Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

367 results found
Article

Dual energy CT (clinical applications)

Dual-energy CT or multispectral CT is becoming increasingly more common in clinical practice due to the rapid rise in computer technology and expanding literature exhibiting vast advantages over conventional single energy CT.  Clinical applications The clinical practice, adaptation and techniq...
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Dual-energy mammography

Dual-energy digital mammography is a complementary breast imaging modality. The technique consists of high-energy and low-energy digital mammograms after administration of iodinated contrast agent. Breast is exposed to low- and high-energy x-ray beams during a single breast compression in MLO ...
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Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a technique used to aid in the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis.  Radiographic features Values are calculated for the lumbar vertebrae and femur preferentially, and if one of those sites is not suitable (e.g. artifact, patient mobility), or if...
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Ducroquet view of hip

The Ducroquet view is a radiographic projection of the femoral neck with flexed and abducted affected hip joint.1,4 The view can be used for examining cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Patient position Patient is supine; the affected hip joint is flexed on pelvis of 90° and abducted...
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Ectopic testis

Ectopic testes are a rare congenital anomaly, differing from undescended testis (cryptorchidism) in that ectopic testis is a congenitally abnormally located testis, that has descended from the abdominal cavity away from the normal path of descent while undescended testis are congenitally abnorma...
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Effect of isolated pronation-supination (lateral wrist radiograph)

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones (namely, the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate). It also examines the radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna....
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Eklund technique

Eklund modified compression technique is a technique which can be used for patients with augmented or reconstructed breasts post mastectomy.  Technique It consists of posterosuperior displacement of the implants simultaneously to an anterior traction of the breast, pushing the implants towards...
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Elbow (acute flexion AP)

The elbow acute flexion AP is a modified elbow AP projection for patients whom cannot straighten their arm for examination. It is comprised of two views demonstrating the distal humerus and proximal forearm structures Patient position Distal humerus projection patient is seated alongside the ...
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Elbow (AP view)

The elbow AP view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  The projection demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the articulations of the elbow including the radiohum...
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Elbow (Coyle's view)

The Coyle's view of the elbow is an axial projection that is performed in addition to the standard elbow series when there is suspicion of a radial head fracture 1-3. The projection isolates the radial head using a modified radiographic technique. Patient position patient is sitting next to th...
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Elbow (external oblique view)

The elbow external oblique view is an additional projection of the elbow often used to better demonstrate the radial head free from superposition. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the fully extended arm and forearm, in a supinated position, are kept in contact with the t...
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Elbow (inferosuperior view)

The inferior-superior elbow view is a modified elbow projection for patients in acute flexion greater than 90 degrees, it is also an additional projection to better demonstrate the olecranon process.It is comprised of two views demonstrating the distal humerus and proximal forearm structures Pa...
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Elbow (lateral view)

The lateral elbow view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. It is deceptively one of the more technically demanding projections in radiography 1-3. The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna...
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Elbow (medial oblique view)

The elbow medial oblique view is a specialized projection, utilized to demonstrate both the coronoid process in profile and the olecranon process sitting within the olecranon fossa of the humerus. Patient position the patient is seated alongside the table fully extended arm and forearm, in a ...
Article

Elbow series

The elbow series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections are utilized for specific indications. Indications Elbow x-rays are indicate...
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Elevated craniocaudal projection

Elevated craniocaudal projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique direct beam superiorly to inferiroly face patient towards unit, feet forward lean patient inward, relaxing the shoulders bring inferior aspect of breast onto the image receptor pull breast outward and forwar...
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Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS)

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks. EVAS was designed by End...
Article

Enthesitis

Enthesitis refers to inflammation of the enthesis (the attachment of ligament or tendon to bone).  Enthesitis may be the result of repetitive mechanical stress or a more generalized inflammatory condition. Enthesitis is associated with the HLA-B27 inflammatory arthritides such as ankylosing spo...
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EOS imaging systems

EOS® imaging system (also known as a slot-scanning device or slit-beam digital radiography system) is an x-ray technology that allows simultaneous acquisition of AP and lateral images of the entire body in a natural, erect position, and is also capable of performing three-dimensional reconstruct...
Article

Extra-adrenal myelolipoma

Extra-adrenal myelolipomas occur outside the adrenal glands, with the most common sites being the retroperitoneum, thorax, and pelvis.  Epidemiology The widespread application of modern imaging techniques has led to increase in the detection of extra-adrenal myelolipomas. The exact incidence i...
Article

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) embolism

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) embolism is a condition which results in uniform focal intense FDG-avid pulmonary focus without any underlying structural CT correlate with an unremarkable follow-up PET-CT scan 1. It is thought to occur as a result of clumping of FDG with blood when the blood is wi...
Article

Facial bones (reverse Waters)

The acanthioparietal or reverse water's view modified Water's view used in trauma. It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. Skull radiographs, in general, are rapidly becoming obsolete, being replaced by much more sensitive CT scans. Patient position the ...
Article

Femoral torsion analysis

Femoral torsion analysis is used to assess the alignment of a femur post surgery. If one side has been operated on it can be compared to the non-operated side. Method Superimpose axial images of: femoral heads the neck of femurs femoral condyles Draw a line from the center of the femoral h...
Article

Femur series

The femur series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), and lateral radiograph. The series is utilized to asses for abnormalities pertaining to the shaft of the femur (often requested when fringe abnormality is seen on hip or knee radiographs). It is not an effective series to assess for a nec...
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Finger (oblique view)

Finger oblique view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers. It is not required for follow-up studies for 'query Foreign Body' unless specifically requested. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table (similar to a projection of hand) from a pronated po...
Article

Finger (PA view)

Finger PA view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers; it is one of three views of the finger series.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table (similar to the projection of hand) palmar aspect of pronated hand is placed over detector and extended fi...
Article

Finger series

The finger series is comprised, conventionally of a posteroanterior, oblique and a lateral view. The series examines in detail the distal, middle and proximal phalanx as well as the interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joints.  Note: the thumb (first digit) reviewed under th...
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Fingers (lateral view)

Finger lateral view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers; it is one of three views of the finger series. it is divided into: lateral index and middle fingers lateral of ring and little fingers Patient position Lateral of index and middle fingers patient seated...
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Flat panel CT

Flat panel computed tomography (FPCT), otherwise, know as flat panel volume tomography are multidetector computed tomography scanners that utilize a large area detector rather than a fixed array of detectors 1,3. Flat panels have a significantly wider z-axis area coverage that can cover larger ...
Article

Foot (dorsoplantar view)

The dorsoplantar view is part of a three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is resting o...
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Foot (lateral view)

The lateral projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  The lateral projection additionally examines the talocrural joint. Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort  the affected le...
Article

Foot (medial oblique view)

The medial oblique projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is...
Article

Foot series

The foot series is comprised of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilized in emergency departments after trauma or sports related injuries 2,4. See: approach to foot series. Indications Foot radiographs are performed for a variety of indicatio...
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Foot (weightbearing dorsiplantar view)

The weightbearing dorsiplantar foot radiograph is a specialized projection of the foot. It is key to the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. DP foot) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment be...
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Foot (weightbearing lateral)

The weightbearing lateral foot radiograph is important in the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. oblique foot radiograph) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment because the bones of the feet ...
Article

Forearm (AP view)

Forearm AP view is a standard projection to assess radius and ulna. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table forearm is supinated, and its dorsal surface is kept in contact with the cassette with extension at the elbow joint both elbow joint and wrist joints are also kept in co...
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Forearm (lateral view)

Forearm lateral view is a standard projection to assess radius and ulna. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table elbow is flexed to 90 degrees and the medial aspect of the wrist, forearm and elbow joint are placed in contact with the detector shoulder, elbow and wrist should b...
Article

Forearm series

The forearm series is comprised of an anteroposterior and lateral projection. The series examines the entire radius and ulna including articulations distally and proximal. Typically requested for mid shaft injuries, the forearm series is not a 'two-for-one' projection of the wrist and the elbow ...
Article

Foreign body ingestion series (pediatric)

The suspected foreign body ingestion series is a set of radiographs utilized to detect and identify foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. It involves an AP and lateral radiograph of the neck, chest, and abdomen ensuring adequate coverage of the entire gastrointestinal tract 1. Patient p...
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Foreign body inhalation series (pediatric)

The suspected foreign body inhalation series although not a primary port of investigation aims to detect and identify both foreign bodies or the secondary signs of inhaled foreign bodies 1. It involves a frontal chest radiograph in both the inspiration and expiratory phases and, in some cases, b...
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Fowler-Philip angle

The Fowler-Philip angle is the angle between the inferior calcaneus and the posterior surface of the calcaneus. Measurement It is an angle measured on the lateral view of a loaded foot; formed between 2 lines: a line tangent to the posterosuperior border of the calcaneus and the calcaneal tub...
Article

Frontal oblique approach mammography

Background Mammographic technique is very important to obtain diagnostic mammograms, to reduce the number of false negatives and to increase the sensitivity of the procedure. As widely noted in literature, most breast pathology occurs in the upper outer quadrant and is very important that this ...
Article

Gage sign

The Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification later...
Article

General radiography curriculum

The general radiography section covers in detail the various clinical presentations that require specific plain radiographic investigation, the anatomy covered, and how it is displayed via the chosen view. It outlines standard and modified radiographic technique to accommodate for a wide range o...
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Grid cutoff

Grid cutoff is an unwanted absorption of x-rays via an x-ray grid, observed when a grid is employed incorrectly, most often seen with parallel grids. The term cutoff stems from the phenomenon in which the primary x-ray beam is 'cut off' by grid lines, leading to an overall decrease in optical de...
Article

Gymnast wrist

Gymnast wrist is a term that used to describe variety of chronic overuse injuries of the wrist in gymnasts with immature skeleton. Gymnast wrist is combined of osseous and ligamentous injury and usually manifests as a chronic Salter-Harris type I fracture of the distal radial physis on radiograp...
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Hair artifact

Hair artifact and hair-product artifacts are artifacts produced by the presence of the patient's hair across the field of view during acquisition of an image, which can affect all modalities to varying degrees. For example, in mammography, hair may appear as curvilinear white lines or may simula...
Article

Hand (ball-catcher view)

The Nørgaard projection is also known as the ball-catcher view or posterior oblique view of both hands. It is an additional projection of the routine hand series. The ball-catcher view is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis.  Patient position patient may be seated alongside...
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Hand (bilateral PA view)

The bilateral PA view often compliments the ball-catcher view. It is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Patient position patient may be seated alongside or facing the table both hands are pronated with their palmer surfaces placed on the detector  Tec...
Article

Hand (lateral view)

The lateral hand view is an orthogonal view taken along with the PA view of the hand. Often an additional projection, the lateral view is used primarily to assess for foreign bodies and/or displacement of fractures/dislocations. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table hand is e...
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Hand (oblique view)

The hand oblique view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the hand is rotated externall...
Article

Hand (PA view)

The Hand PA view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the affected hand is placed, palm ...
Article

Hand series

The hand series consists of a posteroanterior, oblique, and a lateral projection. Although additional radiographs can be taken for specific indications. The series primarily examines the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints, the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges. Indications Hand x-rays ...
Article

Hand series (pediatric)

The hand series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indication, an additional oblique view may also be done. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected di...
Article

Hip (AP view)

The AP hip is part of a radiographic series examining the anatomy of the hip joint and proximal femur. Patient position patient is supine lower limbs are internally rotated 15-25° from the hip (do not attempt this if a fracture is suspected) Technical factors AP projection centering point ...
Article

Hip (Clements-Nakayama view)

The Clements-Nakayama view of the hip is a highly specialized lateral projection utilized on patients with bilateral femoral fractures, or patients unable to mobilize due to postoperative requirements. When performed correctly the projection can yield images of a high diagnostic quality comparab...
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Hip (Dunn view)

The Dunn view is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates and examines the hip joint, femoral head, acetabulum, and particularly the relationship of the femoral head and acetabulum. The Dunn view is the preferred projection to aid and diagnose femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) du...
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Hip (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral hip radiograph or shoot through hip is the in the purist terms the orthogonal view of the neck of the femur to the AP projection 1,3. The projection is used to assess the neck of the femur in profile during the investigation of a suspected neck of femur fracture 2. ...
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Hip (lateral view)

The lateral hip view is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates and examines the hip joint in the orthogonal plane to the AP projection. This particular projection involves rolling the patient onto the side of interest (therefore not suitable for trauma, for all trauma imaging of ...
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Hip series

The hip series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiograph of the hip joint. The series is requested for a myriad of reasons from trauma to atraumatic hip pain. Indications Hip radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including 1-3:  trauma hip pain abnormal...
Article

Hip (Von Rosen view)

The Von Rosen view also known as the abduction-internal rotation view (AIR view) is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates the relationship between the femoral head and the acetabulum. The von Rosen view is used in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in pediatric...
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Humeral neck (AP view)

AP view for neck of humerus is taken to look for fracture in the neck of humerus. Patient position patient can stand or lay down facing the X-ray tube  the dorsal aspect of shoulder of the affected side is kept in contact with the cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a ...
Article

Humerus (AP view)

AP view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire humerus ...
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Humerus (lateral view)

Lateral view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in standing position. However, it can also be taken in the supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in the lateral position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire humerus and its...
Article

Humerus radiographic series

The humerus series is comprised of an AP and lateral radiograph, utilized primarily in trauma, but also in the evaluation of bone tumors. Indications trauma: fracture neck of humerus / shaft of humerus fractures bone tumor detection Projections The two standard projections allows two views ...
Article

Humerus series

The humerus series is usually used for the detection of traumatic injury to the shaft of the humerus. Indications Humerus radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including:  trauma  bony tenderness at the glenohumeral joint/region  restriction of abduction  suspected disloca...
Article

Humerus (supracondylar AP view)

AP view for supracondylar aspect of humerus may be taken to look for supracondylar fracture. Patient position patient stands facing the X-ray tube with the posterior aspect of arm in contact with cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a horizontal beam is employed centere...
Article

Iliofemoral line

The Iliofemoral line is traced on an AP pelvis projection. It is a curvilinear line, along the outer surface of the ilium, through the superior acetabular rim and the femoral neck. It should be bilaterally symmetrical. Asymmetry may be the result of congenital dysplasia, slipped femoral capital...
Article

Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection

Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection is useful for stereotactic biopsy positioning. This projection allows access to the inferior aspect of the breast to achieve shortest skin to abnormality distance. It is also useful in the nonconforming patient. Technique Rotate C arm to about 125°...
Article

Intercristal line

The intercristal line (also known as Jacobys’s Line or Tuffier’s Line) is a horizontal line drawn across the highest points of both the iliac crests in an anteroposterior (AP) lumbar radiography 1,2 Intercristal line most often intersects the body of the L4 or its inferior endplate in men and t...
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Intraosseous pseudomeningocele

An intraosseous pseudomeningocele is an intradiploic CSF collection communicating with the subarachnoid space. Epidemiology Intraosseous pseudomeningoceles are rare sequelae of a skull fractures of traumatic or iatrogenic ethology occurring in infants and young children. They can be seen in an...
Article

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis is rare and may occur in patients with pre-existing thyroid disease and through complications of thyrotoxicosis (e.g. cardiac arrhythmia) may be fatal. Patients with a normal thyroid gland are unaffected.  Patients with existing thyrotoxicosis should no...
Article

Iodinated contrast media

Iodinated contrast media are contrast agents that contain iodine atoms used for x-ray-based imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT), although they are also used in fluoroscopy, angiography and venography, and even occasionally, plain radiography. Although the intravenous route of adm...
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Iterative reconstruction (CT)

Iterative reconstruction refers to an image reconstruction algorithm used in CT that begins with an image assumption, and compares it to real time measured values while making constant adjustments until the two are in agreement. Computer technology limited early scanners in their ability to per...
Article

Key figures in the history of radiology

In the history of radiology certain key figures stand out for their groundbreaking contributions to the establishment and development of radiology as a science, medical specialty and major advance in patient care. This list is by necessity arbitrary, although we (the editors) hope that the major...
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Knee (AP view)

The Knee AP view is a standard projection to assess the knee joint, distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the patella.  Patient position patient is supine on the table with the knee and ankle joint in contact with the table leg is extended ensure the knee is not rotated Technical fact...
Article

Knee (AP weight-bearing view)

The Knee AP weight-bearing view is a specialized projection to assess the knee joint, distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the patella. Often used in the context of orthopedic appointments to obtain images of the knees in their natural anatomical position.  This view is often used to ass...
Article

Knee (Beclere method intercondylar view)

The Beclere method intercondylar view is an additional projection of the knee, used to better examine the tibial plateau and femoral intercondylar spaces. It is anecdotally known as a 'notch view' Patient position patient is supine on the table with the knee flexed 40 degrees  image receptor ...
Article

Knee (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral view (cross-table lateral) is an orthogonal view of the AP view of the knee. It is the ideal projection to assess for lipohemarthrosis in joint effusion, and requires little to no patient movement; hence, it is the lateral projection of choice for acute knee injuries....
Article

Knee (lateral view)

The lateral knee view is an orthogonal view of the AP view of the knee. The projection requires the patient to 'roll' onto the side of their knee, hence it is not an appropriate projection in trauma, in all suspected traumatic injuries of the knee, the horizontal beam lateral method should be ut...
Article

Knee (oblique view)

The Knee oblique view is an additional projection requested to examine the knee joint in greater detail, often in the absence of a CT scanner. The view is comprised of both an internal and external oblique. Patient position patient is supine on the table with the knee and ankle joint in contac...
Article

Knee (Rosenberg view)

The Rosenberg view of the knees is a specialized series often used to detect early signs of osteoarthritis. It should be the initial study for any patient with a suspicion of knee osteoarthritis. It consists of a PA radiograph with weight bearing and 45 degrees of knee flexion. It is more sensi...
Article

Knee series

The knee series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate knee joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections can be used for specific indications. See also knee radiograph (an approach). ...
Article

Knee (skyline Laurin view)

The knee skyline Laurin view is an inferior-superior projection of the patella. It is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. This projection is best suited to patients able to maintain a semi-recumbent position on the examination table. Patient position the...
Article

Knee (skyline Merchant view)

The knee skyline Merchant view is a superior-inferior projection of the patella. It is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. This is an ideal projection for patients that are better suited to the supine position. Patient position patient is supine on the t...
Article

Lanthanum therapy

Lanthanum therapy is used to treat hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease 1. It is taken as oral tablets (usually in the chemical form Lanthanum carbonate) which dissociate in the acidic environment of the stomach. The released trivalent Lanthanum cation has a high affinity for dietary pho...
Article

Late mediolateral view

A late mediolateral projection is an additional view that can be used whenever,in the presence of rounded calcifications of probable intracystic nature, the standard ML view does not allow the recognition of the characteristic tea cups appearance due to the density of milk of calcium. A second ...
Article

Lateral view

The lateral view is an additional view obtained at virtually every diagnostic evaluation. A lateral view may be obtained as a mediolateral view (ML) or lateromedial view (LM) view depending on where the imaging tube and detector are located. Technique for an ML view, the tube emitting the x-ra...
Article

Lateromedial oblique view

A lateral-medial oblique (LMO) view is a type of supplementary mammographic view.  The advantage of performing the lateromedial view is to depict lesions located far medio-posteriorly visible on the CC view only, or to depict palpable lesions in the inner quadrant not seen on mammography. This...
Article

Lateromedial view

The lateromedial view (or LM view) is a supplementary mammographic view where the bucky is placed up against the sternum and the and film is taken in a true lateral projection. This view allows the medial breast to be closest to the film. This view allows the medial breast to be more carefully e...
Article

Latissmus dorsi myocutaneous flap

A latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is a form of breast reconstruction that transplants the patient’s own muscle, fat, and skin from the middle back to the chest to form a breast mound. Advantages This flap is more easily created and contains a robust vascular supply compared to other flaps s...
Article

Lipiodol

Lipiodol® (also known as ethiodized oil) is an oil-based iodinated contrast medium that was historically used for myelography and hysterosalpingography. It was later superseded by newer, less hazardous, agents, and now is used primarily as a therapeutic agent. Guerbet is now the sole manufacture...
Article

Lower limb radiography

Lower limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the pelvis, hip joint, femur, knee joint, tibia, fibula, ankle joint, tarsal bones of the foot and metatarsals. It is often utilized in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. 

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