Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

365 results found
Article

Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine AP view images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. It is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imaging sho...
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Lumbar spine (flexion and extension views)

The lumbar spine flexion and extension views images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. They are specialized projection, assessing for instability of the lumbar spine often in the context of spondylolisthesis.  Patient position the patient is positioned erect: ideally, spinal i...
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Lumbar spine (lateral view)

The lumbar spine lateral view images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. It is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is positioned erect, supine or lateral recumbent, depending on clinical h...
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Lumbar spine (oblique view)

The lumbar spine oblique view is used to visualize the articular facets and pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine.  Patient position the radiographs can be performed with the patient in the erect or supine position erect  two radiographs performed with patient at RAO 35-45°  and LAO 35-4...
Article

Lumbar spine series

The lumbar spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilized in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions such as ankylosing spondylosis. Lumbar spine x...
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Magnification view (mammography)

A magnification view in mammography is performed to evaluate and count microcalcifications and its extension (as well the assessment of the borders and the tissue structures of a suspicious area or a mass) by using a magnification device which brings the breast away from the film plate and close...
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Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
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Mammography views

There are numerous mammography views that can broadly be split into two groups standard views  supplementary views - additional information or problem solving Standard views Standard views are bilateral craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views, which comprise routine screening ...
Article

Maquet view

A maquet view is a type of radiographic projection of the lower limbs. They are a well established method of determining the axial alignment of the lower limb in the coronal plane and are of particular use in assessment of total knee replacements. Radiographic assessment Construct the weight ...
Article

Mediolateral oblique view

The mediolateral oblique (MLO) view is one of standard mammographic views. It is the most important projection as it allows to depict most breast tissue.  Adequacy The representation of the pectoral muscle on the MLO view is a key component in assessing the adequacy of patient positioning and ...
Article

Mediolateral view

The mediolateral (ML) view is a supplementary mammographic view and shows less breast tissue and pectoral muscle than the mediolateral oblique view (MLO view). Technique The tube is rotated 90 degrees and the lateral aspect of the chest wall is along the bucky edge. The height is at the level ...
Article

Modified Stenvers view

The modified Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. It is primarily used to assess electrode placement following the insertion of a cochlear implant. Specifically it assesses the: integrity, positioning, and dep...
Article

Motion artifact

Motion artifact is a patient-based artifact that occurs with voluntary or involuntary patient movement during image acquisition. Misregistration artifacts, which appear as blurring, streaking, or shading, are caused by patient movement during a CT scan. Blurring also occurs with patient movemen...
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MRI pulse sequence abbreviations

This article contains a list of commonly and less commonly used MRI pulse sequence abbreviations and their meaning. If available, an explanation is included in a separate article. spin echo sequences (SE) T1: T1 weighted IR: inversion recovery T2 : T2 weighted RARE: rapid acquisition with r...
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Neonatal abdominal radiograph (supine view)

AP supine radiograph for neonates is a mobile examination performed on the neonatal unit. It can be taken as a standalone projection or as part of a series including a left lateral decubitus x-ray in cases of suspected perforation.  Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back i...
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Neonate chest (supine view)

The supine chest view of the neonatal patient is a common radiographic examination when examining preterm patients 1. Although not overall technically demanding, the radiographer should allocate time to ensure little to no repeats are required. Research surrounding the technical evaluation and ...
Article

Noise (computed tomography)

Noise in computed tomography is an unwanted change in pixel values in an otherwise homogenous image. Often noise is defined loosely as the grainy appearance on cross-sectional imaging; more often than not, this is quantum mottle.  Noise in CT is measured via the signal to noise ratio (SNR); com...
Article

Normal brain imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the brain and surrounding structures, divided by modality and protocol. CT CT (routine) example 1: C- axial, coronal, sagittal example 2: C- axial, coronal, sagittal & axial bone example 3: C- axial, C+ axial, coronal, sagittal example 4: C-...
Article

Normal breast imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the breast and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Breast Mammography MLO and CC (standard mammographic views) labeled example unlabelled example lateral: example needed compression: example needed cleavage view: exampl...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
Article

Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: pediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies example 1, example...
Article

Normal genitourinary tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the genitourinary tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Kidneys Plain radiograph KUB: example 1 abdominal x-ray: example 1 Intravenous Urogram (IVU) / Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) IVU: example 1 Ultrasound renal ultrasound:...
Article

Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1, example 2 Ultrasound example 1 CT soft tissue contra...
Article

Normal hepatobiliary imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the liver and biliary tree and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Liver Plain radiographs liver silhouette: example Ultrasound liver ultrasound example 1 with shear wave elastography liver Doppler ultrasound: example ne...
Article

Normal lower limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the lower limb, divided by region and modality. Pelvic girdle plain radiograph pelvis: example 1: frontal example 2: frontal (young adult) example 3: pediatric example 4: pediatric (9 months, 11 months, and older child) example 5: trauma supi...
Article

Normal spine imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the spine and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Cervical spine plain films example 1: AP, lat, obliques only example 2: PEG view example 3: flexion and extension views only example 4: pediatric - 12 years old example 5...
Article

Normal upper limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the upper limb, divided by region and modality. Shoulder girdle plain radiograph sternoclavicular joint: example clavicle: example, example 2, example 3 acromioclavicular joint example 1 example 2 shoulder example 1: with Y view example 1: ...
Article

Off focus radiation

During x-ray generation, off-focus radiation refers to the emission of x-ray photons which originate outside of the anode focal spot. Essentially a form of scatter, photons produced in this manner may result in blurring and are of no use for diagnostic purposes. They are shielded as much as poss...
Article

Optimal exposure in digital radiography

General radiography has a direct relationship between optimal exposure and a diagnostic image. Dynamic range Traditionally, general radiography utilized film technology with a limited dynamic range, in which under or overexposed films either develop ‘too dark’ or ‘too light' 1. Put simply; dyn...
Article

Oral cholecystography

Oral cholecystography was a procedure used to image the gallbladder, now largely superseded by ultrasound and MRCP. It was first described by Graham et. al in 1925, using sodium tetraiodophenolphthalein.  Although rarely performed now, more modern techniques used other cholegraphic agents such ...
Article

Orbitomeatal line

The orbitomeatal line, also known as the canthomeatal line, was the traditional axial plane used for CT of the brain. It was easily identified on the inspection of the patient's head when tilting the gantry or patient's head to achieve a standard axial plane.  The orbitomeatal line was defined ...
Article

Orthogonal projection

The orthogonal projection (or view) is, by definition, a radiographic projection obtained 90 degrees to the original view. It forms the basic requirements of a 'radiographic series', that being 'two orthogonal projections of the region of interest' Acute imaging  Cases can appear normal in one...
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Orthopantomography

The orthopantomogram (also known as an orthopantomograph, panotomogram or an OPG) is a panoramic single image radiograph of the mandible, maxilla and teeth. It is often encountered in dental practice and occasionally in the emergency department; providing a convenient, inexpensive and rapid way ...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (AP supine view)

The AP supine abdominal radiograph is a routine view when imaging the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the PA erect and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocols may only perform one view (either t...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (horizontal beam lateral radiograph)

The horizontal beam lateral radiograph is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen. This view is ideal for neonates as free abdominal gas can be visualized without the neonate being erect. This view is also ideal for children that are unable to move from the supine position ...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus radiograph is an additional projection for assessing the pediatric abdomen. This view is ideal for displaying free air in the abdomen and/or if the patient is unable to lie supine 1. As radiation dose is an important consideration for pediatric imaging, the lateral decubitu...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (PA erect view)

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is the standard view for assessing air-fluid levels and free air in the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the AP supine and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocol...
Article

Pediatric chest (AP erect view)

The anteroposterior erect chest view is ideal in younger cooperative pediatric patients (approximately 3-7 years old; this age range is only a guide). This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The AP erect view is often chosen over the PA erect vie...
Article

Pediatric chest (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam pediatric lateral chest view is a modified lateral projection often utilized in populations under the age of 6 months old due to the inability of that patient to independently hold up their head. There is a body of research that suggest the lateral projection is not required...
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Pediatric chest (lateral view)

The pediatric lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly useful in assessi...
Article

Pediatric chest (supine view)

In pediatric imaging, the anteroposterior supine chest x-ray is beneficial for imaging unconscious or uncooperative patients. This view is preferred in infant and neonate imaging, whilst AP erect and PA erect views are ideal for children able to cooperate in sitting or standing 1. As radiation ...
Article

Pediatric hand (PA view)

The posteroanterior hand view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the phalanges, metacarpals, carpal bones and distal radioulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the t...
Article

Pediatric hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view is a special radiographic of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Some departments will perform this routinely instead of the AP pelvis view to reduce exposure and maintain high diagnostic accuracy 1. Bilateral examination allows for better visualization of the hip joints an...
Article

Pediatric pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is a routine view for pediatric patients to examine the hip joints, proximal femora, iliac crests and pelvic ring. The complications of pelvic pathology in pediatrics can significantly affect the child's future, highlighting the importance of proper patient positioning 1. Pat...
Article

Pediatric radiography

Pediatric radiography is a subset within general radiography specializing in the radiographic imaging of the pediatric population. The general principles of radiography remain the same. However, additional consideration needs to be taken into account when determining patient-specific exposure f...
Article

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.
Article

Patellar translation (TT-TG distance)

Patellar translation (TT-TG distance) is an analysis performed by overlapping or superimposing axial images of the femoral condyles and tibial tuberosity. The measurements are used to quantify patellar instability. Method Superimpose axial images of: femoral condyles tibial tuberosity Draw ...
Article

Pediatric chest (PA erect view)

The posteroanterior erect chest view is often performed in older pediatric patients; when the patient is able to cooperate with sitting or standing erect. This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The PA erect view is often chosen over the AP erect...
Article

Pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1.  Patient position patient is supine ...
Article

Pelvis (flamingo view)

The flamingo view series of the pelvis is a specialized orthopedic series consisting of three separate pelvis projections. It is used for assessing instability of the pubic symphysis, often in the context of previous pelvic trauma. This projection should only be performed under specialist super...
Article

Pelvis (hip surveillance)

Hip surveillance radiographs are part of a concerted effort to monitor and enable early detection of hip displacement in patients with cerebral palsy or neuromuscular disorders. The radiographs consist of a modified AP pelvis in which the patient's legs are in a neutral position, with the patell...
Article

Pelvis (inlet view)

The AP inlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1. This particular view is perpendicular t...
Article

Pelvis (Judet view)

The oblique pelvis otherwise known as the Judet view is an additional projection to the pelvic series when there is suspicion of an acetabular fracture. The Judet view is comprised of two projections, first the iliac oblique for assessment of the posterior column and anterior wall of the acetab...
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Pelvis (outlet view)

The AP outlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1-5.  This particular view allows for ass...
Article

Pelvis radiograph (pediatric)

The radiography of the pelvis in the pediatric patient varies greatly from the adult examination; particularly as specialized techniques are often required to immobilize the patient. To avoid future mobility and pain complications, it is essential to treat fractures and correct developmental pat...
Article

Pelvis series

The pelvis series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) with additional projections based on indications and pathology. The series is used most in emergency departments during the evaluation of multi-trauma patients due to the complex anatomy the AP projection covers. The pelvis series examin...
Article

Peroral pneumocolon

Peroral pneumocolon is a technique that can be used during a small bowel follow through (SBFT) to better visualize the ascending colon and terminal ileum. Procedure The goal of a peroral pneumocolon is to create a double contrast study (oral contrast and gas) of the ascending colon and termina...
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Phantom

A phantom or imaging phantom is a highly specialized object utilized in medical imaging for quality control, equipment calibration, dosimetry and education. The use of the name is used interchangeably for each object despite their differences.   Anthropomorphic phantom Anthropomorphic phantoms...
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Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
Article

Pineal and tectal plate protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for the pineal and tectal plate assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach tumors involving this region.  The pineal region is best imaged with MRI although CT, angiography, and ultrasound (in infants) also play a role. Please refer to the article pineal r...
Article

Pöschl projection

Pöschl projection is used in imaging the temporal bone. The plane of projection is perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal bone. In the Pöschl projection the temporal bone is imaged from its anteromedial to posterolateral aspects. See also Stenvers view
Article

Quantum noise

Quantum noise, also called mottle is the main and the most significant source of noise in plain radiography. It is a random process due to fluctuations in the number of photons reaching the detector from point to point. This means that exposing the detector in the absence of an object would resu...
Article

Radiographer abnormality detection system

The radiographer abnormality detection system, otherwise known as the red dot system, is a system that was first trialled during 1981 in London, United Kingdom at the Ealing Hospital, and soon after at Northwick Park Hospital. The results of the trial were reported in 1985 1. Radiographers commu...
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Radiographic contrast

Radiographic contrast is the density difference between neighboring regions on a plain radiograph. High radiographic contrast is observed in radiographs where density differences are notably distinguished (black to white). Low radiographic contrast is seen on radiographic images where adjacent r...
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Radiographic distortion

Several factors contribute to radiographic distortion whereby the anatomy examined is misrepresenting on the plain radiograph.  X-ray beam  The x-ray beam originates from a point source within the x-ray tube. It is due to this point source nature that x-ray beams will all possess 'beam diverge...
Article

Radiographic positioning terminology

Radiographic positioning terminology is used routinely to describe the position of the patient for taking various radiographs. Standard nomenclature is employed with respect to the anatomic position. Terminology Basic terms of relations anterior is towards the front of the body (Latin: before...
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Radiograph (terminology)

Radiograph (or plain radiograph although the word 'plain' is strictly superfluous) is the radiologist's preferred term for the static image generated following the passage of x-rays through the patient. Non-imaging clinicians and the lay population generally use the term "x-ray" to refer to a ra...
Article

Radiography article structure

There are two main types of radiography article.  Radiographic series These articles describe the set of projections that make up a series that might be requested by a clinician, e.g. they would request a wrist X-ray, to get a PA and lateral view, together these are termed the series. Each ar...
Article

Radiography curriculum

The radiography curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent core radiographic knowledge. As radiography encompasses multiple modalities, its content is split into subsections based on the modality. Definition Topics pertaining to radiogra...
Article

Radionuclide cisternography

Radionuclide cisternography is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that uses intrathecal 111In-DTPA (diethyletriaminepentaacetic acid; pentetate) to visualize the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are few indications 1: localization of CSF leak, such as in spontaneous intracranial hypo...
Article

Renal arterial resistive index

The renal arterial resistive index (RI) is a sonographic index of intrarenal arteries defined as (peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity ) / peak systolic velocity. The normal range is 0.50-0.70. Elevated values are associated with poorer prognosis in various renal disorders and renal t...
Article

Reversed CC view

The reversed CC view is an additional view. It is useful for the study of breasts with surgical scars in the lower quadrants. The ability to see the scar through the compressor paddle offers to the mammographer the possibility to flatten it properly, reducing the formation of scar folds as well ...
Article

Review areas on chest x-ray

Review areas on a chest x-ray are common areas for missed findings, and special attention should be paid to them: lung apices: masses (e.g. Pancoast tumor), pneumothorax behind the heart: consolidation, masses, hiatus hernia below the diaphragm: free gas, lines and tubes (e.g. nasogastric tub...
Article

Ribs (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique rib projection is performed to best demonstrate the axillary ribs. Oblique ribs may be conducted either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique view. The rib series is often noted as an unnecessary projection in many radiology departments. However, if the projection will chan...
Article

Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves two projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of ...
Article

Ribs (PA view)

The ribs PA view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the anterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. The rib series is often considered to be an unnecessary projection in many radiolo...
Article

Rolled CC view

Given that the rolled projections can be performed from any standard projection, the most commonly used is certainly the cranio-caudal one.  A rolled CC view It's performed to locate a lesion only visible in the cranio-caudal view, or when overlapped tissues in the standard view can simulate or...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP oblique view)

The AP Oblique view of the sacroiliac joint is one projection that makes up the sacroiliac series. Both sides of the SIJs are examined for comparison. Patient position patient positioned supine on the imaging table with legs extended elevate the side of interest approximately 25 to 30 de...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series that includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posit...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA oblique view)

The posteroanterior oblique sacroiliac joint view is used to demonstrate the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in an open profile. It is commonly used in conjunction with the sacroiliac AP view. Both sides of the sacroiliac joints are examined for comparison. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA sacrum view)

The PA Sacrum projection is a useful part of the sacroiliac series. Due to the shallow obliquity of the sacroiliac joints, the prone position allows the diverging x-ray beam to project through the joint space giving better visualization of the joint compared to the AP projection 1 Patient posit...
Article

Sacrum and coccyx (lateral view)

The sacrum and coccyx lateral view is utilized to demonstrate the most distal region of the spine in a lateral position. It is commonly used in conjunction with the AP projection or can be used as a sole projection, depending on department protocols. It is used to demonstrate sacrum and coccyx a...
Article

Sacrum (AP view)

The sacrum AP view is used to demonstrate the sacrum and its articulations. It can be utilized in the event of trauma, or for evaluating degenerative change 1. The efficacy of this radiographical projection is debatable, with radiographers encouraged to follow department protocol when imaging th...
Article

Saline flush during contrast administration

The saline flush during contrast administration otherwise known as a saline chaser is a secondary injection following the administration of contrast via a power injector. It is used in both MRI and CT.  The primary purpose of the saline chaser is to ‘push’ the otherwise unused contrast in the p...
Article

Scaphoid (lateral view)

The scaphoid lateral view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid in the orthogonal plane. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible ...
Article

Scaphoid (oblique view)

The oblique scaphoid view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. The positioning is similar if not identical to the oblique wrist.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and w...
Article

Scaphoid (PA axial view)

The scaphoid PA axial view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid free from superimposition. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possib...
Article

Scaphoid (PA view)

The scaphoid PA view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. Although performed PA the view can often be referred to an AP view. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist...
Article

Scaphoid series

The scaphoid series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, lateral and angled posteroanterior projection. The series examines the carpal bones focused mainly on the scaphoid. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna. Scaphoid fractu...
Article

Scapula (AP view)

The scapula AP view is a specialized projection of the scapular bone, performed in conjunction with the lateral scapular view. This projection can be performed erect or supine, involving 90-degree abduction of the affected arm. Patient position the patient is preferably erect however this can ...
Article

Scapula series

The scapula series is the plain radiographic assessment of the scapular bone of the shoulder girdle, seldom used in departments with 24 hour computed tomography departments. Many radiographic departments, do not have a stand alone scapula series, rather include the assessment of the scapula in ...
Article

Schuss view

Schuss views are PA weight-bearing knee radiographs taken in 30 degrees of flexion. They are a variant of the Rosenberg view. Several studies have shown them to be more sensitive to detect early knee osteoarthritis than standard extension AP views 1.
Article

Scoliosis erect lateral view

The scoliosis erect lateral view is performed to visualize the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of interest in profile in cases of scoliosis. It is also often done upon first presentation and is useful for identifying spondylolisthesis and the degree of kyphosis and/or lordosis 1,2. Patient posit...

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