Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

99 results found
Article

Bartholin gland abscess

Bartholin gland abscess is a complication that may result from an infected Bartholin gland cyst.  Radiographic features Abscesses are usually in a similar location to Bartholin gland cysts. Features of Bartholin gland abscess are otherwise similar to Bartholin gland cyst described in separate ...
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Benign metastasising leiomyoma

Benign metastasising leiomyoma (BML) is a rare metastatic phenomenon that is observed when a pelvic leiomyoma is present. Epidemiology Women who have undergone hysterectomy for leiomyomas are most commonly affected. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic at presentation. A h...
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Brenner tumour

Brenner tumours are an uncommon surface epithelial tumour of the ovary. It was originally known as a transitional cell tumour due to its histological similarity to the urothelium. Brenner tumours account for ~3% of ovarian epithelial neoplasms. They can very rarely occur in other locations, incl...
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CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
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Carcinoma of the cervix

Carcinoma of the cervix is a malignancy arising from the cervix and is considered the third most common gynaecologic malignancy (after endometrial and ovarian). Epidemiology It typically presents in younger women with the average age of onset at around 45 years.  Risk factors human papilloma...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
Article

Cesarean section scar diverticulum

Cesarean section scar diverticulums are a defect in the lower uterine cavity at the site of the cesarean section scar.  Clinical presentation mostly asymptomatic postmenstrual spotting in a study was found to be the only finding in patients with bleeding disturbances Radiographic features ...
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Choriocarcinoma

Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive, highly vascular tumour. When it is associated with gestation, it is often considered part of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease; it is then termed gestational choriocarcinoma. When it occurs in the absence of preceding gestation, it is termed non-...
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Collision tumour of the ovary

A collision tumour of the ovary is an uncommon ovarian neoplasm where there is co-existence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumours with no histologic admixture at the interface. Pathology The exact pathogenesis is not well known. They are most commonly composed of ovarian teratoma...
Article

Colovaginal fistula

Colovaginal fistula is one form of genitourinary fistula. It is also sometimes classed under a type of gastro-intestinal fistula. Pathology It refers to a communication between the colon (practically the rectum or sigmoid colon) with the vagina. At times, specific terms are used dependent on ...
Article

Corpus luteal cyst

Corpus luteal (CL) cysts are a type of functional ovarian cyst that results when a corpus luteum fails to regress following the release of an ovum. When associated with pregnancy, it is the most common pelvic mass encountered within the 1st trimester. There is also some overlap with the term "ha...
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Cystic endometrial hyperplasia

Cystic endometrial hyperplasia is the most common as well as the most benign form of endometrial hyperplasia. Radiographic features Ultrasound Typically shows endometrial thickening with associated cysts. Differential diagnosis For imaging appearences consider: prolonged proliferative phas...
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Diffuse peritoneal leiomyomatosis

Diffuse/disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL), also known as leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterised by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum. Epidemiology DPL is usual...
Article

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
Article

Endometrial atrophy

Endometrial atrophy is a response to a hypo-oestrogenic state. If it occurs after menopause it can be more specifically termed postmenopausal endometrial atrophy.  Clinical presentation While most patients are asymptomatic, endometrial atrophy is one of the commonest cause of postmenopausal bl...
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Endometrial carcinoma

Endometrial carcinoma is generally considered the most common gynaecological malignancy 1,5. It frequently presents with vaginal bleeding and both ultrasound and pelvic MRI are useful modalities for evaluation. Epidemiology Incidence peaks at around the 6th decade, though 12% of cases present ...
Article

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia refers to an increased proliferation of the endometrial glands relative to the stroma. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to the endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplasia affects women of a...
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Endometrial stromal tumours

Endometrial stromal tumours (EST) are an uncommon group of tumours arising from endometrial stromal cells. It accounts for <2% of all uterine malignancies and 10% of all uterine sarcomas. Epidemiology Half occur in premenopausal women, with most patients presenting in the 5th decade. Clinical...
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Endometrial thickness

Endometrial thickness is a commonly measured parameter on routine gynaecological ultrasound and MR imaging. The appearance, as well as the thickness of the endometrium, will depend on whether the patient is of reproductive age or post-menopausal and, if of reproductive age, at what point in the ...
Article

Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium

Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common histological subtype of endometrial carcinoma accounts for 85-90% of cases. It is considered a type I carcinoma of the uterus with slow progression and relatively good prognosis. Patients are usually 55 to 65 years old.  Pathology En...
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Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary

Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a sub-type of epithelial ovarian tumours. The vast majority are malignant and invasive. On imaging, they are usually characterised as complex nonspecific solid-cystic masses and found associated with endometriosis.  Epidemiology Endometrioid carcinomas ...
Article

Endometrioma

Endometriomas, also known as chocolate cysts or endometriotic cysts, are a localised form of endometriosis and are usually within the ovary. They are readily diagnosed on ultrasound, with most demonstrating classical radiographic features.  Epidemiology These occur women of reproductive age. ...
Article

Endometriosis of canal of Nuck

Endometriosis affecting the canal of Nuck is an extremely rare site for endometriosis. It is proposed that retrograde implantation of endometrial tissue into patent canal of Nuck could give rise to the condition. Clinical presentation The condition is presented as a painful inguinal swelling. ...
Article

Endometritis

Endometritis refers to inflammation or infection involving the endometrium. Endometritis can be acute or chronic and may arise in an obstetric setting, such as following delivery or miscarriage, or in a nonobstetric setting due to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or endometrial instrumentation....
Article

Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaem...
Article

Gartner duct cyst

Gartner duct cysts develop from embryologic remnants of the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct. They are often noticed incidentally on ultrasound or MRI. Clinical presentation They may cause mass effect on adjacent structures. Pathology Location Gartner duct cysts are located in the anterolateral ...
Article

Germinoma

The term germinoma usually refers to a tumour of the brain (WHO Classification of CNS tumours), but can also refer to similar tumours of the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma All three tumours share similar histology. 
Article

Gestational choriocarcinoma

Gestational choriocarcinoma (GC) is a type of choriocarcinoma that follows a gestational event. Similar to choriocarcinomas in general, it lies at the malignant end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease. Pathology Approximately 50% of gestational choriocarcinomas arise from a pr...
Article

Haemorrhagic ovarian cyst

Haemorrhagic ovarian cysts (HOCs) usually result from haemorrhage into a corpus luteum or other functional cyst. Radiographic features are variable depending on the age of the haemorrhage. They typically resolve within eight weeks.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with sudden-onset ...
Article

Hemimegalencephaly

Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital disorder of cortical formation with hamartomatous overgrowth all or a part of a cerebral hemisphere. This results from either increased proliferation or decreased apoptosis (or both) of developing neurons 2. Epidemiology Hemimegalencephaly is a cryptogen...
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Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast canc...
Article

Human epididymis protein 4

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is an emerging serum biomarker in the assessment of epithelial ovarian tumours. HE4 is a member of the whey associated protein (WAP) gene cluster and has uncertain biological function 1. Early results indicate that HE4 has higher sensitivity and sensitivity than...
Article

Hydatidiform mole

Hydatidiform moles are one of the most common but benign forms of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Epidemiology It is a common complication of gestation, estimated to occur in one of every 1,000-2,000 pregnancies 3. These moles can occur in a pregnant woman of any age, but the rate of occur...
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Immature ovarian teratoma

Immature ovarian teratomas are uncommon ovarian germ cell tumours. They differ from mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts) both histologically by the presence of immature tissue, and clinically by their more malignant behaviour. Epidemiology They are considerably less common than mature ovar...
Article

Incarcerated uterus

An incarcerated uterus or trapped uterus describes an extremely rare situation where a retroverted or retroflexed gravid uterus fails to ascend into the abdominal cavity. Epidemiology This is an uncommon presentation and is said to occur in 1 in 3000 pregnancies. Uncomplicated retroversion may...
Article

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy (also known as an intramural) is an important type of ectopic pregnancy with higher risks of rupture and haemorrhage compared to usual tubal ectopic pregnancies.  Terminology The term interstitial pregnancy is sometimes interchangeably used with cornual pregnancy...
Article

Krukenberg tumour

Krukenberg tumour, also known as carcinoma mucocellulare, refers to the "signet ring" subtype of metastatic tumour to the ovary. The colon and stomach are the most common primary tumours to result in ovarian metastases, followed by the breast, lung, and contralateral ovary. Epidemiology The tu...
Article

Leiomyoma of the uterine cervix

Leiomyomas of the uterine cervix are an unusual variation in terms of location for a uterine leiomyoma. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~5% (range 0.6-10%) of uterine leiomyomas 1,4. Clinical presentation Clinical symptoms of cervical leiomyomas, including hypermenorrhea, dysmenor...
Article

Longitudinal vaginal septum

A longitudinal vaginal septum is a congenital abnormality of the vagina where a septum divides it into two parallel cavities. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic unless obstructed and if obstructed it may cause cyclic pelvic pain. Amenorrhoea may occur if both cavities are obstructed 1....
Article

Low-lying placenta

Low-lying placenta occurs when the placenta extends into the lower uterine segment and its edge lies too close to the internal os of the cervix, without covering it. The term is usually applied when the placental edge is within 0.5-5.0 cm of the internal cervical os 1. Some alternatively give th...
Article

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is generally uncommon and when it does occur tends to present as cervical involvement with added background multi-organ disease rather than isolated primary cervical lymphoma 1. It is often considered part of the spectrum of uterine lymphoma. Epidemiology In the ...
Article

Malignant mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary

A malignant mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary is a subtype of ovarian germ cell tumour. These are not to be confused with malignant mixed Müllerian tumours of the ovary. Epidemiology These tumours are rare. They most commonly affect adolescent women of reproductive age 1. Pathology They ar...
Article

Menouria

Menouria (Youssef syndrome) is an uncommon condition in which a vesico-uterine fistula results in cyclic haematuria. Vesicouterine fistulas are the rarest of all urinary fistulas, accounting for just 4% of all such fistulas 3. It occurs most commonly after cesarean section. Clinical presentatio...
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Metastases to the vagina

Metastases to the vagina are more common than primary vaginal malignancies, and account for >80% of vaginal tumors. Pathology Metastases usually spread from contiguous sites most commonly, with lymphatic and hematogenous metastases also recognised. Tumors that metastasise to the vagina includ...
Article

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a type of gonadal dysgenesis characterised by gonadal asymmetry, and/or sex chromosomal mosaicism, as well as retained Müllerian ducts. Pathology Depending on the chromosomal composition, patients may have testes and/or streak gonads. Genetics affected indiv...
Article

Mullerianosis

Mullerianosis is a rare type of choristoma, in which normal Mullerian-derived structures (endometrium, endosalpinx, and endocervix) are ectopically located in another organ (e.g. the bladder) through a developmental anomaly. Mullerianosis differs from endometriosis in that at least two types of ...
Article

Omphalomesenteric duct cyst

An omphalomesenteric duct cyst is a type of true umbilical cord cyst. Pathology The omphalomesenteric duct serves as a communication between the midgut and yolk sac In early embryonic life and usually obliterates between the 9-18th week of gestation. The omphalomesenteric duct cyst is an embry...
Article

Ovarian ectopic pregnancy

Ovarian ectopic pregnancies are rare (1-3%) when compared to other types of ectopic pregnancy such as tubal ectopic.  Pathology Risk factors Risk factors include pelvic inflammatory disease, IUCD use and endometriosis. Pathogenesis is debated and lies between: fertilisation of the ovum in th...
Article

Ovarian fibroma

Ovarian fibromas are a benign ovarian tumour of sex cord / stromal origin. Although fibromas account for ~4% of all ovarian neoplasms, they are the most common sex cord ovarian tumour. Epidemiology Fibromas occur at all ages but are most frequently seen in middle-aged women. Clinical presenta...
Article

Ovarian fibrosarcoma

Ovarian fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal fibroblastic tumour of the ovary that have multiple mitotic figures which is most important factor in histopathological diagnosis (4 or more mitotic figure per 10 high power fields).  Epidemiology Ovarian fibrosarcoma are very rare malignant ovar...
Article

Ovarian hyperthecosis

Ovarian hyperthecosis (OHT) is a condition where there is a presence of luteinized thecal cells within a hyperplastic ovarian stroma. Clinical presentation Clinical manifestations include hyperandrogenism, obesity, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance. Virilization has been reported to...
Article

Ovarian lymphoma

Ovarian lymphoma can refer to primary involvement of the ovaries with lymphoma (i.e. primary ovarian lymphoma): very rare secondary ovarian involvement of the ovaries with generalised lymphoma (i.e. secondary ovarian lymphoma): more common scenario
Article

Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma

Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma is an ovarian epithelial tumour at the malignant end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours. Epidemiology They account for the largest proportion of malignant ovarian tumours 1, representing over 50-80% of all malignant epithelial ovarian tumours 4. The pre...
Article

Ovarian serous tumours

Ovarian serous neoplasms are the commonest subtypes of the epithelial ovarian tumours, being more prevalent than the mucinous ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: benign: serous cystadenoma / serous cystadenofibroma borderline...
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Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumours of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumours. As ovarian thecomas secrete oestrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumours. Epidemiology They typically present in o...
Article

Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
Article

Ovarian tumours

Ovarian tumours are relatively common and account for ~6% of female malignancies. This article focuses on the general classification of ovarian tumours. For specific features, refer to the sub-articles. Pathology Subtypes Primary ovarian tumours Surface epithelial stromal ovarian tumours (60...
Article

Ovarian yolk sac tumour

Ovarian yolk sac tumours, also known as endodermal sinus tumours, are a type of ovarian germ cell tumours. Epidemiology Ovarian yolk sac tumour is a rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumour that usually occurs around the second decade of life. It is considered the most common malignant germ cel...
Article

P16

P16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker. It can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues. It can play an important role gynecological malignancy and is a surrogate marker for HSIL's (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions). It has been applied to facilitat...
Article

Partial hydatidiform mole

Partial hydatidiform mole (PHD) is a sub type of a hydatidiform mole which in turn falls under the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Clinical presentation Clinical signs and symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramps of the lower abdomen and vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are non...
Article

Parturition induced pelvic instability

Parturition-induced pelvic instability is a rare condition seen in women following vaginal delivery.  Epidemiology The incidence of symphyseal rupture after vaginal delivery ranges from one in 600 to one in 30,000 deliveries 1.  Predisposing factors include multiparity, complicated delivery, ...
Article

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a range of abnormalities.  Epidemiology The highest incidence is seen among sexually active women in their teens, with 75% cases being und...
Article

Peritoneal inclusion cyst

Peritoneal inclusion cyst (PIC) (also known as a peritoneal pseudocyst) is a type of cyst-like structure that appears in relation to the peritoneum and results from a non neoplastic reactive mesothelial proliferation. Epidemiology Peritoneal inclusion cysts occur almost exclusively in premenop...
Article

Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~2 per 1000 births 1-2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and di...
Article

Placental septal cyst

A placental septal cyst is a placental cyst typically located in a mid placenta. It forms between the cotyledons of the placenta. The cysts contain gelatinous material and are usually 5-10 mm in diameter. They may be present in 10-20% of placentas from full term uncomplicated pregnancies. See a...
Article

Placental site trophoblastic tumour

Placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) is a rare and one of the least common (~ 0.2% 7) forms of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Epidemiology PSTT typically occurs in women of reproductive age with the average age around 30. It may occur after a normal pregnancy, molar pregnancy o...
Article

Polycystic ovaries

Polycystic ovaries (PCO) is an imaging descriptor of a particular type of change in ovarian morphology. A proportion of women with polycystic ovaries will have the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), which in turn requires additional clinical as well as biochemical criteria. Otherwise PCO can be...
Article

Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
Article

Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter fa...
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Preterm premature rupture of membranes

Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) refers to rupture of membranes prior to 37 weeks of gestation. Epidemiology It is thought to occur in 0.4-2% of all pregnancies. It however may account for up to one-third of all preterm births (particularly in the United States 5). Pathology PP...
Article

Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well recognised condition. Epidemiology POL accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumours 5. Pathology The rarity of this condition is probably contr...
Article

Pulmonary hypoplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) refers to deficient or incomplete development of parts of the lung. It can develop as a result of a number of other in-utero anomalies. Epidemiology The true prevalence is not well known (1.4% of all births according to Knox et.al 13), but in cases of premature ruptur...
Article

Pyosalpinx

Pyosalpinx refers to a Fallopian tube that is filled, and often distended, with pus. Pathology A pyosalpinx often tends to be a complication of background pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Inflammation results in tubal and peritubal adhesions with superimposed obstruction of the fimbrial end....
Article

Retained products of conception

Retained products of conception refer to the persistence of placental and/or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery, termination of pregnancy or a miscarriage.  Epidemiology Retained products of conception complicate ~1% of all pregnancies. It occurs with greater frequency with: medica...
Article

Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a rup...
Article

Salpingitis isthmica nodosa

Salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN), sometimes also referred to as perisalpingitis isthmica nodosa - PIN, refers to nodular scarring of the fallopian tubes. In very early stages, the tubes may appear almost normal. As scarring and nodularity progress, the changes become more radiographically appar...
Article

Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary

Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is a rare ovarian neoplasm. It is considered a subtype of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumour and is included in the fibroma-thecoma group of ovarian tumors 9. Epidemiology It occurs predominantly in young women, peaks around 2nd to 3rd decades of lif...
Article

Secondary involvement of the ovary with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the ovary with lymphoma is more common than primary ovarian lymphoma. It usually occurs a late manifestation of an advanced systemic disease, and are almost always of the non-Hodgkin type.
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is the most common histological subtype of cervical cancer and accounts for 80-90% of cases. Pathology Most cervical squamous cell carcinomas grow at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). In younger women, the SCJ is located outside the external uterine...
Article

Struma ovarii tumour

Struma ovarii tumour is a subtype of an ovarian teratoma and is composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and containing variable-sized follicles with colloid material. Epidemiology It accounts for 0.3-1% of all ovarian tumours and ~3% of all mature cystic teratomas 1. Clinical pre...
Article

Teratoma

Teratomas are germ cell tumours that arise from ectopic pluripotent stem cells that fail to migrate from yolk sac endoderm to the urogenital ridge during embryogenesis. By definition, they contain elements from all three embryological layers: endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm although frequently, ...
Article

Theca lutein cyst

Theca lutein cysts (TLC), also known as hyperreactio luteinalis (HL), are a type of functional ovarian cysts. They are typically multiple and seen bilaterally. Pathology They are thought to originate due to excessive amounts of circulating gonadotrophins such as beta-hCG. Hyperplasia of the th...
Article

Thoracic endometriosis

Thoracic endometriosis is an uncommon location for endometriosis and the main cause of catamenial pneumothorax.  Epidemiology Most often occurs in the third and fourth decades of life 3. Clinical presentation Symptoms may include: catamenial pleuritic chest pain catamenial haemoptysis: whe...
Article

Triploidy

Triploidy is a rare lethal chromosomal (aneupliodic) abnormality caused by the presence of an entire extra chromosomal set.  Epidemiology It is considered the 3rd commonest fatal chromosomal anomaly 7. While it is thought to affect as much as 1-2% of conceptions, the vast majority are thought ...
Article

Tuberculosis (fallopian tube)

Tuberculosis of the fallopian tube is one of the most common sites of tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease.  Clinical presentation Many patients may be asymptomatic, with the disease being discovered during the workup for infertility.  Signs and symptoms are often vague and can include acut...
Article

Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease

Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease refers to pelvic inflammatory disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology Genital tract involvement may be present in ~1.5% of cases of those affected with tuberculosis 4. Pathology Infection almost always results from spread from an extrag...
Article

Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Clinical presentation Patients typically present with fever, elevated white blood cell count, lower abdominal-pelvic pain, and/or vaginal discharge. Fever and leukocytosis may sometimes be abse...
Article

Tunnel cluster

Tunnel cluster (TC) is a type of Nabothian cyst characterised by complex multicystic dilatation of the endocervical glands. Epidemiology Tunnel cluster is found in ~8% of adult women, 40% of whom are pregnant, almost exclusively multigravid women, and older than 30 years. Clinical presentatio...
Article

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare cause of secondary postpartum haemorrhage.  Clinical presentation UAP usually presents as delayed (secondary) postpartum haemorrhage, that is per vaginal bleeding which occurs more than 24 hours and up to 6 weeks postpartum. However, some reported ...
Article

Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also referred as uterine fibroids, are benign tumours of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatme...
Article

Uterine leiomyosarcoma

Uterine leiomyosarcomas are malignant uterine tumours that arises from the myometrium. The uterus is the commonest location for a leiomyosarcoma. Epidemiology Typically present in women in the 6th decade. They account for up to one-third of uterine sarcomas but only ~8% of all uterine cancers ...
Article

Uterine lymphoma

Uterine lymphoma refers to involvement of the uterus with lymphoma. Some authors also place lymphoma of the uterine cervix under this group. Epidemiology It is rare condition with initial uterine involvement occurring in only 1% of patients with lymphoma 3. However, uterine involvement is more...
Article

Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture is a rare but nevertheless potentially catastrophic complication that can occur in pregnancy.  Epidemiology The incidence rate in pregnancy is at 0.05% 6.   Clinical presentation Uterine rupture is usually an acute presentation with haemodynamic instability and abdominal disc...

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