Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

91 results found
Article

Atypical small acinar proliferation

Atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP) are premalignant lesions of the prostate, which can be found in as many as 5% of prostate biopsies. They are suspicious glands without adequate histologic atypia to establish a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. Some studies showed that there is ...
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Cushing syndrome

Cushing syndrome is due to the effects of excessive glucocorticoids which may be exogenous or endogenous. Pathology In modern Western populations, iatrogenic steroid administration for treatment of inflammatory condition is the most common cause, e.g. asthma, rheumatoid arthritis. Endogenous ...
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Granulomatous prostatitis

Granulomatous prostatitis is a nodular form of chronic prostatitis. It is usually diagnosed on biopsy. Pathology Causes idiopathic infection iatrogenic BCG post-radiotherapy systemic disease: sarcoidosis autoimmune Subtypes Several classification systems exist. A frequently used clas...
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Haematuria (adult)

Haematuria occurs when blood enters the urinary collecting system. There are many aetiologies for haematuria, and they range from benign and transient to gravely concerning. Haematuria can derive from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate (in men), or urethra. Imaging can often be useful to de...
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Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by a mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast ca...
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HIV-associated nephropathy

HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is commonly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS and leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The diagnosis is not imaging-based and must be confirmed by renal biopsy. Epidemiology HIVAN is seen in patients at advanced stages of HIV and AIDS, but it can also be see...
Article

Horseshoe adrenal gland

A horseshoe adrenal gland is a very rare anomaly. It is also sometimes called a butterfly adrenal gland, fused adrenal gland or midline adrenal gland. It is a solitary adrenal gland that is present in the midline of the fused portion either passing between the aorta and the inferior vena cava o...
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Hutch diverticulum

Hutch diverticula are congenital bladder diverticula, seen at the vesicoureteric junction, in the absence of posterior urethral valves or neurogenic bladder. They are thought to result from a weakness in the detrusor muscle anterolateral to the ureteral orifice. Epidemiology They occur almost...
Article

Hydrocoele

Hydrocoeles are acquired or congenital serous fluid collection between the layers of the tunica vaginalis surrounding a testis or spermatic cord. They are the most common form of testicular enlargement and present with painless enlargement of the scrotum. On all modalities, hydrocoeles appear as...
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Hydrocoele of the canal of Nuck

Hydrocoele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck 1. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora 2. Incomplete oblit...
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Hypospadias

Hypospadias refers to a type of congenital malformation affecting the male external genitalia. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 (range 0.2-4.1) per 1000 live births. Pathology The urethral meatus is abnormally positioned proximally and ventrally to its normal position. It is thou...
Article

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is a subtype of retroperitoneal fibrosis where no obvious cause is found. It includes a spectrum of diseases which are characterized by fibroinflammatory tissue encasing the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. This process may extend into the retrope...
Article

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis (ISC), sometimes called dystrophic scrotal calcinosis,  is a rare benign condition characterized by superficial calcifications within the skin of the scrotum of unclear etiology, typically affecting men aged 20-40. The condition is primarily cosmetic, but may recur ...
Article

Imperforate hymen

Imperforate hymen is a congenital condition in which the hymen is without a normal central opening. Epidemiology It happens in 0.1% of the female population, usually an isolated finding.  Clinical features Primary amenorrhea with cyclic lower abdominal pain during menarche age. An imperforat...
Article

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behaviour.  Epidemiology It can occur at any age and there is currently no recognised gender predilection. Pathology Composed of spindle cells (key ...
Article

Intrarenal reflux

Intrarenal reflux (IRR) involves intrarenal extension of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) into the tubular system of the kidney. IRR occurs in 3-10% of cases and can lead to renal injury, which may eventually result in renal scarring. The condition can be diagnosed by micturating cystourethrography ...
Article

Intratesticular varicocoele

Intratesticular varicocele is a rare entity, occurring in ~2% of symptomatic population. Pathology It is defined as dilated intratesticular veins seen in relation to the mediastinum testis and extending peripherally. It is usually seen in the presence of ipsilateral extratesticular varicocele....
Article

Jackstone calculus

Jackstone calculus is the name assigned to the appearance of a subset of urinary calculi. Pathology Jackstone calculi are almost always composed of calcium oxalate dihydrate. They are nearly always created, and thus, located, in the bladder rather than the upper urinary tract. They are compos...
Article

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour (JGCT) is an infrequent renal tumour of the juxtaglomerular cells. These cells secrete renin and often cause severe hypertension and hypokalaemia. Epidemiology JGCT affects all age groups, but is most common in adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence in t...
Article

Lacuna magna

Lacuna magna (a.k.a. sinus of Guérin) is a congenital blind-ended pouch located dorsal to navicular fossa of penis separated by fold and both share an external common opening to external urethral meatus. This diverticulum is located above and parallel to the urethra.  Epidemiology Although it ...
Article

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign tumour predominantly found in women, although men can also be affected. The most common presenting complaints are urinary voiding symptoms such as obstruction and irritation.  It exhibits characteristics similar to those of uterine leiomyomas on...
Article

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract is a squamous metaplasia of the urothelium (keratinisation).  Clinical presentation Clinically the condition presents with haematuria in one-third of cases, dysuria, frequency and nocturia, and thus it can mimic cystitis. Passage of the desquamated keratinised ...
Article

Lithium-induced renal disease

Lithium-induced renal disease is characterised by a progressive decline in renal function, evidenced by increasing serum creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. The lithium salt causes direct injury to the renal tubules. The duration of lithium therapy increases the risk of progression to...
Article

Localised cystic renal disease

Localised cystic renal disease (LCRD) or localised cystic kidney disease is an uncommon, non-familial, non-progressive disease characterised by clusters of cysts within normal renal parenchyma. It can be confused with unilateral autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), multilocular ...
Article

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multi-system disorder that can occur either sporadically or in association with the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and is often considered a forme fruste of TSC. Epidemiology It almost exclusively affects women of child-bearing age 7. The estimated in...
Article

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a type of gonadal dysgenesis characterised by gonadal asymmetry, and/or sex chromosomal mosaicism, as well as retained Müllerian ducts. Pathology Depending on the chromosomal composition, patients may have testes and/or streak gonads. Genetics affected indiv...
Article

Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour of the kidney

Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST) of the kidney is an uncommon and recently recognised distinct neoplasm that should be distinguished from other renal neoplasms.  Epidemiology There is a female preponderance 10:1 1 with tumours occurring predominantly in middle-aged peri-menopausal wo...
Article

Moth eaten calyces

Moth eaten calyx refers to the ragged, feathery calyceal outline due to irregular erosions of the calyx. It is one of the earliest excretory urographic appearance of genitourinary tuberculosis.  Pathology This appearance is due to necrotizing papillitis, which may further progress to form medu...
Article

Mulberry stone

A mulberry stone is one of the types of urinary tract stones. It is formed of calcium oxalate dihydrate. It can be considered as a subset of a jackstone calculus which has a spiked appearance. When the stone has less well-developed spikes, it may appear to have a mamillated appearance, hence it ...
Article

Multilocular cystic renal tumours

Multilocular cystic renal tumours (MCRT) are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in a bimodal age distribution, involving young children and adults in the 4th and 5th decades. For logical reasons, this article will discuss together the two ends of the spectrum of this disease, cystic partiall...
Article

Neonatal hydronephrosis

Neonatal hydronephrosis is most commonly diagnosed antenatally as fetal pylectasis, and in the majority of cases is due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction.   Pathology Aetiology pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction (50% of cases 1,6) vesicoureteric reflux (~20% of cases 5) po...
Article

Nephroptosis

Nephroptosis, also known as floating or wandering kidney and ren mobilis, refers to the descent of the kidney more than 5 cm or two vertebral bodies when the patient moves from a supine to upright position during IVU 1-2. Displacement can also occur medially across the midline, so-called medial...
Article

Orchitis

Orchitis is an infection of the testicle, which is rarely isolated, and when in conjunction with the epididymis is called epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Usually bacteria retrogradely seed into the testis from the bladder or prostate. Can also be secondary to viral infection (e.g. mumps, Coxsack...
Article

Paintbrush appearance

A paintbrush appearance describes the streaky appearances of dilated contrast filled tubules within the renal medulla on IVP or CT-IVU. This appearance is characteristic for medullary sponge kidneys. See also bouquet of flowers appearance
Article

Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis

Papillary cystadenomas of the epididymis are the second most common benign tumours of the epididymis after adenomatoid tumours. They are more common in young men. Approximately 30% of the patients have von Hippel Lindau disease and approximately 10% to 40% of patients with von Hippel-Lindau dise...
Article

Pelvic abscess

A pelvic abscess refers to a collection of pus in the pelvis, Pathology  Causes  Some of the causes include pelvic inflammatory disease (tubo-ovarian abscess) post surgical inflammatory bowel disease pelvic actinomycosis infection diverticulitis Clinical presentation Presenting complai...
Article

Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction

Pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephros...
Article

Peyronie disease

Peyronie disease is the most common cause of painful penile induration. Fibrous tissue plaques form within the tunica albuginea, causing painful deformity and shortening of the penis. Though clinical diagnosis is usually accurate, the role of imaging is to evaluate extension of plaques, whether ...
Article

Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% a...
Article

Pie in the sky bladder

Pie in the sky bladder refers to the appearance of contrast opacified floating bladder seen high in the pelvis due to a presence of a large pelvic haematoma. This sign should raise concern regarding the possibility of an underlying urethral injury.
Article

Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
Article

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), also referred as post-transplant lymphoproliferation disorder, represents a variety of conditions ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy, included in the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. It ca...
Article

Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter fa...
Article

Priapism

Priapism is a term for a penile erection that occurs longer than desired. It may occur for multiple reasons, and the role of imaging in priapism is to distinguish between ischemic low-flow priapism (95%) and non-ischemic high-flow priapism (5%). In most cases only the corpora cavernosa are affec...
Article

Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria, also referred as primary oxalosis, is a congenital autosomal recessive disease related to a liver enzyme deficiency leading to massive cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.  Please, refer on secondary oxalosis for a discussion on the acquired form of hyperoxaluria....
Article

Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumour marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquifying agent for seminal fluid and the normal amount in human serum is usually ver...
Article

Prostatic abscess

Prostatic abscesses can be a rare complication of prostatitis.  Epidemiology It has become relatively uncommon in clinical practice due to antibiotic therapy in those with prostatitis. It tends to affect diabetic and immunosuppressed patients. Most patients tend to present in the 5th to 6th de...
Article

Prostatic calcification

Prostatic calcification is a common finding, especially after the age of 50. They may be solitary but usually occur in clusters 7. Epidemiology They are rare in children, infrequent below 40, and common in those over 50. Their number and size increase with age 8. Clinical presentation Prosta...
Article

Prostatic carcinoma

Prostatic carcinoma ranks as the most common malignant tumour in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is by far the most common histological type and is the primary focus of this article. Epidemiology It is primarily a disease of the el...
Article

Prostatic infarction

Prostatic infarction refers to necrosis of the prostate gland tissue from a lack of blood supply. Pathology Histology Histology slices on biopsy specimens may show reactive atypia 3. Causes prostatic artery embolisation presumed pelvic ischaemia after cross-clamping of the aorta for coron...
Article

Prostatic tuberculosis

Prostatic tuberculosis or Tuberculous prostatitis is an uncommon extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology Primary tuberculosis of the prostate is rare. Genitourinary tuberculosis contributes to 5-10% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis in developed countries...
Article

Prostatitis

Prostatitis refers to an infection or inflammation of the prostate gland that presents as several syndromes with varying clinical features. Prostatitis is a clinical diagnosis and imaging is useful to evaluate abscess formation.  The National Institutes of Health (NIH) classified prostatitis in...
Article

Renal amyloidosis

Renal amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity but can be associated with systemic amyloidosis. Renal involvement from amyloidosis in pathological specimens is quite common. However, renal function compromise is rare. Clinical presentation It usually manifests as nephrotic syndrome: fever a...
Article

Renal arteriovenous fistula

Renal arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are anomalous direct communications between arteries and veins in the kidney, which may be confused with a renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Epidemiology The incidence of renal AVF is variable, estimated at 0.3-19% in native kidneys and 6-8% in ren...
Article

Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumour. They usually occur in 50-70-year-old patients and macroscopic haematuria occurs in 60% of the cases.  On imaging, they have a variety of ra...
Article

Renal cyst

Renal cysts are a common finding in the kidneys. Findings common to all "simple" renal cysts are well-marginated, thin walls with no enhancement of the cyst. They can be diagnosed on ultrasound, CT, or MRI. A cystic lesion in the kidney that deviates from the typical "simple" cyst appearance sho...
Article

Renal haemosiderosis

Renal hemosiderosis results from accumulation of hemosiderin in the kidneys. Renal haemosiderosis is a known complication of the following conditions: chronic intravascular hemolytic states such as haemolytic anaemias like sickle cell anemia and thalassemia 1,3 paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglo...
Article

Renal hydatid infection

Renal hydatid infection is extremely rare and is seen in less than 5% of patients with hydatid disease1. Infection is caused by a parasitic zoonosis with the Echinococcus tape worm. (see Hydatid disease for a general discussion). The kidneys are the most commonly affected urinary organs, but bla...
Article

Renal lymphangiectasia

Renal lymphangiectasia (or renal lymphangioma), is a rare disorder, where there is dilatation of perirenal, peripelvic and intrarenal lymphatics. The diagnosis can be suggested by imaging, and aspiration of chylous fluid is usually confirmatory. Terminology It is important to note that there i...
Article

Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually seen as a part of spectrum of multi-systemic lymphoma, however, rarely may be seen as a primary disease. Epidemiology While renal lymphoma has autopsy incidence of 30-60% in lymphoma patients, actual CT diagnosis incidence is ~ 5%1. The kidneys are the most common ab...
Article

Renal milk of calcium cysts

Renal milk of calcium cysts refer to the appearance of a calcium precipitate found within a calyceal diverticulum that has lost communication with the collecting system or within a simple renal cyst.  Clinical presentation Renal milk of calcium cysts are typically asymptomatic.  Pathology Re...
Article

Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytoma is a relatively benign renal tumour. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...
Article

Renal replacement lipomatosis

Renal replacement lipomatosis is a rare condition characterised by fatty tissue proliferation in renal sinus and perinephric space with marked destruction/atrophy of renal parenchyma (due to chronic inflammation). Pathology It has been associated with ageing, calculus disease (nearly 70% of ca...
Article

Renal sinus lipomatosis

Renal sinus lipomatosis refers to a condition where there is excessive renal sinus fat replacement. Pathology It results from renal parenchymal atrophy, inflammation, calculous disease, ageing or exogenous or endogenous steroids. There is usually no or rarely little mass effect on collecting ...
Article

Renal trauma

Renal trauma can result from direct, blunt, penetrating and iatrogenic injury. Epidemiology Renal injuries account for ~10% of abdominal trauma, and thus the demographic of affected individuals reflects that population. The incidence of renal injuries increases in pre-existing congenital or ac...
Article

Renal tubular ectasia

Renal tubular ectasia is an incidental finding that is seen more commonly on intravenous pyelography (IVP), but which can also occasionally be seen on CT urography (CTU). Terminology Renal tubular ectasia is also known as benign renal tubular ectasia. The term "benign" was used to differentiat...
Article

Retroperitoneal fibrosis

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), is a condition that has previously been described as chronic periaortitis. It is an uncommon fibrotic reaction in the retroperitoneum that typically presents with ureteric obstruction. The disease is part of a spectrum of entities that have a common pathogenic pr...
Article

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Retroperitoneal haemorrhage can be a source of significant yet occult blood loss. Clinical presentation The clinical features are varied depending on the amount of hemorrhage present, rate of onset and ability of the surrounding structures to contain the hemostatic system. The classical featur...
Article

Rim sign in renal vascular compromise

Rim sign in renal vascular compromise is seen in major renal vascular compromise. It can be seen in: renal artery obstruction from embolism, thrombosis or dissection renal vein thrombosis acute tubular necrosis Radiographic features At contrast-enhanced CT or MRI, a thin (1-3 mm) rim of su...
Article

Sarcoidosis (abdominal manifestations)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Virtually any organ system may be involved.  Although the involvement of abdominal viscera is less frequent than pulmonary and mediastinal disease when it occurs, it may m...
Article

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas (sRCC) may develop when one of the more common subtypes of renal cell carcinoma degenerates into a sarcoma. On imaging, they are generally large masses, with irregular contours, and malignant-appearing, but do not have specific imaging features. Epidemiology ...
Article

Schiller-Duval body (histology)

Schiller-Duval body is a perivascular structure that can be found in 50% of testicular yolk sac tumours also known as endodermal sinus tumours. If present it is considered pathognomonic.  Pathology A central vessel is surrounded by tumour cells, and the cell-vessel complex is contained in a cy...
Article

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis (also referred to as bilharzia or snail fever) is the result of infection by blood fluke (trematode worm) of the Schistosoma species. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Africa. It is prevalent in tropi...
Article

Schistosomiasis (urinary tract manifestations)

Bladder schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia of the bladder, is a major health problem in developing parts of the world predisposing individuals to squamous cell carcinoma. Epidemiology Schistosomiasis is very common, affecting over 200 million people, with the vast majority (85%) in Afric...
Article

Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
Article

Scleroderma (renal manifestations)

Renal manifestations of scleroderma are common, affecting up to 25% of patients. Some patients (5-10%) can present with a scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). These patients have abrupt onset of hypertension, acute renal failure 4.  For a general discussion of scleroderma, please refer to the parent...
Article

Scrotal cystocele

Scrotal cystoceles are a type of urinary bladder hernia, where the bladder herniates into the scrotum. Clinical presentation asymptomatic voiding problems scrotal swelling Radiogaphic features Ultrasound Scrotal sac will contain fluid. Emptying of a scrotal cystocele with voiding is an im...
Article

Scrotal haematocele

Scrotal haematocoeles are collections of blood within the scrotal sac, but outside of the testicle. Pathology A haematocele normally occurs following trauma to the scrotum, or on occasion following surgery. Some think that a varicocele is a risk factor for developing a haematocoele 4. Radiogr...
Article

Scrotal pyocoele

Scrotal pyocoeles are purulent fluid collections in the scrotal sac that generally occur in conjunction with epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Scrotal pyocoeles are typically a complication of epididymo-orchitis and testicular abscess but can also occur following trauma or surgery. The purulent fl...
Article

Segmental renal hypoplasia

Segmental renal hypoplasia (also known as the Ask-Upmark kidney) is a type of renal hypoplasia. It is often found in young females with severe hypertension. The aetiology is unknown but has been postulated to be congenital or a sequelae of pyelonephritis. It is associated with severe juvenile hy...
Article

Seminal vesicle cyst

Seminal vesicle cysts can be congenital or acquired. Congenital It is the presence of cysts within the seminal vesicles since birth. It is seen rarely and occurs probably due to an obstruction at the junction of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct. It is associated with many other urogeni...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. ...
Article

Sildenafil citrate induced penile doppler

Erectile dysfunction is the occassional or consistent inability of a male to attain and maintain a penile erection sufficient enough and for a suffcient duration so as to allow vaginal penetration. Erectile dysfunction is multifactorial in etiology. In general erectile dysfunction increases wit...
Article

Spermatocoele

Spermatocoeles are a common type of extra-testicular cyst, and represents cystic dilatation of tubules of the efferent ductules in the head of the epididymis. Clinical presentation Usually a painless, incidental finding but can present as a mass lesion if large 3. Pathology Spermatocoeles ar...
Article

Sperm cell granuloma

Sperm cell granuloma, also termed epididymitis nodosa, is a benign lesion that can occur in the scrotum. They can particularly occur in those with a prior vasectomy (occurs after vasectomy in up to 40% of patients 2). Pathology It is considered a form of chronic epididymitis which occurs secon...
Article

Spinning top urethra

Spinning top urethra is non-obstructive posterior urethral dilatation seen on voiding cystourethrography, mainly in females. It was initially considered as an indicator of distal urethral narrowing/stenosis. However, it is now believed to be due to functional discoordinate voiding or bladder ins...
Article

Split bolus technique

The split bolus technique is a CT imaging investigation used in patients with haematuria aiming to put together, in a single image acquisition, both the nephrographic and renal excretory phases and thus reducing the radiation dose of the study. It is a CT protocol adopted for some institutions f...
Article

Spoke wheel pattern in kidney

A spoke wheel pattern in renal imaging refers to a vascular appearance seen with certain renal tumours, typically seen in oncocytomas but can also be seen in renal cell carcinomas.  This appearance refers to a peripheral rim of vessels from which centripetal vessels converge centrally giving th...
Article

Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage

Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage (SRH) is a distinctive clinical pathology of retroperitoneal bleeding without a preceding history of trauma. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation may be vague and varied: no inciting history no evidence of cutaneous bruising back, lower abdomin...
Article

Spotted nephrogram

A spotted nephrogram refers to non homogenous, irregular, patchy renal parenchymal enhancement seen predominantly on angiograms. Pathology It is considered to be due to focal areas of cortical ischaemia or necrosis seen as a result of small vessel occlusion. This abnormal perfusion pattern can...
Article

Subcapsular perirenal haematoma

A subcapsular perirenal haematoma is a form of perirenal haematoma where blood accumulates beneath the renal capsular margin. Pathology It can arise from a number of causes trauma, important in assessing renal trauma grading post procedural, e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) ...

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