Computed tomographic (CT) colonography, also called CTC, virtual colonoscopy (VC) or CT pneumocolon, is a powerful minimally invasive technique for colorectal cancer screening.
screening test for colorectal carcinoma
colon evaluation after incomplete or unsuccessful conventional c...
Computed tomographic (CT) enteroclysis refers to a hybrid technique that combines the methods of fluoroscopic intubation-infusion small bowel examinations with that of abdominal CT 1.
CT enteroclysis is complementary to capsule endoscopy in the elective investigation of small-bowel...
Computed tomographic (CT) enterography is a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of small bowel disorders.
evaluates the entire thickness of the bowel wall
offers information about the surrounding mesentery, the mesenteric vasculature and the perienteric fat
useful in the assessm...
Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan is a point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a trauma patient.
It is invariably performed by a clinician, who should be formally trained, and is considered as an 'extension' of the trauma clinical ...
Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents are varied and can be either positive or negative agents. Acceptance of the use of MRI in abdominal imaging has been limited in part by difficulty in distinguishing bowel from intra-abdominal masses and normal organs. The use of enteric contrast agents can ai...
Indium-111 OncoScint is a radiopharmaceutical used in SPECT imaging. It is a labelled monoclonal antibody that is directed against TAG-72, which is a tumour-associated antigen associated with ~95% of colorectal carcinomas and 100% of ovarian carcinomas 1,2. Background hepatic uptake limits sensi...
MR enterography is a new non-invasive technique for diagnosis of small bowel disorders.
The most common indication is to evaluate patients with Crohn disease (CD).
Actual procedure will vary depending on institutional protocol/guidelines but below is a typical descripti...
An octreoscan is a scinitigraphic study that uses 111In labelled octreotide which is a somatostatin analog. It is particularly useful for assessment of neuroendocrine tumours.
glomus jugulare tumour
The portosystemic shunt ratio is a measure performed using ultrasound to quantify the abnormal flow of portal venous blood that is shunted away from the hepatic sinusoidal circulation in the context of a congenital portosystemic shunt 1.
The ratio is determined using the following e...
Pelvic MRI protocol for rectal cancer includes:
through tumour (always ensure planes are exactly perpendicular to the wall)
narrow field of view images to be included
SeHCAT (23-seleno-25-homo-tauro-cholic acid) is a radiopharmaceutical used in the investigation of bile salt malabsorption, which is a cause of chronic diarrhoea.
physical half-life: 118 days
Uses, dosage and timings
A capsule containing SeHCAT is ingested with water. The pa...
Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach.
photon energy: 140 keV
biological half-life: 6 hours
normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles)
Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.
photon energy: 140 keV
physical half-life: 6 hours
bone marrow: 5%
target organ: liver, spleen
Vicarious contrast material excretion (VCME) defines excretion of water-soluble contrast material in a way other than via normal renal secretion.
The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile density seen in the gallbladder...