Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) involves the administration of intravenous contrast agents containing microbubbles of perfluorocarbon or nitrogen gas. The bubbles greatly affect ultrasound backscatter and increase vascular contrast in a similar manner to intravenous contrast agents used in C...
CT cholangiography is a technique of imaging the biliary tree with the usage of hepatobiliary excreted contrast. It is useful in delineating biliary anatomy, identifying a bile leak or looking for retained gallstones within the biliary system.
Second-line test (after ultrasound) wh...
Gadoxetate disodium (also known by the tradenames PrimovistTM and EovistTM) is a hepatospecific paramagnetic gadolinium-based contrast agent, used exclusively in MRI liver imaging. Its chief use is in hepatic lesion characterisation, i.e. assessing focal liver lesions identified on other imaging...
Hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents are specialised agents used to aid diagnosis in MRI.
They are separated into three categories: gadolinium-based agents, manganese-based agents and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles.
Gadolinium based agents
Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents are class...
In-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OOP) sequences correspond to paired MRI gradient echo (GRE) sequences obtained with the same repetition time (TR) but with two different echo time (TE) values.
The main application of the IP-OOP sequences is to identify pathological (microsopic) fa...
Meglumine iotroxate (BiliscopinTM) is an iodinated, intravenous contrast agent that is preferentially excreted into the biliary tree and is used in CT intravenous cholangiography.
The typical dose is 100 mL Biliscopin (105 mg meglumine iotroxate/ml; 5.0 g iodine), which is administered via slow...
MR liver iron quantification is a non-invasive means of measuring liver iron concentration, a key indicator in the management of patients with haemochromatosis (primary or secondary).
Apart from being non-invasive, sampling occurs in a large cross-section of the liver, as opposed to...
Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.
photon energy: 140 keV
physical half-life: 6 hours
bone marrow: 5%
target organ: liver, spleen
Vicarious contrast material excretion (VCME) defines excretion of water-soluble contrast material in a way other than via normal renal secretion.
The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile density seen in the gallbladder...