Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

154 results found
Article

Atypical small acinar proliferation

Atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP) are premalignant lesions of the prostate, which can be found in as many as 5% of prostate biopsies. They are suspicious glands without adequate histologic atypia to establish a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. Some studies showed that there is ...
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Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), also sometimes more vaguely referred to as "adult polycystic kidney disease", is as the name would suggest, a hereditary form of adult cystic renal disease.  Epidemiology Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is one of the most commo...
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Azoospermia

Azoospermia refers to complete absence of sperm in the semen. It accounts for 5-10% of male infertility 1. Pathology It can be obstructive or non-obstructive, e.g. primary testicular failure. This differentiation is of utmost importance, as obstructive azoospermia can be corrected by surgical ...
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Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multi-systemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in...
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Bladder and ureteric tuberculosis

Bladder and ureteric tuberculosis (TB) refers to infection of ureters and urinary bladder with M. tuberculosis. Radiographic features Ureteric TB IVP characteristic beaded appearance due to alternate areas of strictures and dilatation (chronic state) CT acute: ureteral wall thickening​ ​c...
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Bladder exstrophy

Bladder exstrophy (also known as ectopia vesicae) refers to a herniation of the urinary bladder through an anterior abdominal wall defect. The severity of these defects is widely variable. Epidemiology The estimated incidence of bladder exstrophy is 1:10,000-50,000 live births 4,6. There is a ...
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Bullet and bodkin sign

Bullet and bodkin sign is the appearance of the ureter when there is an abrupt transition in the ureteral caliber. Bullet in the name is represented by the dilated proximal ureteric segment which appears to be perched on the constricted / non-dilated encased ureter which gives an appearance of a...
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Burned out testis tumour

A burned out testis tumour may be present if there is metastatic retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, but the primary testicular tumor is a relatively occult, scarred intratesticular focus. Approximately 50% of the "burned out" tumors continue to harbor malignant cells. Pathology Retroperitoneal g...
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Calciphylaxis

Calciphylaxis, or calcific ureamic arteriolopathy, is a rare condition which manifests as subcutaneous vascular calcification and cutaneous necrosis (small blood vessels of the fat tissue and the skin). Some authors describe as a syndrome of vascular calcification, thrombosis and skin necrosis. ...
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Calyceal microlithiasis

Calyceal microlithiasis or more specifically renal calyceal microlithiasis is defined as <3 mm hyperechoic foci noted within the renal calyces on gray scale ultrasonography 1. It has been considered as a precursor for renal stone formation.  Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomati...
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Cesarean section scar diverticulum

Cesarean section scar diverticulums are a defect in the lower uterine cavity at the site of the cesarean section scar.  Clinical presentation mostly asymptomatic postmenstrual spotting in a study was found to be the only finding in patients with bleeding disturbances Radiographic features ...
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Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal failure, is a progressive loss of glomerular function caused by a long-standing renal parenchymal disease. It is present when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for three consecutive months or greater than...
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Chronic periaortitis

Chronic periaortitis is an inflammatory condition which typically involves the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta. It is a rare disease usually occuring in middle-aged men. It has various clinical presentations: idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) perianeurysmal retroperitoneal f...
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Chronic pyelonephritis

Chronic pyelonephritis is form of pyelonephritis where there are longstanding sequelae of renal infection. At the time of writing there is still no definitive consensus at to whether the condition represents an active chronic infection, arises from multiple recurrent infections, or represents st...
Article

Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

Clear cell sarcomas (CCS) of the kidney are a rare mesenchymal renal tumour that accounts for ~5% of primary renal neoplasms in paediatric population 1.  Epidemiology CCS is the second most common primary malignant renal neoplasm after Wilms tumour, with an annual incidence of 20 cases in the ...
Article

Colovesical fistula

Colovesical fistulas are communications between the lumen of the colon and that of the bladder, either directly or via an intervening abscess cavity (foyer intermediaire). When the communication is between the rectum and urinary bladder, the term rectovesical fistula is used. Epidemiology The ...
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Congenital urachal anomalies

Congenital urachal anomalies are a spectrum of potential anomalies that can occur due to incomplete involution of the urachus. Epidemiology A urachal remnant occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 patients. Pathology The urachus connects the dome of the bladder to the umbilical cord during fetal ...
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Crossed fused renal ectopia

Crossed fused renal ectopia essentially refers to an anomaly where the kidneys are fused and located on the same side of the midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is around 1 out of 1000 births 1. There is a recognised male predilection with a 2:1 male to female ratio. More than 90% of...
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Cryptorchidism

Cryptorchidism refers to an absence of a testis (or testes) in the scrotal sac. It may refer to an undescended testis, ectopic testis, or an atrophic or absent testis. Correct localisation of the testes is essential because surgical management varies on location. Pathology The testes develop i...
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Cushing syndrome

Cushing syndrome is due to the effects of excessive glucocorticoids which may be exogenous or endogenous. Pathology In modern Western populations, iatrogenic steroid administration for treatment of inflammatory condition is the most common cause, e.g. asthma, rheumatoid arthritis. Endogenous ...
Article

Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is the deficiency or resistance to the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which results in polyuria and polydipsia.  Epidemiology DI occurs in 3 per 100,000 people 2.  Pathology DI may be described as 1-3: central/neurogenic/hypothalamic: vasopressin deficie...
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Ductus deferens calcification

Calcification of the ductus deferens can result from: diabetes mellitus - most common normal ageing chronic infection - more frequently irregular and unilateral tuberculosis syphilis gonorrhea schistosomiasis chronic urinary tract infection
Article

Emphysematous cystitis

Emphysematous cystitis (EC) refers to gas forming infection of the bladder wall. Epidemiology The condition is rare and usually confined to certain patient subgroups. Risk factors Risk factors include: diabetes mellitus considered the commonest predisposing factor 6 may be present in ~50%...
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Emphysematous pyelonephritis

Emphysematous pyelonephritis refers to a  morbid infection of kidneys, with characteristic gas formation within or around the kidneys. If not treated early, it may lead to fulminant sepsis and carries a high mortality. Clinical presentation The patient usually presents with flank pain, urinary...
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Epididymitis

Epididymitis refers to inflammation of the epididymis, and may be associated with inflammation extending to the testis itself, in which case the term epididymo-orchitis is used. This should be distinguished from isolated orchitis, which is by comparison much less common.  Epidemiology There ar...
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Epispadias

Epispadias is a rare congenital anomaly that is almost always associated with bladder exstrophy.  Epidemiology It occurs in 1 in 30,000 births, with a male: female ratio of 3:1. Clinical presentation In males, three types are described - glandular, penile and complete. Glandular form is most...
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Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a physiologic compensatory event in many hematologic diseases. It occurs most commonly in the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes and less frequently in the lung, pleura, breast, thymus, small bowel, and central nervous system.1  EMH in the adrenal is uncommon,2...
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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
Article

Fetal hydrocoele

A fetal hydrocoele refers to an hydrocoele present in utero. Epidemiology They may be sonographically identified in ~ 15% of male fetuses in the third trimester 6. Pathology Often result from a patent processus vaginalis. They are more frequently unilateral.  Associations hydrops fetalis ...
Article

Fournier gangrene

Fournier gangrene is a necrotising fasciitis of the perineum. It is a true urological emergency due to the high mortality rate but fortunately the condition is rare. Epidemiology Fournier gangrene is typically seen in diabetic men aged 50-70 but is rarely seen in women. Other than age, predisp...
Article

Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
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Germinoma

The term germinoma usually refers to a tumour of the brain (WHO Classification of CNS tumours), but can also refer to similar tumours of the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma All three tumours share similar histology. 
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, is a multisystem systemic necrotising non-caseating granulomatous vasculitis affecting small to medium sized arteries, capillaries and veins, with a predilection for the respiratory system and kidneys 3. This ar...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (renal manifestations)

The renal manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis) are occult on imaging, especially when compared to the pulmonary changes. Approximately half of GPA patients have kidney disease at presentation. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (We...
Article

Granulomatous prostatitis

Granulomatous prostatitis is a nodular form of chronic prostatitis. It is usually diagnosed on biopsy. Pathology Causes idiopathic infection iatrogenic BCG post-radiotherapy systemic disease: sarcoidosis autoimmune Subtypes Several classification systems exist. A frequently used clas...
Article

Haematuria (adult)

Haematuria occurs when blood enters the urinary collecting system. There are many aetiologies for haematuria, and they range from benign and transient to gravely concerning. Haematuria can derive from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate (in men), or urethra. Imaging can often be useful to de...
Article

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast canc...
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HIV-associated nephropathy

HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is commonly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS and leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The diagnosis is not imaging-based and must be confirmed by renal biopsy. Epidemiology HIVAN is seen in patients at advanced stages of HIV and AIDS, but it can also be see...
Article

Horseshoe adrenal gland

An horseshoe adrenal gland is very rare anomaly. It is also sometimes called a butterfly adrenal gland, fused adrenal gland or midline adrenal gland. It is the solitary adrenal gland that is present in the midline with the fused portion either passing between the aorta and the inferior vena cav...
Article

Hutch diverticulum

Hutch diverticula are congenital bladder diverticula, seen at the vesicoureteric junction, in the absence of posterior urethral valves or neurogenic bladder. They are though to result from a weakness in the detrusor muscle anterolateral to the ureteral orifice. Epidemiology The occur almost e...
Article

Hydrocoele

Hydroceles are acquired or congenital serous fluid collection between the layers of the tunica vaginalis surrounding a testis or spermatic cord. They are the most common form of testicular enlargement, and present with painless enlargement of the scrotum. On all modalities, hydrocoeles appear as...
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Hydrocoele of the canal of Nuck

Hydrocoele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck 1. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora 2. Incomplete oblit...
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Hypospadias

Hypospadias refers to type of congential malformation affecting the male external genitalia. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 (range 0.2-4.1) per 1000 live births. Pathology The urethral meatus is abnormally positioned proximally and ventrally to its normal position. It is though...
Article

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is a subtype of retroperitoneal fibrosis where no obvious cause is found. It includes a spectrum of diseases which are characterized by fibroinflammatory tissue encasing the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. This process may extend into the retrope...
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Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis (ISC), sometimes called dystrophic scrotal calcinosis,  is a rare benign condition characterized by superficial calcifications within the skin of the scrotum of unclear etiology, typically affecting men aged 20-40. The condition is primarily cosmetic, but may recur ...
Article

Imperforate hymen

Imperforate hymen is a congenital condition in which the hymen is without a normal central opening. Epidemiology It happens in 0.1% of the female population, usually an isolated finding.  Clinical features Primary amenorrhea with cyclic lower abdominal pain during menarche age. An imperforat...
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behaviour.  Epidemiology It can occur at any age and there is currently no recognised gender predilection. Pathology Composed of spindle cells (key ...
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Intrarenal reflux

Intrarenal reflux (IRR) involves intrarenal extension of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) into the tubular system of the kidney. IRR occurs in 3-10% of cases and can lead to renal injury, which may eventually result in renal scarring. The condition can be diagnosed by micturating cystourethrography ...
Article

Intratesticular varicocoele

Intratesticular varicocele is a rare entity, occurring in ~2% of symptomatic population. Pathology It is defined as dilated intratesticular veins seen in relation to the mediastinum testis and extending peripherally. It is usually seen in the presence of ipsilateral extratesticular varicocele....
Article

Jackstone calculus

Jackstone calculus is the name assigned to the appearance of a subset of urinary calculi. Pathology Jackstone calculi are almost always composed of calcium oxalate dihydrate. They are nearly always created, and thus, located, in the bladder rather than the upper urinary tract. They are compos...
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Juxtaglomerular cell tumour

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour (JGCT) is an infrequent renal tumour of the juxtaglomerular cells. These cells secrete renin and often cause severe hypertension and hypokalaemia. Epidemiology JGCT affects all age groups, but is most common in adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence in t...
Article

Lacuna magna

Lacuna magna (a.k.a. sinus of Guérin) is a congenital blind-ended pouch located dorsal to navicular fossa of penis separated by fold and both share an external common opening to external urethral meatus. This diverticulum is located above and parallel to the urethra.  Epidemiology Although it ...
Article

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign tumour predominantly found in women, although men can also be affected. The most common presenting complaints are urinary voiding symptoms such as obstruction and irritation.  It exhibits characteristics similar to those of uterine leiomyomas on...
Article

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract is a squamous metaplasia of the urothelium (keratinisation).  Clinical presentation Clinically the condition presents with haematuria in one-third of cases, dysuria, frequency and nocturia, and thus it can mimic cystitis. Passage of the desquamated keratinised ...
Article

Lithium-induced renal disease

Lithium-induced renal disease is characterised by a progressive decline in renal function, evidenced by increasing serum creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. The lithium salt causes direct injury to the renal tubules. The duration of lithium therapy increases the risk of progression to...
Article

Localised cystic renal disease

Localised cystic renal disease (LCRD) or localised cystic kidney disease is an uncommon, non-familial, non-progressive disease characterised by clusters of cysts within normal renal parenchyma. It can be confused with unilateral autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), multilocular ...
Article

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multi-system disorder that can occur either sporadically or in association with the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and is often considered a forme fruste of TSC. Epidemiology It almost exclusively affects women of child-bearing age 7. The estimated in...
Article

Macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

Macronodular adrenal hyperplasia refers to a morphological type of adrenal hyperplasia in which there is adrenal enlargement in the form of large distinct nodules. It can be congenital or acquired. A specific subtype under this entity is adrenocorticotropin independent macronodular adrenocortic...
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Maiden waist deformity

Maiden waist deformity is the appearance of the deviation of bilateral ureters. This typically occurs in retroperitoneal fibrosis. In this condition, there is medial drawing of the ureter due to deposition of fibrous tissue in the lumbosacral junction. Due to involvement of both ureters, the cou...
Article

Malacoplakia of the urinary tract

Malacoplakia of the urinary tract is an uncommon chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the bladder wall. Malakoplakia (meaning "soft plaque") can affect any organ, but the urinary bladder is the commonest location. Epidemiology Malacoplakia has a peak incidence in middle age and has a ...
Article

Medullary sponge kidney

Medullary sponge kidney is a sporadic condition where the medullary and papillary portions of the collecting ducts are dysplastic, and dilated and in most cases develop medullary nephrocalcinosis.  Epidemiology The incidence of medullary sponge kidney is estimated at ≈1:5000. Clinical present...
Article

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a type of gonadal dysgenesis characterised by gonadal asymmetry, and/or sex chromosomal mosaicism, as well as retained Müllerian ducts. Pathology Depending on the chromosomal composition, patients may have testes and/or streak gonads. Genetics affected indiv...
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Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour of the kidney

Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST) of the kidney is an uncommon and recently recognised distinct neoplasm that should be distinguished from other renal neoplasms.  Epidemiology There is a female preponderance 10:1 1 with tumours occurring predominantly in middle-aged peri-menopausal wo...
Article

Moth eaten calyces

Moth eaten calyx refers to the ragged, feathery calyceal outline due to irregular erosions of the calyx. It is one of the earliest excretory urographic appearance of genitourinary tuberculosis.  Pathology This appearance is due to necrotizing papillitis, which may further progress to form medu...
Article

Mulberry stone

A mulberry stone is one of the types of urinary tract stones. It is formed of calcium oxalate dihydrate. It can be considered as a subset of a jackstone calculus which has a spiked appearance. When the stone has less well-developed spikes, it may appear to have a mamillated appearance, hence it ...
Article

Multilocular cystic renal tumours

Multilocular cystic renal tumours (MCRT) are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in a bimodal age distribution, involving young children and adults in the 4th and 5th decades. For logical reasons, this article will discuss together the two ends of the spectrum of this disease, cystic partiall...
Article

Neonatal hydronephrosis

Neonatal hydronephrosis is most commonly diagnosed antenatally as fetal pylectasis, and in the majority of cases is due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction.   Pathology Aetiology pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction (50% of cases 1,6) vesicoureteric reflux (~20% of cases 5) po...
Article

Nephroptosis

Nephroptosis, also known as floating or wandering kidney and ren mobilis, refers to the descent of the kidney more than 5 cm or two vertebral bodies when the patient moves from a supine to upright position during IVU 1-2. Displacement can also occur medially across the midline, so-called medial...
Article

Orchitis

Orchitis is an infection of the testicle, which is rarely isolated, and when in conjunction with the epididymis is called epididymo-orchitis. Pathology Usually bacteria retrogradely seed into the testis from the bladder or prostate. Can also be secondary to viral infection (e.g. mumps, Coxsack...
Article

Paintbrush appearance

A paintbrush appearance describes the streaky appearances of dilated contrast filled tubules within the renal medulla on IVP or CT-IVU. This appearance is characteristic for medullary sponge kidneys. See also bouquet of flowers appearance
Article

Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis

Papillary cystadenomas of the epididymis are the second most common benign tumours of the epididymis after adenomatoid tumours. They are more common in young men. Approximately 30% of the patients have von Hippel Lindau disease and approximately 10% to 40% of patients with von Hippel-Lindau dise...
Article

Pelvic abscess

A pelvic abscess refers to a collection of pus in the pelvis, Pathology  Causes  Some of the causes include pelvic inflammatory disease (tubo-ovarian abscess) post surgical inflammatory bowel disease pelvic actinomycosis infection diverticulitis Clinical presentation Presenting complai...
Article

Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction

Pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction/stenosis, also known as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction/stenosis, can be one of the causes of an obstructive uropathy. It can be congenital or acquired with a congenital PUJ obstruction being one of the commonest causes of antenatal hydronephros...
Article

Peyronie disease

Peyronie disease is the most common cause of painful penile induration. Fibrous tissue plaques form within the tunica albuginea, causing painful deformity and shortening of the penis. Though clinical diagnosis is usually accurate, the role of imaging is to evaluate extension of plaques, whether ...
Article

Pheochromocytoma

Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumours are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are familial ~10% a...
Article

Pie in the sky bladder

Pie in the sky bladder refers to the appearance of contrast opacified floating bladder seen high in the pelvis due to a presence of a large pelvic haematoma. This sign should raise concern regarding the possibility of an underlying urethral injury.
Article

Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
Article

Post transplant lymphoproliferative / lymphoproliferation disorder (PTLD)

Post transplant lymphoproliferative/lymphoproliferation disorder (PTLD) is increasing in prevalence as the number and survival length of solid organ and bone-marrow transplant recipients also increases. It represents a variety of conditions varying from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy but is...
Article

Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter fa...
Article

Priapism

Priapism is a term for a penile erection that occurs longer than desired. It may occur for multiple reasons, and the role of imaging in priapism is to distinguish between ischemic low-flow priapism (95%) and non-ischemic high-flow priapism (5%). In most cases only the corpora cavernosa are affec...
Article

Primary hyperoxaluria

Primary hyperoxaluria, also referred as primary oxalosis, is a congenital autosomal recessive disease related to a liver enzyme deficiency leading to massive cortical nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.  Please, refer on secondary oxalosis for a discussion on the acquired form of hyperoxaluria....
Article

Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumour marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquifying agent for seminal fluid and the normal amount in human serum is usually ver...
Article

Prostatic abscess

Prostatic abscesses can be a rare complication of prostatitis.  Epidemiology It has become relatively uncommon in clinical practice due to antibiotic therapy in those with prostatitis. It tends to affect diabetic and immunosuppressed patients. Most patients tend to present in the 5th to 6th de...
Article

Prostatic calcification

Prostatic calcification is a common finding, especially after the age of 50. They may be solitary but usually occur in clusters 7. Epidemiology They are rare in children, infrequent below 40, and common in those over 50. Their number and size increase with age 8. Clinical presentation Prosta...
Article

Prostatic carcinoma

Prostatic carcinoma ranks as the most common malignant tumour in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is by far the most common histological type and is the primary focus of this article. Epidemiology It is primarily a disease of the el...
Article

Prostatic infarction

Prostatic infarction refers to necrosis of the prostate gland tissue from a lack of blood supply. Pathology Histology Histology slices on biopsy specimens may show reactive atypia 3. Causes prostatic artery embolisation presumed pelvic ischaemia after cross-clamping of the aorta for coron...
Article

Prostatitis

Prostatitis refers to an infection or inflammation of the prostate gland that presents as several syndromes with varying clinical features. Prostatitis is a clinical diagnosis and imaging is useful to evaluate abscess formation.  The National Institutes of Health (NIH) classified prostatitis in...
Article

Renal amyloidosis

Renal amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity but can be associated with systemic amyloidosis. Renal involvement from amyloidosis in pathological specimens is quite common. However, renal function compromise is rare. Clinical presentation It usually manifests as nephrotic syndrome: fever a...
Article

Renal arterial cut-off sign

Renal arterial cut-off sign  as the name suggests is an abrupt termination of the vascular contrast opacified renal arterial lumen. It may be associated with or without any contrast extravasation It is seen in a vascular injury like segmental or main renal artery thrombosis or occlusion.
Article

Renal arteriovenous fistula

Renal arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are anomalous direct communications between arteries and veins in the kidney, which may be confused with a renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Epidemiology The incidence of renal AVF is variable, estimated at 0.3-19% in native kidneys and 6-8% in ren...
Article

Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumour. They usually occur in 50-70-year-old patients and macroscopic haematuria occurs in 60% of the cases.  On imaging, they have a variety of ra...
Article

Renal cyst

Renal cysts are a common finding in the kidneys. Findings common to all "simple" renal cysts are well-marginated, thin walls with no enhancement of the cyst. They can be diagnosed on ultrasound, CT, or MRI. A cystic lesion in the kidney that deviates from the typical "simple" cyst appearance sho...
Article

Renal haemosiderosis

Renal hemosiderosis results from accumulation of hemosiderin in the kidneys. Renal haemosiderosis is a known complication of the following conditions: chronic intravascular hemolytic states such as haemolytic anaemias like sickle cell anemia and thalassemia 1,3 paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglo...

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