self-limiting abdominal diseases where the primary insult is acute inflammation of intraperitoneal fat. They commonly mimic the more common causes of acute abdomen such as acute diverticulitis and acute appendicitis. The group incl...

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