Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

8 results found
Article

Citrate peak

Citrate is a compound examined in MR spectroscopy in the setting of possible prostate carcinoma. Citrate resonates at 2.6 ppm and is decreased in prostate cancer.  For more information go to: MR spectroscopy in prostate cancer
Article

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) involves the administration of intravenous contrast agents containing microbubbles of perfluorocarbon or nitrogen gas. The bubbles greatly affect ultrasound backscatter and increase vascular contrast in a similar manner to intravenous contrast agents used in C...
Article

Loopogram

A loopogram is a fluoroscopic study of an ileal conduit, which is a type of urinary diversion. Terminology This procedure is also known is an ileal conduitogram, ileal loopography or ileostoureterography.  Procedure It is a retrograde study in which contrast is injected via the anterior abdo...
Article

Pseudoenhancement

Pseudoenhancement is an artifact in postcontrast CT evaluation of renal cysts. The distinction between cystic and solid lesions visualised in CT is primarily made on the basis of whether the lesion enhances with contrast administration. A renal cystic lesion is considered "enhancing" when there...
Article

Tc-99m MAG3

Tc-99m MAG3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 4 hours normal distribution: kidneys (100%) pharmacokinetics: uptake by tubular secretion (9...
Article

Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life biological half-life: 6 hours normal distribution: stomach, thyroid, salivary glands, (testicles) excretion: ...
Article

Twinkling artifact

Twinkling artifact is the result of intrinsic machine noise seen with colour Doppler ultrasound 1. It occurs as a focus of alternating colours on Doppler signal behind a reflective object (such as calculi), which gives the appearance of turbulent blood flow 2. It appears with or without an assoc...
Article

Vicarious contrast material excretion

Vicarious contrast material excretion (VCME) defines excretion of water-soluble contrast material in a way other than via normal renal secretion.  The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile density seen in the gallbladder...

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