Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

213 results found
Article

20° oblique projection

20° oblique projection is a troubleshooting projection used especially in young women and in follow up patients. Technique The C arm is turned approximately 20° for a superomedio-inferolateral obique. With the patients feet pointing towards the unit and her torso turned slightly outward with t...
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Abdomen: AP supine view

AP supine radiograph can be performed as a standalone projection or as part of an acute abdominal series, depending on the clinical question posed, local protocol and the availability of other imaging modalities. Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back, either on the X-ray ...
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Abdomen: lateral decubitus view

The lateral decubitus abdominal radiograph is used to identify free intraperitoneal gas (pneumoperitoneum). It can be performed when the patient is unable to be transferred to, or other imaging modalities (e.g. CT) are not available. The most useful position for detecting free intraperitoneal ai...
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Abdomen: PA erect view

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is often obtained in conjunction with the AP supine abdominal view in the acute abdominal series of radiographs. When used together it is a valuable projection in assessing air fluid levels, and free air in the abdominal cavity. Patient position the patient is...
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Abdominal radiograph (AP supine view: neonatal)

AP supine radiograph for neonates is a mobile examination performed on the neonatal unit. It can be taken as a standalone projection or as part of a series including a left lateral decubitus x-ray in cases of suspected perforation.  Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back i...
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Abdominal radiography

Abdominal radiography can be useful in many settings. Before the advent of computerised tomography (CT) imaging, it was a primary means of investigating gastrointestinal pathology (and often allowed indirect evaluation of other abdominal viscera). Indications Although abdominal radiography has...
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ABER position

The ABER position is related to imaging of the shoulder joint and is a mnemonic for ABduction and External Rotation. In this position, labral tears are conspicuous by tightening the inferior glenohumeral labroligamentous complex (which are also the most important glenohumeral ligaments in preve...
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Acromioclavicular joint series

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint radiographic series is a used to evaluate the acromioclavicular joint and the distal clavicle. Indications AC radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including:  shoulder trauma direct blows to the should region following a fall onto adducted ...
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Acromioclavicular joint: AP view

The acromioclavicular AP view is single projection assessing the patency of the acromioclavicular joint. See also, acromioclavicular joint injuries. Patient position patient is erect midcoronal plane of the patient is parallel to the image receptor, in other words, the patient's back is agai...
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Acromioclavicular joint: AP weightbearing view

The acromioclavicular AP weightbearing view is and additional interjection often performed to rule out displacement when it is suspected yet not confirmed on the AP view See also, acromioclavicular joint injuries. Patient position patient is erect holding a weight in the affected sides hand ...
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Acute abdominal series

The acute abdominal series is a common set of abdominal radiographs obtained to evaluate bowel gas.  Indications The acute series is used for a variety of indications including:  determine the amount of bowel gas, with possible bowel distention asses air-fluid levels query pneumoperitoneum ...
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Anatomic position

The anatomic position, also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined a...
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Ankle series

The ankle series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), mortise and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the distal tibia, distal fibula, and the talus; forming the ankle joint. See approach to an ankle series. Indications Ankle radiographs are p...
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Ankle: AP mortise view

Ankle AP mortise view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, proximal talus and proximal metatarsals. It is the most pertinent projection to asses the articulation of the tibial plafond and two malleoli with the talar dome otherwise know as the mortise joint of the an...
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Ankle: AP view

Ankle AP view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, proximal talus and proximal metatarsals. Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes will be pointing directly toward...
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Ankle: horizontal beam lateral view

The ankle horizontal beam lateral view is a modified lateral view part of a three view ankle series; this projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. The horizontal beam lateral is a highly adaptable projectio...
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Ankle: lateral view

Ankle lateral view is part of a three view ankle series; this projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. Patient position patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the kn...
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Axillary view

An axillary view (also known as a "Cleopatra view“) is a type of supplementary mammographic view. It is an exaggerated craniocaudal view for better imaging of the lateral portion of the breast to the axillary tail. This projection is performed whenever we want to show a lesion seen only in ...
Article

Barium swallow

Barium swallow is a dedicated test of the pharynx, oesophagus, and proximal stomach, and may be performed as a single or double contrast study. The study is often "modified" to suit the history and symptoms of the individual patient, but it is often useful to evaluate the entire pathwa...
Article

Baumann angle

Baumann angle, also known as the humeral-capitellar angle, is used for the evaluation of the displacement of  paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. It is measured on a frontal radiograph, with elbow in extension. This angle is formed  by the humeral axis and a straight line through the ep...
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Beam hardening

Beam hardening is observed when an X-ray beam comprised of polychromatic energies passes through an object and becomes ‘harder’ where the lower energy photons will be absorbed leaving only the higher energy photons 1. The resultant artefact has two distinct appearances, streaking or dark bands ...
Article

Bouchard nodes

Bouchard nodes are a clinical sign relating to bony nodules of the the proximal interphalangeal joints, and are much less common than Heberden nodes. They generally (but not always) correspond to palpable osteophytes. Clinical presentation They are sometimes painful, and are typically associat...
Article

Bullseye view

The bullseye view is designed for better evaluation of lesion located in retroareolar area. In this view, the nipple-areola complex are directed upward or downward on the detector surface to visualize the areolar and periareolar region en face,  allowing characterization of lesions in this area.
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Calcaneus series

The calcaneus series is comprised of a lateral and axial (plantodorsal) projection. The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone accounting for ~60% of all tarsal fractures 1. This series provides a two view investigation of the calcaneus alongside the talar articulations and talocal...
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Calcaneus: axial view

Calcaneus axial view is part of the two view calcaneus series, this projection is best used to asses the talocalcaneal joint and plantar aspects of the calcaneus. The axial view has a diagnostic sensitivity of 87% for calcaneus fractures 1.  Patient position patient is supine or seated with th...
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Calcaneus: lateral view

Calcaneus lateral view is part of the two view calcaneus series; this projection is used to asses the calcaneus, talocrural, talonavicular and talocalcaneal joint. Patient position patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the knee and ankle joint should be...
Article

Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood scan scan is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery cardiomyopathy / my...
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Cardiac imaging planes

Cardiac imaging planes are used to orientate imaging in cardiac MRI, and are reconstructed for cardiac CT. There are three main planes, which are centred on a line (using body imaging planes) from the cardiac apex to the middle of the mitral valve, that is the true long axis of the heart 1,2:  ...
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Cassette

Cassettes are rigid holders used in conventional and computed radiography (CR) for the screen film system and imaging plate respectively.  The back side of the cassette has a rubber or felt for adequate contact between screen film system or with the imaging plate. The front is made of low atomi...
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Catterall classification of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

The Catterall classification is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head: Stage I bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head changes are visible best in frog leg lateral view no...
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Caudal cranial projection

Caudal cranial projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique invert the C arm as for a CC projection step the patient forward and have her bend excessively forward at the waist to ensure that the abdomen does not encroach in the x ray field place the image receptor above the b...
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Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is an interventional procedure for the diagnosis and/or treatment of intracranial pathology. Indications Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated in a variety of settings including: diagnosis and treatment of: aneurysms acute ischaemic stroke vascula...
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Cervical spine: closed mouth odontoid AP view (Fuchs view)

The closed mouth odontoid AP view (Fuchs view)​ is a nonangled AP radiograph of C1 and C2. This view focuses primarily on the odontoid process. The standard Fuchs view should not be used in a trauma setting and the modified Fuchs view may be used instead. Patient position patient is supine or ...
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Cervical spine: swimmer's lateral view

Cervical spine swimmer's lateral view is a modified lateral projection of the cervical spine to visualise the C7/T1 junction. It is most often performed in the setting of trauma, where a standard lateral projection cannot image the cervicothoracic junction. As technology advances, computed tomo...
Article

Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (CXR) is the most ubiquitous radiological investigation. Indications The chest radiograph is performed for a broad content of indications including but not limited to 1-4: respiratory disease cardiac disease haemoptysis   suspected pulmonary embolism investigation of ...
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Chest: AP erect view

The erect anteroposterior chest view is the alternative to the PA view when the patient is too unwell to tolerate standing or leaving the bed 1. The AP view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity mediastinum and great vessels. This particular chest X-ray is often used frequently to aid diagnos...
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Chest: AP lordotic view

The AP lordotic chest radiograph (or AP axial chest radiograph) demonstrates areas of the lung apices that appear obscured on the PA/AP chest radiographic views. It is often used to evaluate suspicious areas within the lung apices that appeared obscured by overlying soft tissue, upper ribs or th...
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Chest: expiratory view

An expiratory chest radiograph can be taken in either a PA or AP projection, and can also be taken with a mobile/portable unit. They are used to help detect small pneumothoraces (although sensitivity is not increased over inspiratory chest radiographs 1), and to assess for inhaled foreign bodies...
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Chest: lateral view

The lateral chest view is part of a common radiological investigation of the chest in the emergency department 1. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels.  Although the PA chest view is the primary view in chest imaging, the lateral radiogr...
Article

Chest: PA view

Posteroanterior (PA) chest view is the most common radiological investigation in the emergency department 1. The PA view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The chest X-ray is frequently used to aid diagnosis of acute and chronic conditions.   Patient positi...
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Chest: supine view

The supine anteroposterior chest view is the alternative to the PA view and the AP erect view when the patient is generally too unwell to tolerate standing leaving the bed, or sitting 1. The supine view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity mediastinum and great vessels. This particular ches...
Article

Clavicle series

The radiographic series of the clavicle is utilised in emergency departments to assess the clavicle, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint.   Indications Clavicle x-rays are indicated for a variety of settings including: trauma bony tenderness suspected fracture  congenital abnormal...
Article

Clavicle: AP cephalic angulation

The clavicle AP cephalic angulation view is a standard projection part of the clavicle series. Often used in conjunction with the AP clavicle, this projection straightens out the clavicle and projects it above overlaying anatomy. Patient position patient is preferably erect midcoronal plane o...
Article

Clavicle: AP projection

The clavicle AP view is a standard projection part of the clavicle series. The projection demonstrates the shoulder in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire clavicle, as well as the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints of the should...
Article

Cleavage view

A cleavage view (also called "valley view") is a mammogram view that depict the posteromedial portion of both breasts (the “valley” between the two breasts) by placing them on the cassette at the same time and pulling them anteriorly.  Manual technical factors should be used. A cleav...
Article

Computed tomography curriculum

The radiography computed tomography section covers in detail the various clinical presentations that require specific computed tomography investigations, the anatomy examined and the different protocols utilised for specific pathology. It is broken down into region specific sections and is cater...
Article

Contrast enhanced mammography

Contrast enhanced mammography (CEM) is a complementary breast imaging modality. A finite number of sequential images are obtained with X-ray beam produced at a high energy, above the K-edge of Iodine, and with an intravenous non-ionic Iodine contrast agent  injected between pre and post contrast...
Article

Craniocaudal view

The craniocaudal view (CC view), along with the MLO view, is one of the two standard projections in a screening mammography. It must show the medial part as well the external lateral portion of the breast as much as possible. A correctly performed CC projection may show the pectoral muscle on t...
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CT head (technique)

CT head technique describes how a CT head is performed. Technique The technique for performing a CT of the head depends on the scanner available and fall into two broad camps:  step-and-shoot volumetric acquisition Step-and-shoot The tube is angled such that the axis of acquisition is perp...
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CT polytrauma

CT polytrauma/multitrauma (also called trauma CT) is an increasingly used test in the patient with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. There is some evidence that trauma patients who undergo whole body CT (WBCT) / panscan have better survival than patients who undergo selectiv...
Article

Developer solution

Developer solution is used in dark room for developing (i.e. converting latent image to visible image) X-ray films used in conventional (screen film) radiography. Components developer: hydroquinone (for high contrast) + metal/phenidone (for low contrast) the developer itself gets oxidised and...
Article

Digital breast tomosynthesis

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an imaging technique that allows a volumetric reconstruction of the whole breast from a finite number of low-dose two-dimensional projections obtained by different X-ray tube angles, with a geometric principle very similar to that applied in stratigraphic te...
Article

Digital radiography

Digital radiography is based on the use of discrete values in comparison to conventional radiography which uses analogue/continuous values. It removes the requirement of dark room procedures. Types computed radiography (CR) uses photostimulable phosphor plates in cassettes direct digital rad...
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Double spot compression view

A double spot compression view is obtained by focal compression of both sides of the breast to produce higher spatial and contrast resolution. This is made possible due to the increased amount of breast thinning and a significant decreased incidence of blurring because of decreased exposure time...
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Dual energy CT

Dual energy CT utilises two separate energy sets to examine the differing attenuation properties of matter, having a significant advantage over traditional single energy CT. Independent attenuation values at two energy sets can create virtual non-contrast images from contrast enhanced imaging as...
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Dual energy CT: clinical applications

Dual-energy CT is becoming increasing more common in clinical practice due to the rapid rise in computer technology and expanding literature exhibiting vast advantages over conventional single energy CT.  Virtual non-contrast There is a potential to eliminate the need for pre-contrast imaging,...
Article

Dual-energy mammography

Dual-energy digital mammography is a complementary breast imaging modality. The technique consists of high-energy and low-energy digital mammograms after administration of iodinated contrast agent. Breast is exposed to low- and high-energy X-ray  beams during a single breast compression in MLO...
Article

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a technique used to aid in the diagnosis of osteopaenia and osteoporosis.  Radiographic features Values are calculated for the lumbar vertebrae and femur preferentially, and if one of those sites is not suitable (e.g. artifact, patient mobility, histo...
Article

Ectopic testis

Ectopic testes are a rare congenital anomaly, differing from undescended testis (cryptorchidism) in that ectopic testis is congenitally abnormal located testis descended from the abdominal cavity away from the normal path of descent while undescended testis are congenitally abnormal located test...
Article

Eklund technique

Eklund modified compression technique  is a technique which can be used for patients with augmented or reconstructed breasts post mastectomy.  Technique It consists of postero-superior displacement of the implants simultaneously to an anterior traction of the breast, pushing the implants towar...
Article

Elbow series

The elbow series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections are utilised for specific indications. Indications Elbow x-rays are indicate...
Article

Elbow: AP view

The elbow AP view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  The projection demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the articulations of the elbow including the radiohum...
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Elbow: Coyle view

The Coyle's view of the elbow is an axial projection that is performed in addition to the standard elbow series, when there is raises suspicious of a radial head fracture 1-3. The projection isolates the radial head using a modified radiographic technique. Patient position patient is sitting n...
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Elbow: lateral view

The lateral elbow view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. It is deceptively one of the more technically demanding projections in radiography 1-3. The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna...
Article

Elevated craniocaudal projection

Elevated craniocaudal projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique direct beam superiorly to inferiroly face patient towards unit, feet forward lean patient inward, relaxing the shoulders bring inferior aspect of breast onto the image receptor pull breast outward and forwar...
Article

Femoral torsion analysis

Femoral torsion analysis is used to assess the alignment of a femur post surgery. If one side has been operated on it can be compared to the non-operated side. Method žSuperimpose axial images of: —femoral heads —beck of femurs —femoral condyles žDraw a line from the centre of the femoral ...
Article

Finger series

The finger series is comprised, conventionally of a posteroanterior, oblique and a lateral view. The series examines in detail the distal, middle and proximal phalanx as well as the interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joints.  Note: the thumb (first digit) reviewed under th...
Article

Finger: oblique view

Finger oblique view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers. It is not required for follow-up studies for 'query Foreign Body' unless specifically requested. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table (similar to a projection of hand) from a pronated po...
Article

Finger: PA view

Finger PA view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers; it is one of three views of the finger series.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table (similar to the projection of hand) palmar aspect of pronated hand is placed over detector and extended fi...
Article

Fingers lateral view

Finger lateral view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers; it is one of three views of the finger series. it is divided into: lateral index and middle fingers lateral of ring and little fingers Patient position Lateral of index and middle fingers patient seated...
Article

Flat panel CT

Flat panel computed tomography (FPCT), otherwise, know as flat panel volume tomography are multidetector computed tomography scanners that utilise a large area detector rather than a fixed array of detectors 1,3. Flat panels have a significantly wider z-axis area coverage that can cover larger ...
Article

Foot series

The foot series is comprised of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilised in Emergency departments after trauma or sports related injuries 2,4. See approach to foot series  Indications Foot radiographs are performed for a variety of indication...
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Foot: DP view

The dorsoplantar projection is part of a three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is res...
Article

Foot: lateral view

The lateral projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  The lateral projection additionally examines the talocrural joint. Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort  the affected le...
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Foot: medial oblique view

The medial oblique projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is...
Article

Foot: weightbearing dorsiplantar

The weightbearing dorsiplantar foot radiograph is a specialised projection of the foot. It is key to the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. DP foot) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment be...
Article

Forearm series

The forearm series is comprised of an anteroposterior and lateral projection. The series examines the entire radius and ulna including articulations distally and proximal. Typically requested for mid shaft injuries, the forearm series is not a 'two-for-one' projection of the wrist and the elbow ...
Article

Forearm: AP view

Forearm AP view is a standard projection to assess radius and ulna. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table forearm is supinated, and its dorsal surface is kept in contact with the cassette with extension at the elbow joint both elbow joint and wrist joints are also kept in co...
Article

Forearm: lateral view

Forearm lateral view is a standard projection to assess radius and ulna. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table elbow is flexed to 90 degrees and the medial aspect of the wrist, forearm and elbow joint are placed in contact with cassette shoulder, elbow and wrist should be in...
Article

Fowler-Philip angle

The Fowler-Philip angle reflects the relation of the inferior calcaneus to the posterior calcaneus. Measurement It is an angle measured on the lateral view of a loaded foot; formed between 2 lines: a line tangent to the posterosuperior border of the calcaneus and the calcaneal tuberosity. a ...
Article

Frontal oblique approach mammography

Background Mammographic technique is very important to obtain diagnostic mammograms, to reduce the number of false negatives and to increase the sensitivity of the procedure. As widely noted in literature, most breast pathology occurs in the upper outer quadrant and is very important that this ...
Article

Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the  five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
Article

General radiography curriculum

The general radiography section covers in detail the various clinical presentations that require specific plain radiographic investigation, the anatomy covered, and how it is displayed via the chosen view. It outlines standard and modified radiographic technique to accommodate for a wide range o...
Article

Hand series

The hand series is comprised of a posteroanterior and oblique, projection although additional radiographs can be taken for specific indications. The series primarily examines the metacarpals,phalanges along with the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform,...
Article

Hand: ball-catcher view

The Nørgaard projection is also known as ball-catcher view or posterior oblique view of both hands. It is an additional projection of the routine hand series. The ball catcher view is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis.  Patient position patient may be seated alongside or ...
Article

Hand: bilateral PA view

The bilateral PA view often compliments the ball-catcher view,. It is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis.  Patient position patient may be seated alongside or facing the table both hands are pronated with their palmer surfaces placed on the detector  Technical factors p...
Article

Hand: lateral view

The lateral hand view is an orthogonal view taken along with the PA view of the hand. Often an additional projection, the lateral view is used primarily to assess for foreign bodies and/or displacement of fractures/dislocations. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table hand is e...
Article

Hand: oblique view

The Hand oblique view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the hand is rotated externall...
Article

Hand: PA view

The Hand PA view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the affected hand is placed, palm ...
Article

Hip: frog leg lateral

The frog leg lateral view of the hip/s is a special radiographic of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Bilateral examination allows for better visualisation of the hip joints and femoral neck, and therefore is an important view in the assessment of:  slipped capital femoral epiphysis Perthes dise...
Article

Hip: horizontal beam lateral view

The horizontal beam lateral hip radiograph or shoot through hip is the in the purist terms the orthogonal view of the neck of the femur to the AP projection 1,3. The projection is used to assess the neck of the femur in profile during the investigation of a suspected neck of femur fracture 2. ...
Article

Humerus (neck) AP view

AP view for neck of humerus is taken to look for fracture in the neck of humerus. Patient position patient can stand or lay down facing the X-ray tube  the dorsal aspect of shoulder of the affected side is kept in contact with the cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a ...
Article

Humerus (supracondylar) AP view

AP view for supracondylar aspect of humerus may be taken to look for supracondylar fracture. Patient position patient stands facing the X-ray tube with the posterior aspect of arm in contact with cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a horizontal beam is employed centred...

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