Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

61 results found
Article

Autosplenectomy

Autosplenectomy denotes spontaneous infarction of the spleen with resulting hyposplenism. Epidemiology Autosplenectomy is most frequently encountered in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, although it has also been reported in pneumococcal septicaemia 1, and SLE 2. The demographics t...
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BALT lymphoma

BALT lymphoma is an abbreviated term for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. These neoplasms fall under the broader umbrella of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. It is sometimes considered a type of primary pulmonary lymphoma. Clinical presentation Up to half of pat...
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Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that predominantly affects children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. The median age of Burkitt lymphoma is eight years, and it has a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is l...
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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause an anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. The neurotoxicity could lead to acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology CO poisoning is related mostly to preventable causes such as malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and res...
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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a haematological malignancy.  Epidemiology CLL is considered the most common type of leukemia in the Western hemisphere; its prevalence in Europe and North America ranges from 29-38% of all leukaemias 1. It primarily affects adults ~65-70 years of age 3. ...
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Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis

Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) is a form of immune mediated primary vasculitis involving small to medium sized vessels. It may involve multiple organs and can have a range of clinical presentations. Terminology There are three main types of cryoglobulinaemia which are grouped, as per the Br...
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Diamond-Blackfan anaemia

Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, also known as pure red cell aplasia, is a rare congenital anaemia that typically presents in the first few years of life as a normocytic or macrocytic anaemia usually only affecting cells of the erythroid lineage 2. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia may occasion...
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Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD) (also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola) is a viral haemorrhagic disease caused by the Ebola Filovirus. Ebola is an extremely virulent virus with case fatality rates of approximately 70% 1. Epidemiology First recognized in 1967 after polio vaccin...
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Essential thrombocythaemia

Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) refers to an acquired myeloproliferative neoplastic state characterised by an expansion of the megakaryocytic lineage, leading to an isolated elevation of platelets. It falls under the group of myeloproliferative disorders. It increases the risk of both thrombosis...
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Extramedullary plasmacytoma

Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%. Epidemiology EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh de...
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Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaem...
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Fetal anaemia

Fetal anaemia can result from many causes. Pathology Aetiology haemolytic disease of the newborn fetomaternal ABO incompatibility fetomaternal rhesus (Rh) incompatibility fetal infections fetal parvovirus B19 infection haematopoetic abnomalities homozygous alpha thalassaemia 7 syndrome...
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Follicular lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is, in fact, the most common type. Epidemiology Estimated to account for ~45% of all NHL cases 1. Higher rates in North America and Europe 4.  Pathology Nodal effacement by closely packed follicles containing small cleaved ce...
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Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans. It is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase or beta-glucosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within the lysosomes of macrop...
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Graft versus host disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the thoracic manifestations that can complicate haematopoetic stem cell transplantation. Pulmonary GvHD can be broadly divided into acute and chronic disease 1-4: acute pulmonary GvHD pulmonary involvement is rare the median time of onset o...
Article

Haemophilia

Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder which is X-linked recessive and therefore occurs almost exclusively in males. There are two subtypes - haemophilia A (80%) and haemophilia B (20%).  Epidemiology The incidence of haemophilia A is around 1 in 5000 male births, and the incidence of h...
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Haemophilic arthropathy

Haemophilic arthropathy refers to permanent joint disease occurring in haemophilia sufferers as a long-term consequence of repeated haemarthrosis.  Around 50% of patients with haemophilia will develop a severe arthropathy. Epidemiology Haemophilia is an x-linked recessive disease affecting mal...
Article

Hand-Schüller-Christian disease

Hand-Schüller-Christian disease is a clinically intermediate form of a spectrum of histiocytic disorders, which ranges from acute fulminant to chronic indolent disease. It primarily affects children, less often young adults, and rarely older adults. Hand-Schüller-Christian disease has been desc...
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Hepatic lymphoma

Hepatic lymphoma is a rather broad term given to any form of hepatic involvement with lymphoma. This can be broadly divided into: secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma: most common by far, many tend to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) 1 primary hepatic lymphoma: extremely rare Pathology R...
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...
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Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin disease (HD) is a type of lymphoma and accounts for ~1% of all cancers. HD spreads contiguously and predictably along lymphatic pathways and is curable in ~90% of cases, depending on its stage and sub-type. Epidemiology There is a bimodal distribution in the age of ...
Article

Hypersplenism

Hypersplenism is a cytopaenia resulting from blood pooling in the spleen, and is almost always associated with splenomegaly.  Pathology Aetiology There is an almost overwhelming list, some more common causes are given below 1,3,4: congestive splenomegaly: cirrhosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, por...
Article

Idiopathic portal hypertension

Idiopathic portal hypertension (noncirrhotic portal hypertension or Banti syndrome) is a term that has been given to portal hypertension occurring without hepatic cirrhosis, parasitic infection, or portal venous thrombosis. Epidemiology Rare condition. More common in India and Japan. Patholog...
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Immunity

The human body regularly encounters harmful microorganisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defences to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as the Immune system. Humans have two types of immunity: innate immunity and acquired immunity. The innate...
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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
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Lymphoma of the uterine cervix

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is generally uncommon and when it does occur tends to present as cervical involvement with added background multi-organ disease rather than isolated primary cervical lymphoma 1. It is often considered part of the spectrum of uterine lymphoma. Epidemiology In the ...
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MALT lymphoma

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, also called extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, is a type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma.  Epidemiology MALT lymphoma represents ~7.5% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Average age of presentation is 60 years with a slight female predominance ...
Article

Multiple myeloma (extraosseous manifestations)

Extraosseous myeloma refers to any manifestation of multiple myeloma where there is plasma cell proliferation outside the skeletal system. This can potentially affect any organ system and the reported disease spectrum includes: reticulo-endothelial system lymph nodes (considered to be most com...
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Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. Average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Risk factors HIV/AIDS 3 Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can be ...
Article

Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis is a haematological disorder where there is the replacement of bone marrow with collagenous connective tissue and progressive fibrosis. It is also classified as a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterised by: extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) progressive splenomegaly ana...
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Myeloproliferative disorder

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a diverse group of conditions that are characterised by the overproduction of red cells, white cells and/or platelets in bone marrow. There are numerous conditions considered in this group but the most common are:  myelofibrosis polycythaemia vera essen...
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Neurolymphomatosis

Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare condition characterised by the direct invasion of the cranial and peripheral nerves and roots by lymphoma, in the great majority B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It should be differentiated from other non-tumour conditions associated with lymphoma that also affect ...
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for all lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin's subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation and prognosis.  See the 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
Article

Perisplenitis

Perisplenitis is acute inflammation of the splenic capsule and its peritoneal covering. Epidemiology It is seen uncommonly but there is no data on its actual incidence. Clinical Presentation It is seen usually in young and middle-aged patients, with acute left hypochondrial or lower chest pa...
Article

Plasmacytoma

Plasmacytomas are a discrete, solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells in either bone or soft tissue (extramedullary). It is a rare tumour that is associated with latent systemic disease in the majority of affected patients. It can be considered as a singular counterpart of multiple m...
Article

Polycythaemia vera

Polycythaemia vera is a myeloproliferative disorder that results in an excess of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is around 2-3 per 10000 people. It typically presents in older individuals. There may be a slightly greater male predilection. Pathology ...
Article

Primary bone lymphoma

Primary bone (skeletal/osseous) lymphoma (PBL) is a less common manifestation of lymphoma than secondary involvement from disseminated lymphoma. It is rare, accounting for <5% of bone tumours and <1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Terminology PBL is defined as the presence of lymphoma isolated to on...
Article

Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukaemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumour is detected (see: secondary hep...
Article

Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumours 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma wit...
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Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) refers to a clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is a much rarer type of pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma o...
Article

Pulmonary leukostasis

Pulmonary leukostasis is a medical emergency that is most commonly seen as a complication of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in blast crisis, and acute myeloid leukemia when white blood cell (WBC) counts are over 100 x 109/L (100,000/microL). It needs to be considered in any patient with myeloge...
Article

Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary. primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evidence of ex...
Article

Reed-Sternberg cells

Reed-Sternberg cells are a classical finding diagnostic of Hodgkin lymphoma. They are giant, multinucleated cells with abundant pale cytoplasm. Reed-Sternberg cells are rare, making up <1% of lymphoid tissue, with the background comprised of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and macrophages. 
Article

Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually seen as a part of spectrum of multi-systemic lymphoma, however, rarely may be seen as a primary disease. Epidemiology While renal lymphoma has autopsy incidence of 30-60% in lymphoma patients, actual CT diagnosis incidence is ~ 5%1. The kidneys are the most common ab...
Article

Rosai-Dorfman disease

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes. Epidemiology The disease predominantly occurs in young adults with a mean age at presentation of 21 years....
Article

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma (secondary hepatic lymphoma) is common, much more so than primary hepatic lymphoma.  Clinical presentation Hepatomegaly with deranged liver function tests is the most common presentation. Jaundice is common. Rarely, patients may present with acute li...
Article

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma, also referred as secondary bone lymphoma, is much more common than primary bone lymphoma, occurring in ~15% of disseminated lymphomas. Terminology Secondary bone lymphoma is defined as lymphoma involving the bone with nodal disease occurring wit...
Article

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma (secondary pleural lymphoma) is very common, occurring in ~20% of lymphomas. It may be a result of an extension of lymphoma into the visceral or parietal pleura or be a complicating pleural effusion and is a poor prognostic factor.  Epidemiology...
Article

Secondary pulmonary lymphoma

Secondary pulmonary lymphoma (SPL) refers to pulmonary involvement with lymphoma when the condition is not limited to the lung and has mediastinal lymph node involvement or evidence of extrathoracic dissemination for at least three months after the initial diagnosis. This is a more common form o...
Article

Sezary syndrome

Sézary syndrome (SS) is a type of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. It is sometimes considered an advanced and leukaemic form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). Clinical presentation It is clinically characterised by an extensive erythematous rash covering most of the body as well as presence of ma...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. The highest ...
Article

Small bowel lymphoma

Small bowel lymphoma is the most common small bowel malignancy, accounting accounts for ~25% of all primary small bowel malignancies and ~40% of all primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Epidemiology Small bowel lymphoma is most commonly secondary extranodal involvement in widespread systemic ly...
Article

Splenic hamartoma

Splenic hamartomas are very rare and usually solitary although may be present as multiple nodules present in tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The only recently described entity sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen, a non-neoplastic vascular entity de...
Article

Splenic metastases

Splenic metastases are considered a rare clinical diagnosis, although they are more commonly found on autopsy. Typically they are part of widespread metastatic disease. Epidemiology The rate of splenic metastases vary between 1-10% of autopsy studies, depending on whether microscopic or macros...
Article

Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured organ after blunt trauma. Clinical presentation Patients may present with left upper quadrant/left chest pain, left shoulder tip pain (re...
Article

Testicular lymphoma

Testicular lymphoma is an uncommon cause of testicular malignancy. Lymphoma can involve the testes in three ways: primary site of extranodal disease (primary testicular lymphoma) secondary involvement of systemic disease primary manifestation of subclinical systemic disease This article is c...
Article

Thalassaemia

Thalassaemia is an autosomal recessive haemoglobinopathy that originated in the Mediterranean region. The genetic defect causes a reduction in the rate of globin chain synthesis which causes the formation of abnormal haemoglobin molecules. The resultant microcytic anaemia is the characteristic p...
Article

Twin anaemia polycythaemia sequence

The twin anaemia polycythaemia sequence (TAPS) is considered a variant of the twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Epidemiology TAPS may occur spontaneously in up to 5% of monochorionic twins and may also develop after incomplete laser treatment in TTTS cases 2. Pathology As with TTTS t...
Article

Uterine lymphoma

Uterine lymphoma refers to involvement of the uterus with lymphoma. Some authors also place lymphoma of the uterine cervix under this group. Epidemiology It is rare condition with initial uterine involvement occurring in only 1% of patients with lymphoma 3. However, uterine involvement is more...
Article

Vaginal lymphoma

Vaginal lymphoma can refer to: secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalised lymphoma relatively commoner usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2 primary vaginal lymphoma much rarer
Article

Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia

Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (WM), (previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)), is a type of B-cell lymphoma. It is a rare condition, accounting for only 1% of all lymphoproliferative disorders.  Recent publications classify Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia as an lymphoplasm...

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