Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

95 results found
Article

Ascites

Ascites is defined as an abnormal amount of intraperitoneal fluid. Clinical presentation Patients with a large volume of ascites can present with abdominal distension (which may be painful), nausea, vomiting, dyspnoea and peripheral oedema 7, 9. Pathology Ascitic fluid is traditionally chara...
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Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare type of chronic hepatitis, currently classified as "type 1" or "type 2". It may eventually lead to cirrhosis. The role of imaging is primarily to exclude other diagnoses and evaluate for complications. Epidemiology It may occur in children or adults, but most pat...
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Autosplenectomy

Autosplenectomy denotes spontaneous infarction of the spleen with resulting hyposplenism. Epidemiology Autosplenectomy is most frequently encountered in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, although it has also been reported in pneumococcal septicaemia 1, and SLE 2. The demographics t...
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Beta catenin mutated hepatic adenoma

Beta catenin mutated hepatic adenomas are a genetic and pathologic subtype of hepatic adenoma. Their appearance and prognosis are different than other subtypes. Epidemiology They are the least common subtype of hepatic adenoma (10-15%). They occur more frequently in men and are associated with...
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Biliary ascariasis

Ascariasis is the commonest helminthic infection world wide and estimated to affect nearly 1 billion people (25% of population). The disease is transmitted by Ascaris lumbricoides which belongs to the nematode family (roundworms). Life cycle Infection occurs by ingestion of contaminated food (...
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Biloma

Bilomas refer to extrabiliary collections of bile. They can be either intra- or extrahepatic.  Terminology There is a slight discrepency in the reported literature in the use of the term "biloma". Many authors have used it exclusively to refer to intrahepatic bile collections or other bilious ...
Article

CA 19-9 elevation

CA 19-9 is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepato-pancreatico-biliary origin. It is nonspecific, however, and can rise in both malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Elevation of serum CA 19-9 has been...
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CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
Article

Cardiac sclerosis

Cardiac sclerosis, or "cardiac cirrhosis" is the end-point of passive hepatic congestion from heart failure.  Pathology Aetiology Causes of cardiac cirrhosis include 1: ischaemic heart disease: ~30% cardiomyopathy: ~25% valvular heart disease: ~25% restrictive lung disease: ~15% pericard...
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Caroli disease

Caroli disease is a congenital disorder comprising of multifocal cystic dilatation of segmental intrahepatic bile ducts. However, some series show that extrahepatic duct involvement may exist 2. It is also classified as a type V choledochal cyst, according to the Todani classification. Epidemio...
Article

Chemotherapy induced cholangitis

Chemotherapy induced cholangitis is caused when intra-arterial chemotherapy is introduced to treat liver metastases. This causes strictures of the common hepatic duct and main ducts, but spares distal and proximal (i.e. common bile duct and intrahepatic ducts).  Radiographic features similar t...
Article

Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumour arising from cholangiocytes in the biliary tree. It tends to have a poor prognosis and high morbidity. It is the second most common primary hepatic tumour, with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) accounting for 10-20% of primary liver tumours. Epide...
Article

Choledocholithiasis

Choledocholithiasis denotes the presence of gallstones within the bile ducts (common hepatic duct / common bile duct). Epidemiology Choledocholithiasis is relatively common, seen in in 6-12% of patients who undergo cholecystectomy 2. Clinical presentation Stones within the bile duct are ofte...
Article

Chronic cholecystitis

Chronic cholecystitis refers to prolonged inflammatory condition that affects the gallbladder. It is almost always seen in the setting of cholelithiasis (95%), caused by intermittent obstruction of the cystic duct or infundibulum or dysmotility. Clinical presentation Patients may have a histor...
Article

Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis represents the end result of a continuous, prolonged, inflammatory and fibrosing process that affects the pancreas. This results in irreversible morphologic changes and permanent endocrine and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Epidemiology The most common cause of chronic p...
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Clonorchiasis

Clonorchiasis is a trematodiasis caused by chronic infestation by Clonorchis sinensis, and can lead to recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, biliary strictures and cholangiocarcinoma.  Epidemiology Infection with Clonorchis sinensis occurs in endemic areas, mainly east China. Over 85 million people ...
Article

Emphysematous cholecystitis

Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare form of acute cholecystitis where gallbladder wall necrosis causes gas formation in the lumen or wall. It is a surgical emergency, due to the high mortality from gallbladder gangrene and perforation. Epidemiology Men are affected twice as commonly as women...
Article

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas arise from the pancreatic islet cells and include some distinct tumours that match the cell type of origin.  Terminology Pancreatic endocrine tumours have commonly been referred to as "islet cell tumours", referring to the islets of Langerhans, from which they...
Article

Exophytic hepatic mass

Exophytic hepatic mass or tumour is a lesion predominantly lies outside the margins of liver but originates from within the liver. Pathology Causes include 1 benign  hepatic haemangioma hepatic adenoma hepatic cyst hepatic angiomyolipoma focal nodular hyperplasia malignant ...
Article

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
Article

Flash filling hepatic venous malformation

Flash filling hepatic venous malformations, also known as flash filling hepatic haemangiomas, are a type of atypical hepatic venous malformation (haemangioma), which due to its imaging features often raises the concern of a malignant process rather than a benign one.  Terminology It is importa...
Article

Gallbladder carcinoma

Gallbladder carcinomas are usually asymptomatic until they reach an incurable stage. As such, early incidental detection is important, if the occasional patient is to be successfully treated. The majority (90%) are adenocarcinomas, and the remainder are squamous cell carcinomas.  Epidemiology ...
Article

Gallbladder dysfunction

Gallbladder dysfunction, or functional gallbladder disorder, refers to biliary pain due to motility disturbance of the gallbladder without gallstones, biliary sludge, microlithiasis or microcrystals. The disorder has previous been known by several other names, including gallbladder dyskinesia, g...
Article

Gallbladder hydrops

Gallbladder hydrops refers to marked dilatation of the gallbladder due to chronic obstruction of the cystic duct results in accumulation of the sterile non-pigmented mucin. Clinical presentation Abdominal pain with palpable gallbladder without any signs of infection. In an asymptomatic patient...
Article

Gallbladder perforation

Gallbladder perforations are a relatively rare complication that can occur in some situations but occurs most frequent as a result of acute cholecystitis. It can carry a relatively high mortality rate. It can also occur during laparoscopic cholecystectomies with the incidence of gallbladder perf...
Article

Gallbladder polyp

Gallbladder polyps are elevated lesions on the mucosal surface of the gallbladder. The vast majority are benign, but malignant entities are possible. Gallbladder polyps may be detected on ultrasound, CT, or MRI, but are usually best characterized on ultrasound. Epidemiology Gallbladder polyps ...
Article

Gallbladder volvulus

Gallbladder volvulus is a relatively rare condition in which there is a rotation of the gallbladder around the axis of the cystic duct and artery. Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific, however right upper quadrant pain and vomiting are similar to biliary colic. Laboratory evaluation...
Article

Gallstone pancreatitis

Gallstone pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis caused by gallstones, specifically distal choledocholithiasis. Gallstones is the cause for 35-40% of acute pancreatitis but this number has a wide regional variance.  Epidemiology Gallstone pancreatitis has a higher incidence in women (compared to ...
Article

Gallstones

Gallstones, also called cholelithiasis, are concretions that occur anywhere within the biliary system, most commonly within the gallbladder.  Terminology Gallstones (cholelithiasis) describes stone formation at any point along the biliary tree. Specific names can be given to gallstones dependi...
Article

Gangrenous cholecystitis

Gangrenous cholecystitis is the most common complication of acute cholecystitis, affecting ~15% (range 2-30%) of patients.  Pathology Gangrenous cholecystitis occurs as a result of ischaemia with necrosis of the gallbladder wall 4.  Risk factors male increasing age delayed surgery cardiov...
Article

Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumour and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In genera...
Article

Glucagonoma

Glucagonomas are pancreatic endocrine tumours that secrete glucagon. Most lesions are malignant. Epidemiology They are rare with an incidence of 0.000005%. Equal incidence in middle-aged men and women.  Clinical presentation Most patients present with a necrolytic migratory rash and various ...
Article

Haemorrhagic cholecystitis

Haemorrhagic cholecystitis refers to an inflammatory process of the gallbladder, complicated by haemorrhage into the lumen.  Clinical presentation The presenting features may mimic non-haemorrhagic acute cholecystitis, with right upper quadrant pain being a dominant feature. If the blood is pa...
Article

Haemorrhagic pancreatitis

Haemorrhagic pancreatitis is a possible uncommon complication that can occur with pancreatitis and is characterised by bleeding within or around the pancreas. It is usually considered a late sequela of acute pancreatitis. Pathology Haemorrhage can occur in patients with severe necrotising panc...
Article

Hepatic angiomyolipoma

Angiomyolipoma (AML) is an uncommon benign hamartomatous hepatic mass lesion, containing blood vessel (angioid), smooth muscle (myoid) and mature fat (lipoid) components. There is an association with tuberous sclerosis, although this is less strong than for renal AMLs. Clinical presentation Mo...
Article

Hepatic angiosarcoma

Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignancy but is still the third most common primary liver tumour. They have a variable appearance on both CT and MRI reflecting the pleomorphic histological nature. Prognosis is very poor, with survival uncommon beyond one year from diagnosis.  Terminology Hepa...
Article

Hepatic carcinoid

Primary hepatic carcinoid is an extremely rare type of carcinoid tumor, with somewhere between 60-90 cases reported in the literature. Metastatic carcinoid tumor from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver is far more common. Clinical presentation Some patients present with carcinoid syndrome...
Article

Hepatic carcinosarcoma

Hepatic carcinosarcoma is a very rare tumour that is defined by mixed histological features.  Terminology This tumour has also been referred to as malignant mixed tumour, spindle cell carcinoma, pseudosarcoma or sarcomatoid carcinoma 1,2.  Pathology Hepatic carcinocarcinoma contain a mixture...
Article

Hepatic haemangioma

Hepatic haemangiomas, also known as hepatic venous malformations, are benign non-neoplastic hypervascular liver lesions. They are frequently diagnosed as an incidental finding on imaging, and most patients are asymptomatic. From a radiologic perspective, it is important to differentiate haemangi...
Article

Hepatic haemosiderosis

Hepatic haemosiderosis refers to the deposition of haemosiderin in the liver. Pathology Hepatic iron overload can be in the form of 7 diffuse heterogeneous segmental focal hypersiderosis intralesional siderosis periportal siderosis. In the absence of genetic haemochromatosis and system...
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Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumour

Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumours (IPT) are rare benign hepatic lesions. Epidemiology Most common in young adults with males affected more than females 7.  Pathology Aetiology is unknown 7.  Macroscopic appearance Hepatic IPT is often seen as a well-circumscribed, encapsulated inflammator...
Article

Hepatic leiomyosarcoma

Hepatic leiomyosarcomas are rare primary malignant tumors derived from smooth muscle cells in the liver. Epidemiology Hepatic leiomyosarcoma is rare 1. An equal sex distribution and a broad age range (5 months-66Y) has been reported. Some have suggested an associated with AIDS 2. Pathology T...
Article

Hepatic lymphoma

Hepatic lymphoma is a rather broad term given to any form of hepatic involvement with lymphoma. This can be broadly divided into: secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma: most common by far, many tend to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) 1 primary hepatic lymphoma: extremely rare Pathology R...
Article

Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma

Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma is an uncommon benign hepatic tumour. Some authors even consider this to be a developmental anomaly rather than a cystic neoplasm 9,12. Epidemiology It typically occurs in children and neonates, with most cases presenting within the first two years of life 3. Ther...
Article

Hepatic peliosis

Hepatic peliosis is a rare benign vascular condition characterised by dilatation of sinusoidal blood filled spaces within the liver.  There may be involvement of other organs, most commonly the spleen and bone marrow.  It can be seen in a variety of settings and is important as appearances may m...
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Hepatic solitary fibrous tumour

Hepatic solitary fibrous tumours (hepatic SFTs) are rare mesenchymal tumours. Epidemiology Fewer than 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Female predominance (~70%). There is a mean age of 52 years at presentation, but a wide range of incidence (16-84 years). Clinical presentation ...
Article

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...
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Hepatisation of the gallbladder

Hepatisation of the gallbladder is a sonographic entity in which the gallbladder lumen is entirely filled with tumefactive sludge giving the gallbladder a similar appearance to liver parenchyma. It is one of the causes of non-visualisation of the gallbladder on sonography. Pathology In the set...
Article

Hepatoblastoma

Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumour in children under four years of age who usually present with painless abdominal mass and raised AFP. It is tumour of embryonic origin. Epidemiology Most cases are seen during the first 18 months of life and diagnosis in adulthood...
Article

Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of sub types, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated sub type, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epitheli...
Article

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Epidemiology Worldwide prevalence ~1.5 per 100,000. Wide geographic variability with much higher incidence in certain regions, e.g. 1 in 200 in Dutch Antilles, 1 in 3500 in France. Clinical presentation ...
Article

HNF 1 alpha mutated hepatic adenoma

HNF 1 alpha mutated hepatic adenomas are a genetic and pathologic subtype of hepatic adenoma. Their appearance and prognosis is different than other subtypes. Epidemiology They are the second most common (30-35%) hepatic adenoma, after the inflammatory subtype. They occur only in female patien...
Article

Infantile hepatic haemangioma

Infantile hepatic haemangiomas (IHH) are a liver lesion composed of large endothelial-lined vascular channels seen in fetuses and neonates. It should not be confused with a hepatic epithelioid haemangioendothelioma, which occurs in older patients. Terminology Those benign tumours were previous...
Article

Inferior vena cava web

Inferior vena cava (IVC) webs are an uncommon condition characterised by obstruction of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava by a membrane or fibrous band. This is often associated with occlusion of one or more of the hepatic veins. Clinical presentation If there is hepatic vein invol...
Article

Inflammatory hepatic adenoma

Inflammatory hepatic adenomas are a genetic and pathological subtype of hepatic adenoma. Their appearance and prognosis is different than other subtypes and has highest incidence of haemorrhage amongst hepatic adenoma subtypes. Epidemiology Most common subtype of hepatic adenoma (40-50%). Occu...
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behaviour.  Epidemiology It can occur at any age and there is currently no recognised gender predilection. Pathology Composed of spindle cells (key ...
Article

Insulinoma

Insulinomas are the most common sporadic endocrine tumour of the pancreas. Epidemiology Account for 40% of syndromic pancreatic endocrine tumours. Overall incidence of ~0.0003%. Clinical presentation Typically insulinomas present with Whipple's triad consisting of: fasting hypoglycemia (<50...
Article

Interstitial oedematous pancreatitis

Interstitial oedematous pancreatitis is one of the two subtypes of acute pancreatitis. It is normally referred to as "acute pancreatitis" or "uncomplicated pancreatitis" in day-to-day use. Please refer to the article on acute pancreatitis for further details. 
Article

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6. Main duct type (see below) appears to present a decade or so earlier on average than bran...
Article

Jaundice

Jaundice refers to a clinical sign of hyperbilirubinemia (>2.5 mg/dl) which has many causes. It is often a clue to a diagnosis. It can be largely divided into two types: non-obstructive, i.e. pre-hepatic and hepatic causes obstructive, i.e. post-hepatic causes Imaging has a major role in dete...
Article

Klatskin tumour

Klatskin tumour is a term that was traditionally given to a hilar cholangiocarcinoma, occuring at the bifurcation of the common hepatic duct. Typically, these tumours are small, poorly differentiated, exhibit aggressive biologic behaviour, and tend to obstruct the intrahepatic bile ducts. Epide...
Article

Kyste hydatique

This originally French article needs further translation and merging with the existing English article on hydatid disease. Le kyste hydatique est une affection parasitaire due au taenia granulosis, considérée comme une zoonose atteignant aussi bien l'homme que les animaux, notamment les carnivo...
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Limy bile

Limy bile stands for the presence of a viscous substance in the dependent parts of the gallbladder and/or bile ducts, almost entirely composed of calcium carbonate, and therefore highly radiopaque. Terminology The terms limy bile and calcium milk gallbladder can be used interchangeably for inc...
Article

Mastocytosis

Mastocytosis is a disorder of excessive mast cell proliferation, which is now classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm. Two clinical entities fall under the mastocytosis umbrella: cutaneous (urticaria pigmentosa) and systemic mastocytosis (with or without cutaneous manifestations). The articl...
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Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis is a haematological disorder where there is the replacement of bone marrow with collagenous connective tissue and progressive fibrosis. It is also classified as a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterised by: extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) progressive splenomegaly ana...
Article

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs when fat is deposited into hepatocytes without a known cause (such as with alcoholic fatty liver disease). The deposition of fat may lead to hepatic inflammation (hepatitis) and may eventually lead to cirrhosis. Terminology "Nonalcoholic fatty li...
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Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia

Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is a precursor lesion to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but the frequency at which this transition occurs is unknown.  Epidemiology Increasing incidence with age 1. Risk factors: obesity pancreatic lipomatosis 3 Pathology More commonly locat...
Article

Pancreatic lipomatosis

Pancreatic lipomatosis refers to fatty replacement of pancreatic parenchyma. This finding is most often associated with obesity and aging.  It tends to be commonest pathological condition involving the pancreas. The condition may occassionally simulate a mass like lesion particularly when fatty...
Article

Pancreatic lymphoma

Pancreatic lymphoma is most commonly a B-cell sub-type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is classified as either primary or secondary: primary pancreatic lymphoma is a rare extranodal manifestation of any histopathologic subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, representing < 2% of extranodal lympho...
Article

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Pancreatic pseudocysts are common sequelae of acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis, and the most common cystic lesion of the pancreas. They are important both in terms of management and differentiation from other cystic processes or masses in this region. Terminology The following are th...
Article

Pancreatic trauma

The pancreas is uncommonly injured in blunt trauma. However, pancreatic trauma has a high morbidity and mortality. Imaging features range between subtle to obvious. Epidemiology The pancreas is injured in ~7.5% (range 2-13%) of blunt trauma cases 1,3. Motor vehicle accidents account for the va...
Article

Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare paediatric tumours of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean ag...
Article

Paraduodenal pancreatitis

Paraduodenal pancreatitis is an uncommon type of focal chronic pancreatitis affecting the groove between the head of the pancreas, the duodenum and the common bile duct. Terminology The following entities with which it shares clinicopathological features are unified by this term and should no ...
Article

Passive hepatic congestion

Passive hepatic congestion or congested liver in cardiac disease is the stasis of blood in the hepatic parenchyma, due to impaired hepatic venous drainage which leads to widening and splaying of the central hepatic veins and hepatomegaly.  Passive hepatic congestion is a well-studied result of ...
Article

Portopulmonary hypertension

Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH/PPHTN) refers to pulmonary artery hypertension that develops in the setting of portal hypertension (with or without underlying liver disease). It falls under group 1.4 under the Dana point 2008 pulmonary hypertension classification system. Epidemiology The pre...
Article

Post transplant lymphoproliferative / lymphoproliferation disorder (PTLD)

Post transplant lymphoproliferative/lymphoproliferation disorder (PTLD) is increasing in prevalence as the number and survival length of solid organ and bone-marrow transplant recipients also increases. It represents a variety of conditions varying from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy but is...
Article

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease that is the cause of 1-2% of deaths from cirrhosis, and constitutes the third most common indication for liver transplantation in adults. Epidemiology The typical patient is a middle-aged woman presenting with s...
Article

Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukaemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumour is detected (see: secondary hep...
Article

Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria, also referred as primary oxalosis, is a congenital autosomal recessive disease related to a liver enzyme deficiency leading to massive cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.  Please, refer on secondary oxalosis for a discussion on the acquired form of hyperoxaluria....
Article

Pseudopancreatitis

Pseudopancreatitis refers to the presence of fluid in or around the pancreas in the setting of trauma but in the absence of direct signs of traumatic pancreatic injury. Most patients will have a normal serum lipase level, but amylase has a limited sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic traum...
Article

Rhabdomyosarcomas (biliary tract)

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the biliary tract are rare tumours, usually identified in children, with a very poor prognosis. They are usually grouped under botryoid rhabdomyosarcomas. For a general discussion of this type of tumour, please refer to the article on rhabdomyosarcomas. Epidemiology Rhabd...
Article

Sarcoidosis (abdominal manifestations)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Virtually any organ system may be involved.  Although the involvement of abdominal viscera is less frequent than pulmonary and mediastinal disease when it occurs, it may m...
Article

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis (also referred to as bilharzia or snail fever) is the result of infection by blood fluke (trematode worm) of the Schistosoma species. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Africa. It is prevalent in tropi...
Article

Schistosomiasis (hepatic manifestations)

Schistosomiasis hepatic manifestations are a chronic result of the deposition of eggs into small portal venules leading to periportal fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.   For a general view over this trematode infection, please refer to the main article on schistosomiasis.  Clinical presentation U...
Article

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma (secondary hepatic lymphoma) is common, much more so than primary hepatic lymphoma.  Clinical presentation Hepatomegaly with deranged liver function tests is the most common presentation. Jaundice is common. Rarely, patients may present with acute li...
Article

Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas (or microcystic adenoma) is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical presentation M...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. The highest ...
Article

Simple hepatic cyst

Simple hepatic cysts are common benign liver lesions and have no malignant potential. They can be diagnosed on ultrasound, CT, or MRI. Epidemiology Simple hepatic cysts are one of the commonest liver lesions, occurring in ~2-7% of the population 1-2. There may be a slight female predilection. ...
Article

Solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas

Solid pseudopapillary tumours (SPT) of the pancreas are rare (usually benign) pancreatic tumours. Terminology The tumour has been referred to with multiple different names, including: solid pseudopapillary tumour (SPT) of the pancreas solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) solid pseudopapilla...
Article

Spindle cell hepatocellular carcinoma

Spindle cell hepatocellular carcinoma, also called sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma, is a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These patients are reported to have low or normal AFP levels, otherwise risk factors and clinical presentation are similar to typical hepatocellular carci...
Article

Splenic hamartoma

Splenic hamartomas are very rare and usually solitary although may be present as multiple nodules present in tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The only recently described entity sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen, a non-neoplastic vascular entity de...
Article

Splenic hydatid infection

Splenic hydatid infection is a rare form of Hydatid disease, and isolated splenic involvement is even less common. Epidemiology Splenic hydatid disease has been reported to constitute up to 4% of cases of abdominal hydatid disease 4. Pathology Splenic hydatid cysts are usually solitary. As t...

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