Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

214 results found
Article

Acoustic schwannoma

Acoustic schwannomas (a.k.a. vestibular schwannomas) are relatively common tumours that arise from the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) and represent ~80% of cerebellopontine angle masses. Bilateral acoustic schwannomas are strongly suggestive of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). These tumours c...
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Acquired cholesteatoma

Acquired cholesteatomas makeup 98% of all middle ear cholesteatomas and are almost always closely related to the tympanic membrane, from which most are thought to arise.  Clinical presentation The vast majority of acquired cholesteatomas develop as a result of chronic middle ear infection and ...
Article

Acute invasive fungal sinusitis

Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis. It is seen particularly in immunocompromised patients and is the source of significant morbidity and mortality. It should be distinguished from the other two forms of invasive fungal sinusitis: chronic invasive fung...
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Acute mastoiditis

Acute mastoiditis is largely a disease of childhood, and occurs when acute otitis media extends into the mastoid air cells.  Terminology When mastoiditis and acute otitis media occur concurrently, sometimes the term acute otomastoiditis is used.  When mucoperiosteal involvement evolves into b...
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are a rare histological subtype of adenocarcinoma. Pathology ACCs are generally considered low grade 4. The tumors have notable tendency for perineural spread. Location They have wide distribution and mainly occur in relation to the airways, lacrimal glands and...
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary glands is the second most common malignancy involving the parotid and the most common involving minor salivary glands. Pathology ACCs arise more commonly in the minor salivary glands (~55%) than in the major salivary glands. They are locally aggre...
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Adenoidal hypertrophy

Adenoidal hypertrophy or enlargement is common in childhood and is due to increase in size of the adenoid tonsils. Clinical presentation nasal congestion: adenoid facies chronic or recurrent otitis media due to their proximity to the Eustachian tubes swallowing difficulties speech anomali...
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Adenolipoma of thyroid gland

Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland (also known as a thyrolipoma or a thyroid hamartoma) is a benign rare fat containing thyroid lesion. These lesions are usually well encapsulated and are composed of varying degrees of thyroid glandular tissue and fat tissue; the amount of fat can markedly vary (...
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Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumours are rare and differ from most other dentition related lesions in that they more frequently occur in the maxilla. Epidemiology They are also seen more frequently in females, most frequently in the second decade of life.  Radiographic features They present as an...
Article

Allergic fungal sinusitis

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is the most common form of fungal sinusitis, and is common in warm and humid climates. On imaging, it usually presents as opacification and expansion of multiple paranasal sinuses, unilaterally or bilaterally, with content that is centrally hyperdense on CT. MRI s...
Article

Ameloblastoma

Ameloblastomas are benign, locally aggressive tumours that arise from the mandible, or less commonly from the maxilla. Usually presented as a hard painless lesion near the angle of the mandible in the 3rd to 5th decades of life.  On imaging, they are commonly identified as a well-defined, expan...
Article

Antrochoanal polyp

Antrochoanal polyps (ACP) are solitary sinonasal polyps that arises within the maxillary sinus but passes through and enlarges the sinus ostium and posterior nasal cavity to the nasopharynx.  Similar polyps can arise in the sphenoid sinus and extend into the nasopharynx, these are termed spheno...
Article

Asteroid hyalosis

Asteroid hyalosis is a degenerative condition of the eye where there is accumulation of calcium soaps in vitreous chamber. Epidemiology The prevalence increases with age from 0.2% 43-54 year olds to 2.9% in 75-86 year olds. The overall prevalence is 1.2%. It is more commonly unilateral and fav...
Article

Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multi-systemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in...
Article

Benign lymphoepithelial lesions

Benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLL or BLEL), also misleadingly known as AIDS-related parotid cysts (ARPC), are mixed solid and cystic lesions that enlarge the parotid glands, and are usually associated with cervical lymph node enlargement, and nasopharyngeal lymphofollicular hyperplasia. Epid...
Article

Bezold abscess

A Bezold abscess is a complication of acute otomastoiditis where the infection erodes through the cortex medial to the attachment of sternocleidomastoid , at the attachment site of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, and extends into the infratemporal fossa. Due to it being deep to the ...
Article

Black eyebrow sign

Black eyebrow sign is the description given on plain facial radiographs to intra-orbital air 1. Air rises into the most superior aspect of the orbit, almost always in the context of a facial fracture, in a linear fashion, giving the appearance of a eyebrow. The fracture is usually an orbital bl...
Article

Branchial cleft anomalies

Branchial cleft anomalies comprise of a spectrum of congenital defects that occur in the head and neck. Pathology The anomalies result from branchial apparati (six arches; five clefts), which are the embryologic precursors of the ear and the muscles, blood vessels, bones, cartilage, and mucosa...
Article

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, also known as a Pindborg tumour, is typically located in the premolar and molar region of the mandible, although up to a third are found in the maxilla. Epidemiology Usually they are seen in the 4th to 6th decades. They are rare tumours. Pathology As...
Article

Capillary haemangioma of the orbit

Capillary haemangiomas of the orbit, also known as strawberry haemangiomas, on account of its colouring, or orbital infantile haemangiomas, are the most common orbital tumours of infancy, and unlike orbital cavernous haemangiomas, they are neoplasms rather than vascular malformations. Clinical ...
Article

Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
Article

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is the most common of three malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands, and are thought to arise from pre-existing pleomorphic adenomas (or benign mixed tumours) 1. Epidemiology These tumours usually occur in older patients (6th to 8th decade), who have had a p...
Article

Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
Article

Caroticocavernous fistula

Caroticocavernous fistulas (CCF) represent abnormal communication between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus. They can be classified as direct or indirect which are separate conditions with different aetiologies.   Epidemiology Direct CCFs are often secondary to trauma, and as suc...
Article

Carotid body tumour

Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, is a highly vascular glomus tumour that arises from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. It is located at the carotid bifurcation with characteristic splaying of the ICA and ECA.  Epidemiology Typically, ca...
Article

Castleman disease

Castleman disease (CD), also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct ...
Article

Cataract

Cataract is an opacification or thickening of the lens and is the leading cause of blindness in the world 2.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity. The diagnosis is made clinically. Pathology Aetiology Common causes include: old age (most co...
Article

Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It has high mortality and morbidity rates. Epidemiology CST is rare with ~4.5 cases per 1,000,000 per year 5. It is the least common dural venou...
Article

Cemento-ossifying fibroma

Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a rare benign neoplasm that usually arises from the mandible and maxilla. They most often arise from the tooth bearing areas of these bones. Terminology In the 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic fibromas this tumour is referred as "ossif...
Article

Cementoblastoma

Cementoblastoma is one of many mandibular lesions is a rare tumour of the cementum, with only approximately 100 cases reported. Key to diagnosis both radiologically and histologically is attachment to the tooth root.  Terminology Cementoblastomas have been previously described in the literatur...
Article

Charcot-Leyden crystals

Charcot-Leyden crystals consist of collections of bipyramidal crystalloid made up of eosinophilic membrane proteins, which occur in:  asthma other eosinophilic lung disease 2 certain cases of sinusitis (e.g. allergic fungal sinusitis) They may be detected in the sputum or sinus secretions wi...
Article

Cherubism

Cherubism has historically been considered a variant of fibrous dysplasia, but in reality is likely a distinct entity.  Epidemiology Cherubism is inherited as an autosomal dominant 2 disorder of variable penetrance, with onset in early childhood (typically in the 3-4 years of age). Interesting...
Article

Choanal atresia

Choanal atresia refers to a lack of formation of the choanal openings. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Epidemiology It frequently presents in neonates where it is one of the commonest causes of nasal obstruction in this age group. There is a recognised female predilection. The incidence is ...
Article

Cholesteatoma

Cholesteatoma is histologically equivalent to a epidermoid cyst and is composed of desquamated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium forming a mass. They usually present with conductive hearing loss. Pathology The mass is lined by epithelium (facing inwards) which continues to grow, ther...
Article

Chorioretinal lacunae

Chorioretinal lacunae refer to punched out lesions in pigmented layer of retina, usually around the optic disc. It is a considered a consistent feature of Aicardi syndrome.
Article

Choristoma

A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...
Article

Choroidal detachment

Choroidal detachment is a detachment of the choroid from the underlying sclera due to increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and occurs in some settings: transudative: trauma exudative: fluid accumulating in the suprachoroidal space secondary to many causes, most commonly inflammation (e.g. uve...
Article

Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis

Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis (CIFS) is a form of invasive fungal sinusitis.  Clinical presentation The condition has a more prolonged course than acute invasive fungal sinusitis, usually more than 12 weeks 5. Patients are usually immunocompetent or have a milder level of immunocompromise....
Article

Chronic otomastoiditis with ossicular erosions

Chronic otomastoiditis with ossicular erosions (aka) non cholesteatomatous ossicular erosion or post inflammatory ossicular erosions is defined by the erosive changes involving the ossicles in the absence of cholesteatoma in patient with history of chronic otomastoiditis. Radiographic features ...
Article

Chronic otomastoiditis with tympanosclerosis

Chronic otomastoiditis with tympanosclerosis represents calcific or bony middle ear foci secondary to suppurative chronic otomastoiditis. Radiographic features Common locations of calcifications include: tympanic membrane ossicle surface stapes footplate muscle tendons ossicle ligaments ...
Article

Chronic sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis refers to ongoing long term sinus infection-inflammation that often develops secondary to a prolonged/refractory acute sinus infection. Epidemiology It most commonly affects young to middle-aged adults but can uncommonly affect children. Pathology Aetiology deviated nasal ...
Article

Cirsoid aneurysm

Cirsoid aneurysms are rare arteriovenous malformations of the scalp and extremities.  Clinical presentation Patients often present with a slow-growing pulsatile mass and may also experience bleeding, tinnitus and/or a headache 3.  Pathology Cirsoid aneurysms develop due to an abnormal arteri...
Article

Cochlear aplasia

Cochlear aplasia, or complete absence of the cochlea is a rare anomaly which accounts for only 3% of cochlear malformations.1 Radiographic features complete absence of the cochlea. Dense otic bone is seen at the anatomical site of the cochlea 2 cochlear nerve canal and cochlear nerve are abse...
Article

Cochlear hypoplasia

Cochlear hypoplasia is defined by small underdeveloped cochlea <2 turns. Radiographic features a small cochlear bud of variable length (usually 1–3 mm).  It has only one turn or a partial turn is seen cochlear nerve often hypoplastic or absent cochlear nerve canal: absent, narrow or norma...
Article

Cogan syndrome

Cogan syndrome is a rare vasculitis of children and young adults which primarily characterised by 1,4,6: inflammatory eye disease (ocular keratitis, uveitis, scleritis, optic neuritis) 6 audiovestibular symptoms (similar to Meniere disease) 6 However, it can potentially affect a multitude of ...
Article

Colloid nodule (thyroid)

Colloid nodules (CN) are non-neoplastic benign nodules occurring within the thyroid gland. They form the vast majority of nodular thyroid disease. Pathology Colloid nodules are composed of irregularly enlarged follicles containing abundant colloid. Some colloid nodules can be cystic (cystic co...
Article

Common cavity malformation

Common cavity malformation is defined by the absence of the normal differentiation between the cochlea and vestibule replaced by cystic structure. It accounts for about 25% of cochlear malformations 1.  Radiographic features confluence of the cochlea, vestibule and horizontal SCC in a cystic c...
Article

Common variable immunodeficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a condition that is associated with an impaired immune system. It is considered the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, and is characterised by recurrent respiratory tract infections. Clinical presentation The commonest presentation is t...
Article

Congenital calvarial defects

Congenital calvarial defects are a group of disorders characterized by congenital calvarial bony defects which vary in severity. Radiographic features CT with 3D shaded surface reformats is the best imaging tool as it demonstrates calvarial defects and bone margins. parietal foramina parieta...
Article

Congenital cataract

Congenital cataracts are a major cause of blindness with early detection the most important factor in reducing impact on future vision.  Epidemiology Incidence is ~3 per 100,000 in the United Kingdom 1. Will be higher in areas with increased rates of congenital infection 5. Risk factors low ...
Article

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is one of four types of fibrous dysplasia and is characterised, as the name suggests, by involvement of the skull and facial bones. For a general discussion of the underlying pathology, refer to the parent article fibrous dysplasia. Terminology Although leontias...
Article

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm is also known as cricopharyngeal achalasia, although some authors distinguish between these entities, and may present as a cause of dysphagia. Terminology There is confusing use of the terms cricopharyngeal muscle spasm, cricopharyngeal achalasia and cricopharyngea...
Article

Cystic hygroma

Cystic hygroma (CH) refers to a type of congenital lymphangioma  Epidemiology  They usually occur in the fetal/infantile and paediatric populations with most lesions presenting by the age of two. The estimated prevalence in the fetal population is 0.2-3%.  Clinical presentation Patients in t...
Article

Dacryoadenitis

Dacryoadenitis is infection of the lacrimal gland results in diffuse homogeneous enlargement, which can sometimes compress the globe. Most common organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, mumps, infectious mononucleosis, and influenza virus.
Article

Dacryocystocele

Dacryocystoceles are caused by obstruction of both the proximal and distal ends of the nasolacrimal duct. An imperforate Hasner membrane causes the distal blockage, but the cause of proximal obstruction is less clearly understood . Epidemiology Dacryocystoceles, although rare, are the second m...
Article

De Quervain thyroiditis

De Quervain thyroiditis (or subacute granulomatous thyroiditis) is a form of self limited subacute thyroiditis usually preceded by upper respiratory tract viral infection such as mumps, measles, coxsackie virus, adenovirus, and influenza viruses. Epidemiology It usually affects middle age fema...
Article

Dehiscent jugular bulb

Dehiscent jugular bulbs are present when the sigmoid plate between a high riding jugular bulb and the middle ear is absent, allowing the wall of the jugular bulb to bulge into the middle ear cavity. Clinical presentation It is one of the causes of pulsatile tinnitus and is a common cause of a ...
Article

Dentigerous cyst

Dentigerous cysts, also called follicular cysts, are slow growing benign and non-inflammatory odontogenic cysts that are thought to be developmental in origin. On imaging, they usually present as a well-defined and unilocular radiolucency surrounding the crown of an unerupted or impacted tooth ...
Article

Dermolipoma

The dermolipoma is one of the fat-containing epibulbar mass lesions of lateral canthal area beneath the temporal or superotemporal bulbar conjunctivae. Epidemiology  Dermolipomas are congenital and more commonly seen in young patients with mean age of 30 years old. There is no gender predilect...
Article

Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is the deficiency or resistance to the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which results in polyuria and polydipsia.  Epidemiology DI occurs in 3 per 100,000 people 2.  Pathology DI may be described as 1-3: central/neurogenic/hypothalamic: vasopressin deficie...
Article

Ectodermal dysplasia

Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) refers to a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that cause abnormal ectoderm development. The effect is a non-progressive defect in the development of two or more tissues derived from embryonic ectoderm.  Epidemiology ED is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:...
Article

Endolymphatic sac tumour

Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELST) are very rare, locally invasive tumors of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of ELST is very important, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. ELSTs do not metastasise, but are highly locally aggressive.  Epidemiology Mean age at ...
Article

Epiglottitis

Epiglottitis is a life-threatening condition caused by inflammation of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds 1,  which can lead to acute airway obstruction. Hence, treatment should be urgent and performed by appropriately trained individuals, e.g. instrumentation of the trachea should be perfor...
Article

Epignathus

Epignathus is a term given to a very rare form of teratoid tumour that arises from the oropharyngeal region. Epidemiology There may be a slight female predilection ref. The estimated incidence is ~ 1 in 35,000 to 200,000 births. Clinical presentation The tumour classically presents in utero ...
Article

Ethmocephaly

Ethmocephaly refers to a rare type of midline cranio-facial anomaly that is characterised by the presence of extreme hypotelorism, arrhinia and a midline proboscis.  Pathology Associations holoprosencephaly 1-2: particularly alobar holoprosencephaly See also cebocephaly
Article

Eustachian tube dysfunction

Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is considered by many to be the underlying cause of chronic otomastoiditis, although both the exact pathogenesis and role of ETD in chronic middle ear infections is unclear. Epidemiology ETD is estimated to be present in ~1% of the adult population. Pathology...
Article

External auditory canal atresia

External auditory canal atresia (EACA) is characterised by complete or incomplete bony atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC) and, especially when seen in the setting of an associated syndrome, a dysplastic auricle and abnormal middle ear cavity. Epidemiology The incidence is 1 in 10,000...
Article

External auditory canal cholesteatoma

External auditory canal cholesteatomas  are an uncommon locations for cholesteatomas, which are usually in the middle ear or petrous apex.  When they occur lateral to the tympanic membrane, they are referred to as external auditory canal cholesteatomas.   Epidemiology The external acoustic can...
Article

External auditory canal osteoma

External auditory canal osteoma is a rare focal pedunculated bony overgrowth of the osseous external auditory canal. Radiographic features solitary pedunculated bony overgrowth of the external auditory canal usually at the bony cartilaginous junction unilateral large lesions may be associate...
Article

Extracranial meningioma

Extracranial meningiomas, also known as primary extradural meningiomas or ectopic meningioma, are a rare location-specific type of meningioma that arise outside the dural covering of the brain and spinal cord. They are essentially extracranial tumours, most often occurring in the head and neck, ...
Article

Extramedullary plasmacytoma

Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal  plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%. Epidemiology EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh d...
Article

Exudative retinitis

Exudative retinitis (also known as retinal telangiectasis or Coats disease) is a rare congenital disease affecting the eyes and is a cause of leukocoria. Epidemiology The exact aetiology is unknown and the disease is a non hereditary disorder.  It occurs predominantly in young males, with the ...
Article

Factitious hyperthyroidism

Factitious hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis factitia refers to precipitation of thyrotoxicosis due to exogenous ingestion of thyroid hormone (e.g. levothyroxine). It has been rarely associated with myocardial ischaemia 2. Radiographic features Ultrasound The hypervascularity which is seen wi...
Article

Fatty nodal metaplasia

Fatty nodal metaplasia in the neck occurs as a result of chronic inflammation or radiotherapy 3. The normal fatty nodal hilum enlarges, such that the lymph node appears cystic. However, its center is of fatty density. There is no surrounding stranding, and the node otherwise looks normal. Diffe...
Article

Fetal goitre

A fetal goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland in utero. It can occur with either hyper or hypothyroidism (and in isolated cases of euthyroidism 8). Pathology The mechanism is different dependent on whether the underlying cause is hyper or hypothyroidism.  Associations maternal Graves...
Article

First branchial cleft cyst

First branchial cleft cysts are a type of branchial cleft anomaly. They are uncommon and only represent ~7% of all branchial cleft cysts. Epidemiology They usually manifest early in first decade of life. Pathology First branchial cleft cysts develop as a result of incomplete fusion of the cl...
Article

Floating teeth

Floating teeth is the description given to the appearances on imaging of teeth 'hanging in the wind' as a result of alveolar bone destruction around the root of the teeth.  Differential diagnosis They are uncommonly encountered, with a wide differential diagnosis - albeit that the underlying c...
Article

Follicular thyroid adenoma

Follicular thyroid adenoma is a commonly found benign neoplasm of the thyroid consisting of differentiated follicular cells. It can not be differentiated from follicular carcinoma on cytologic, sonographic or clinical features alone 1. Epidemiology Follicular thyroid adenoma is more commonly f...
Article

Globe rupture

Globe ruptures are an an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma, because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intra-ocu...
Article

Globus pharyngeus

Globus pharyngeus is the subjective feeling of a lump in the throat which can have a variety of causes. In modern practice globus is often evaluated by flexible nasoendoscopy in the first instance since many patients present to otolaryngology services. If no cause is identified or if nasoendosco...
Article

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma is a paraganglioma of the head and neck that is confined to the jugular fossa. While it is a rare tumour, it is the most common of the jugular fossa tumours. Epidemiology The relative prevalence of glomus jugulare with respect to other head and neck paraganglioma ...
Article

Glomus tympanicum paraganglioma

Glomus tympanicum paragangliomas (chemodectomas) are the most common middle ear tumour.  Epidemiology There is a female predominance (M:F = 1:3); presentation is most common when patients are more than 40 years old 1,2.  Clinical presentation May be incidental but symptomatic masses produce ...
Article

Glomus vagale tumour

Glomus vagale tumours are glomus tumours that occur along the path of the vagus nerve (CN X). They are a subset of extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumours that are derived from the nonchromaffin paraganglion cells.  Clinical presentation Typically presents as a painless mass behind the carotid ar...
Article

Goitre

Goitre refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can occur from multiple conditions. The definition of a goitre depends on age and sex; below are the upper limits of normal for thyroid gland volume 1: adult males: 25 mL adult females: 18 mL 13-14 years: 8-10 mL 3-4 years: 3 mL neonate...
Article

Granulocytic sarcoma

Granulocytic sarcoma (also called myeloid sarcoma and chloroma) is a rare neoplasm comprised of myeloid precursor cells. It can occur in association with: acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) other myeloproliferative disorders such as myelofibrosis with myeloid meta...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis: upper respiratory tract manifestations

The upper respiratory tract manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), which was formerly known as Wegener granulomatosis, are common and affect most patients. Epidemiology The majority of patients of GPA have upper respiratory tract involvement, most commonly presenting with rh...
Article

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, sometimes termed granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, is a form of invasive fungal sinusitis. Reports describing the imaging findings have been uncommon 1. Epidemiology It is rare and been mainly reported in Sudan, India, Pakistan and sometimes in t...
Article

Graves disease

Graves disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease and is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis (up to 85%). Epidemiology There a strong female predilection with the F:M ratio of at least 5:1. Typically presents in middle age. Clinical presentation Patients are thyrotoxic. Extra-thyroid manif...
Article

Halitosis

Halitosis refers to the symptom of foul oral odour, commonly termed "bad breath", that patients can present with, usually to dental services. Pathology It is thought to be caused by the presence of volatile sulphur compounds that are produced by bacteria. Although the underlying caus...
Article

Hashimoto thyroiditis

Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as lymphocytic thyroiditis or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, is a subtype of autoimmune thyroiditis. It is one of the most common thyroid disorders.  Epidemiology Typically affects middle aged females (30-50 year age group with a F:M ratio of 10-15:1).  Clin...
Article

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) refer to SCCs of the aerodigestive tract of the head and neck rather than cutaneous SCCs. SCC is the most common tumour of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and can occur anywhere there is squamous cell mucosa.  Epidemiology, risk factor...
Article

Hypoparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism results from reduced secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. It results in hypocalcaemia.  Clinical presentation tetany: peripheral paresthesia, carpopedal spasm, seizures emotional lability, depression and anxiety, psychosis short stature Pathology T...
Article

Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx is relatively uncommon, carries the worst prognosis of any head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and is a challenge to diagnose and treat.  Hypopharyngeal carcinoma is relatively uncommon representing only 10% of all proximal aerodigestive tra...

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