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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

404 results found
Article

Knee (oblique view)

The knee oblique view is an additional projection requested to examine the knee joint in greater detail, often in the absence of a CT scanner. The view is comprised of both an internal and external oblique. Indications The internal and external oblique views of the knee can showcase pathology ...
Article

Knee (Rosenberg view)

The Rosenberg view of the knees is a specialized series often used to detect early signs of osteoarthritis. It should be the initial study for any patient with a suspicion of knee osteoarthritis. Indications The Rosenberg view is performed for any patient with a suspicion of knee osteoarthriti...
Article

Knee series

The knee series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate knee joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections can be used for specific indications. See also knee radiograph (an approach). ...
Article

Knee (skyline Laurin view)

The knee skyline Laurin view is an inferior-superior projection of the patella. It is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. Indication This view is used in trauma to assess for a patellar fracture or subluxation and in orthopedics for patellofemoral joint ...
Article

Knee (skyline Merchant view)

The knee skyline Merchant view is a superior-inferior projection of the patella. It is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella.  Clinical Indications This view is used in trauma patients to assess for a patellar fracture or subluxation and in orthopedics for ...
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Late mediolateral view

A late mediolateral projection is an additional view that can be used whenever,in the presence of rounded calcifications of probable intracystic nature, the standard ML view does not allow the recognition of the characteristic tea cups appearance due to the density of milk of calcium. A second ...
Article

Lateral finger (pediatric)

The lateral finger view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest. The patient position can vary depending on which finger is being imaged.  Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing f...
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Lateral view

The lateral view is an additional view obtained at virtually every diagnostic evaluation. A lateral view may be obtained as a mediolateral view (ML) or lateromedial view (LM) view depending on where the imaging tube and detector are located. Technique for an ML view, the tube emitting the x-ra...
Article

Lateromedial oblique view

A lateral-medial oblique (LMO) view is a type of supplementary mammographic view.  The advantage of performing the lateromedial view is to depict lesions located far medio-posteriorly visible on the CC view only, or to depict palpable lesions in the inner quadrant not seen on mammography. This...
Article

Lateromedial view

The lateromedial view (or LM view) is a supplementary mammographic view where the bucky is placed up against the sternum and the and film is taken in a true lateral projection. This view allows the medial breast to be closest to the film. This view allows the medial breast to be more carefully e...
Article

Lipiodol

Lipiodol® (also known as ethiodized oil) is an oil-based iodinated contrast medium that was historically used for myelography and hysterosalpingography 1. It was later superseded by newer, less hazardous, agents, and now is used primarily as a therapeutic agent. Guerbet is now the sole manufactu...
Article

Lower limb radiography

Lower limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the pelvis, hip joint, femur, knee joint, tibia, fibula, ankle joint, tarsal bones of the foot and metatarsals. It is often utilized in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. 
Article

Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine anteroposterior or posteroanterior view images the lumbar spine in its anatomical position. The lumbar spine generally consists of five vertebrae (see: lumbosacral transitional vertebra). Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postop...
Article

Lumbar spine (flexion and extension views)

The lumbar spine flexion and extension views images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. Indications These views are specialized projections to provide functional tests 1 of lumbar spine instability, often in the context of spondylolisthesis. Patient position the patient is pos...
Article

Lumbar spine (lateral view)

The lumbar spine lateral view images the lumbar spine which generally consists of five vertebrae (see: lumbosacral transitional vertebra). Indications This projection shows an orthogonal view of the AP/PA view and is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for ...
Article

Lumbar spine (oblique view)

The lumbar spine oblique view is used to visualize the articular facets and pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine.  Indications This view is used most commonly to assess for a pars interarticularis defect, although this has largely been superseded by CT and MRI. Additionally, it is a frequ...
Article

Lumbar spine series

The lumbar spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilized in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions such as ankylosing spondylosis. Lumbar spine r...
Article

Magnification view (mammography)

A magnification view in mammography is performed to evaluate and count microcalcifications and its extension (as well the assessment of the borders and the tissue structures of a suspicious area or a mass) by using a magnification device which brings the breast away from the film plate and close...
Article

Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
Article

Mammography views

There are numerous mammography views that can broadly be split into two groups standard views  supplementary views - additional information or problem solving Standard views Standard views are bilateral craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views, which comprise routine screening ...
Article

Maquet view

A maquet view is a type of radiographic projection of the lower limbs. They are a well established method of determining the axial alignment of the lower limb in the coronal plane and are of particular use in assessment of total knee replacements. Radiographic assessment Construct the weight ...
Article

Mediolateral oblique view

The mediolateral oblique (MLO) view is one of the two standard mammographic views, alongside the craniocaudal (CC) view.  It is the most important projection as it allows depiction of most breast tissue.  Adequacy The representation of the pectoral muscle on the MLO view is a key component in...
Article

Mediolateral view

The mediolateral (ML) view is a supplementary mammographic view and shows less breast tissue and pectoral muscle than the mediolateral oblique view (MLO view). Technique The tube is rotated 90 degrees and the lateral aspect of the chest wall is along the bucky edge. The height is at the level ...
Article

Modified Stenvers view

The modified Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. It is performed as a posteroanterior (PA) projection to minimize radiation to the orbits. This view has succeeded the Stenvers view, which includes more of the ...
Article

Motion artifact

Motion artifact is a patient-based artifact that occurs with voluntary or involuntary patient movement during image acquisition. Misregistration artifacts, which appear as blurring, streaking, or shading, are caused by patient movement during a CT scan. Blurring also occurs with patient movemen...
Article

MRI pulse sequence abbreviations

This article contains a list of commonly and less commonly used MRI pulse sequence abbreviations and their meaning. If available, an explanation is included in a separate article. image weighting T1 T2  ​T2*: T2 star PD: proton density DWI: diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC: apparent diff...
Article

Musculoskeletal imaging (dual-energy CT)

Dual-energy CT has a number of clinical applications in the assessment of the musculoskeletal system particularly in the realm of artefact reduction and material composition. Detection of bone marrow edema Similar to the concept of using virtual non-contrast imaging, virtual non-calcium images...
Article

Nasal bones (lateral view)

The lateral nasal bones view is a nonangled lateral radiograph showcasing two small oblong bones situated side by side, together forming the nasal ridge. Indications This view is often primarily used in assessing various nasal bone fractures in the trauma setting. Depending on the department, ...
Article

Neonatal abdominal radiograph (supine view)

AP supine radiograph for neonates is a mobile examination performed on the neonatal unit. It can be taken as a standalone projection or as part of a series including a left lateral decubitus x-ray in cases of suspected perforation.  Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back i...
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Neonate chest (supine view)

The supine chest view of the neonatal patient is a common radiographic examination when examining preterm patients 1. Although not overall technically demanding, the radiographer should allocate time to ensure little to no repeats are required. Research surrounding the technical evaluation and ...
Article

Neuroimaging (dual-energy CT)

Dual-energy CT has a number of clinical applications in neuroimaging particularly in the realm of material composition and virtual non-contrast imaging. Differentiation of hemorrhage from iodinated contrast Contrast staining of the brain parenchyma post iodinated contrast can lead to interpret...
Article

Noise (computed tomography)

Noise in computed tomography is an unwanted change in pixel values in an otherwise homogenous image. Often noise is defined loosely as the grainy appearance on cross-sectional imaging; more often than not, this is quantum mottle.  Noise in CT is measured via the signal to noise ratio (SNR); com...
Article

Noise power spectrum

The noise power spectrum (NPS), also known as the power spectral density, of a signal, is the fourier transform of the noise autocorrelation. It gives the intensity of noise as a function of spatial frequency.
Article

Noise reduction

Noise reduction, also known as noise suppression or denoising, commonly refers to the various algorithmic techniques to reduce noise in digital images once they are created although a few sources use the term more broadly to imply anything that reduces noise. In digital image processing various ...
Article

Normal brain imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the brain and surrounding structures, divided by modality and protocol. CT CT (routine) example 1: C- axial, coronal, sagittal example 2: C- axial, coronal, sagittal & axial bone example 3: C- axial, C+ axial, coronal, sagittal example 4: C-...
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Normal breast imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the breast and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Breast Mammography MLO and CC (standard mammographic views) labeled example unlabelled example (50 year old) example 2 (35 year old) example 3 (dense breasts, 45 year o...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
Article

Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiograph abdominal film example 1 example 2: erect and supine example 3: pediatric example 4: pediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies barium ...
Article

Normal genitourinary tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the genitourinary tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Kidneys Plain radiograph KUB: example 1 abdominal x-ray: example 1 Intravenous Urogram (IVU) and Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) IVU: example 1, example 2 Ultrasound rena...
Article

Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1, example 2, example 3 Ultrasound example 1 CT soft tis...
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Normal hepatobiliary imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the liver and biliary tree and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Liver Plain radiographs liver silhouette: example Ultrasound liver ultrasound example 1 with shear wave elastography liver Doppler ultrasound: example ne...
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Normal lower limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the lower limb, divided by region and modality. Pelvic girdle plain radiograph pelvis: example 1: frontal example 2: frontal (young adult) example 3: pediatric example 4: pediatric (9 months, 11 months, and older child) example 5: trauma supi...
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Normal spine imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the spine and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Cervical spine plain films example 1: AP, lat, obliques only example 2: PEG view example 3: flexion and extension views only example 4: pediatric - 12 years old example 5...
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Normal upper limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the upper limb, divided by region and modality. Shoulder girdle plain radiograph sternoclavicular joint: example clavicle: example, example 2, example 3 acromioclavicular joint example 1 example 2 shoulder example 1: with Y view example 1: ...
Article

Off focus radiation

During x-ray generation, off-focus radiation refers to the emission of x-ray photons which originate outside of the anode focal spot. Essentially a form of scatter, photons produced in this manner may result in blurring and are of no use for diagnostic purposes. They are shielded as much as poss...
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Optimal exposure in digital radiography

General radiography has a direct relationship between optimal exposure and a diagnostic image. Dynamic range Traditionally, general radiography utilized film technology with a limited dynamic range, in which under or overexposed films either develop ‘too dark’ or ‘too light' 1. Put simply; dyn...
Article

Oral cholecystography

Oral cholecystography is a procedure used to image the gallbladder, now largely superseded by ultrasound and MRCP. It was first described by Graham et al. in 1925, using sodium tetraiodophenolphthalein. Although rarely performed now, more modern techniques use other cholegraphic agents such as ...
Article

Orbitomeatal line

The orbitomeatal line, also known as the canthomeatal line, was the traditional axial plane used for CT of the brain. It was easily identified on the inspection of the patient's head when tilting the gantry or patient's head to achieve a standard axial plane.  The orbitomeatal line was defined ...
Article

Orthogonal projection

The orthogonal projection (or view) is, by definition, a radiographic projection obtained 90 degrees to the original view. It forms the basic requirements of a 'radiographic series', that being 'two orthogonal projections of the region of interest' Acute imaging  Cases can appear normal in one...
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Orthopantomography

The orthopantomogram (also known as an orthopantomograph, pantomogram, OPG or OPT) is a panoramic single image radiograph of the mandible, maxilla and teeth. It is often encountered in dental practice and occasionally in the emergency department; providing a convenient, inexpensive and rapid way...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (AP supine view)

The AP supine abdominal radiograph is a routine view when imaging the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the PA erect and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocols may only perform one view (either t...
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Pediatric abdomen (invertogram view)

The invertogram view is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen and is often used exclusively in characterizing anal atresia. However, as this view may be less comfortable for the patient and result in a more technically challenging examination, a more ideal alternative tec...
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Pediatric abdomen (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus radiograph is an additional projection for assessing the pediatric abdomen. This view is ideal for displaying free air in the abdomen and/or if the patient is unable to lie supine 1. As radiation dose is an important consideration for pediatric imaging, the lateral decubitu...
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Pediatric abdomen (PA erect view)

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is the standard view for assessing air-fluid levels and free air in the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the AP supine and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocol...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (prone cross-table lateral view)

The prone cross-table lateral view is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen and is a more ideal alternative to the invertogram, which may be less comfortable for the patient. This discomfort may result in a continuously crying baby, causing the puborectalis sling to contr...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (supine cross-table lateral view)

The supine cross-table lateral view is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen. As radiation dose is an important consideration for pediatric imaging, the horizontal beam lateral view is not often performed; although this will vary based on the department. Indications Thi...
Article

Pediatric chest (AP erect view)

The anteroposterior erect chest view is ideal in younger cooperative pediatric patients (approximately 3-7 years old; this age range is only a guide). This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The AP erect view is often chosen over the PA erect vie...
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Pediatric chest (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam (cross-table) pediatric lateral chest view is a modified lateral projection often utilized in populations under the age of 6 months old due to the inability of that patient to independently hold up their head. Indications A lateral radiograph helps confirm the presence of a...
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Pediatric chest (lateral view)

The pediatric lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly useful in assessi...
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Pediatric chest (supine view)

In pediatric imaging, the anteroposterior supine chest x-ray is beneficial for imaging unconscious or uncooperative patients. This view is preferred in infant and neonate imaging, whilst AP erect and PA erect views are ideal for children able to cooperate in sitting or standing 1. As radiation ...
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Pediatric elbow (AP view)

The anteroposterior elbow view for pediatrics is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  Indications The projection demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the articula...
Article

Pediatric elbow (horizontal beam AP view)

The horizontal beam anteroposterior elbow view for pediatrics is an alternative projection to the anteroposterior view in the elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard ...
Article

Pediatric elbow (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral elbow view for pediatrics is an alternative projection to the lateral view in the elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  Indications This view demonstrates an orthogonal view of the AP elbow and is ideal for patients who are unable to...
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Pediatric elbow (lateral view)

The lateral elbow view for pediatrics is part of a two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. Indications The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna-trochlear joint, coronoid process, and the olecranon process....
Article

Pediatric forearm (AP view)

The anteroposterior forearm view for pediatrics is one of two standard projections in the forearm series to assess the radius and ulna. Indications This view demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for assessment of suspected dislocations or fractures and local...
Article

Pediatric forearm (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral forearm view for pediatrics is one of two modified trauma projections in the forearm series, examining the radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard forearm positioning technique but require as...
Article

Pediatric forearm (lateral view)

The lateral forearm view for pediatrics is one of two standard projections in the forearm series to assess the radius and ulna. Indications This view allows for the assessment of suspected dislocations or fractures and localizing foreign bodies within the forearm. However, this view should no...
Article

Pediatric forearm (PA view)

The posteroanterior forearm view for pediatrics is one of two modified trauma projections in the forearm series, examining the radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard forearm positioning technique but require assessment...
Article

Pediatric hand (lateral view)

The lateral hand view for pediatrics is an orthogonal view taken along with the PA view of the hand. The lateral view is used to primarily assess for foreign bodies and/or displacement of fractures/dislocations. Indications This view is useful in assessing suspected dislocations, fractures or ...
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Pediatric hand (oblique view)

The oblique hand view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the phalanges, metacarpals, carpal bones and distal radioulnar joint. Indications This view is useful in assessing suspected dislocations or fractures, localizing foreign bodies or evaluating juvenile idiopathic/rheuma...
Article

Pediatric hand (PA view)

The posteroanterior hand view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the phalanges, metacarpals, carpal bones and distal radioulnar joint.  Indications This view is useful in assessing suspected dislocations or fractures, localizing foreign bodies or evaluating juvenile idiopath...
Article

Pediatric hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view is a special radiographic of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Some departments will perform this routinely instead of the AP pelvis view to reduce exposure and maintain high diagnostic accuracy 1.  Indication Bilateral examination allows for better visualization of the...
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Pediatric immobilization

Pediatric immobilization relates to techniques used to keep children still for medical imaging examinations. Since radiation dose can affect children up to ten times more than adults 1, it is important to keep the radiation dose to a minimum. One method of achieving this is by avoiding repeat im...
Article

Pediatric pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is a routine view for pediatric patients to examine the hip joints, proximal femora, iliac crests and pelvic ring. The complications of pelvic pathology in pediatrics can significantly affect the child's future, highlighting the importance of proper patient positioning 1. Ind...
Article

Pediatric radiography

Pediatric radiography is a subset within general radiography specializing in the radiographic imaging of the pediatric population. The general principles of radiography remain the same. However, additional consideration needs to be taken into account when determining patient-specific exposure f...
Article

Pediatric wrist (lateral view)

The lateral wrist view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the carpal bones, distal radioulnar joint and metacarpals. Indications This projection is an orthogonal view of the PA wrist and is used to diagnose fractures and localize foreign bodies in pediatric patients. It a...
Article

Pediatric wrist (oblique view)

The oblique wrist view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the carpal bones, distal radioulnar joint and metacarpals.  Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing subtle wrist fractures and the location of the fracture; particularly in adults. However, the oblique...
Article

Pediatric wrist (PA view)

The posteroanterior wrist view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the carpal bones, distal radioulnar joint and metacarpals.  Indications This projection demonstrates the wrist joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for evaluation of the distal radius, ulna and...
Article

PA finger (pediatric)

The posteroanterior finger view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest.  Indications This projection demonstrates the metacarpal and interphalangeal joint spaces in their natural anatomic posi...
Article

Paranasal sinuses and facial bones (lateral view)

The lateral paranasal sinuses and facial bones view is a nonangled lateral radiograph showcasing the facial bones (i.e. mandible, maxilla, zygoma, nasal, and lacrimal bone) and paranasal sinuses. Indications This view is useful in assessing any inflammatory processes or fractures to the facial...
Article

Paranasal sinuses and facial bones radiography

Paranasal sinuses and facial bones radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.
Article

Pediatric chest (PA erect view)

The posteroanterior erect chest view is often performed in older pediatric patients; when the patient is able to cooperate with sitting or standing erect. This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The PA erect view is often chosen over the AP erect...
Article

Pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring.  Indications This view is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1. It helps to asse...
Article

Pelvis (flamingo view)

The flamingo view series of the pelvis is a specialized orthopedic series consisting of three separate pelvis projections consisting of a nuertal, left foot raised and right foot raised view. Indications It is used for assessing instability of the pubic symphysis, often in the context of previ...
Article

Pelvis (hip surveillance)

Hip surveillance radiographs are part of a concerted effort to monitor and enable early detection of hip displacement in patients with cerebral palsy or neuromuscular disorders. The radiographs consist of a modified AP pelvis in which the patient's legs are in a neutral position, with the patell...
Article

Pelvis (inlet view)

The AP inlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. Indications It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1. This particular view is p...
Article

Pelvis (Judet view)

The oblique pelvis otherwise known as the Judet view is an additional projection to the pelvic series when there is suspicion of an acetabular fracture. Indications The Judet view is comprised of two projections, first the iliac oblique for assessment of the posterior column and anterior wall ...
Article

Pelvis (outlet view)

The AP outlet view is a specialized view part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. Indications The outlet view is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departm...
Article

Pelvis radiograph (pediatric)

The radiography of the pelvis in the pediatric patient varies greatly from the adult examination; particularly as specialized techniques are often required to immobilize the patient. To avoid future mobility and pain complications, it is essential to treat fractures and correct developmental pat...
Article

Pelvis series

The pelvis series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) with additional projections based on indications and pathology. The series is used most in emergency departments during the evaluation of multi-trauma patients due to the complex anatomy the AP projection covers. The pelvis series examin...
Article

Peroral pneumocolon

Peroral pneumocolon is a technique that can be used during a small bowel follow through (SBFT) to better visualize the ascending colon and terminal ileum. Procedure The goal of a peroral pneumocolon is to create a double contrast study (oral contrast and gas) of the ascending colon and termina...
Article

Phantom

A phantom or imaging phantom is a highly specialized object utilized in medical imaging for quality control, equipment calibration, dosimetry and education. The use of the name is used interchangeably for each object despite their differences. There are two main type of phantom, anthropomorphic...
Article

Pineal and tectal plate protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for the pineal and tectal plate assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach tumors involving this region.  The pineal region is best imaged with MRI although CT, angiography, and ultrasound (in infants) also play a role. Please refer to the article pineal r...

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