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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

404 results found
Article

Pöschl projection

Pöschl projection is used in imaging the temporal bone. The plane of projection is perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal bone. In the Pöschl projection the temporal bone is imaged from its anteromedial to posterolateral aspects. See also Stenvers view
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Quantum noise

Quantum noise, also called mottle is the main and the most significant source of noise in plain radiography. It is a random process due to fluctuations in the number of photons reaching the detector from point to point. This means that exposing the detector in the absence of an object would resu...
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Radiograph

A radiograph (or plain radiograph although the word 'plain' is strictly superfluous) is the radiologist's preferred term for the static image generated following the passage of x-rays through the patient. Non-imaging clinicians and the lay population generally use the term "x-ray" to refer to a ...
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Radiographer abnormality detection system

The radiographer abnormality detection system, otherwise known as the red dot system, is a system that was first trialled during 1981 in London, United Kingdom at the Ealing Hospital, and soon after at Northwick Park Hospital. The results of the trial were reported in 1985 1. Radiographers commu...
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Radiographic contrast

Radiographic contrast is the density difference between neighboring regions on a plain radiograph. High radiographic contrast is observed in radiographs where density differences are notably distinguished (black to white). Low radiographic contrast is seen on radiographic images where adjacent r...
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Radiographic distortion

Several factors contribute to radiographic distortion whereby the anatomy examined is misrepresenting on the plain radiograph.  X-ray beam  The x-ray beam originates from a point source within the x-ray tube. It is due to this point source nature that x-ray beams will all possess 'beam diverge...
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Radiographic positioning terminology

Radiographic positioning terminology is used routinely to describe the position of the patient for taking various radiographs. Standard nomenclature is employed with respect to the anatomic position. Terminology Basic terms of relations anterior is towards the front of the body (Latin: before...
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Radiography curriculum

The radiography curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent core radiographic knowledge. As radiography encompasses multiple modalities, its content is split into subsections based on the modality. Definition Topics pertaining to radiogra...
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Radionuclide cisternography

Radionuclide cisternography is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that uses intrathecal 111In-DTPA (diethyletriaminepentaacetic acid; pentetate) to visualize the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are few indications 1: localization of CSF leak, such as in spontaneous intracranial hypo...
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Renal transplant scintigraphy

Renal transplant scintigraphy is a non-invasive diagnostic modality, using radioactive isotopes, to assess renal transplant related complications. Renal scintigraphy images are acquired with a dynamic planar procedure using a radioactive isotope visualized on a gamma camera. The final result is ...
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Resistive index (vascular ultrasound)

The resistive index (Pourcelot index) is a calculated flow parameter in ultrasound, derived from the maximum, minimum, and mean Doppler frequency shifts during a defined cardiac cycle. Along with the pulsatility index (PI), it is typically used to assess the resistance in a pulsatile vascular sy...
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Reversed CC view

The reversed CC view is an additional view. It is useful for the study of breasts with surgical scars in the lower quadrants. The ability to see the scar through the compressor paddle offers to the mammographer the possibility to flatten it properly, reducing the formation of scar folds as well ...
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Ribs (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique rib projection is performed to best demonstrate the axillary ribs. Oblique ribs may be conducted either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique view. Indications The AP oblique view specifically focuses on the axillary ribs. The rib series is often considered to be an unnece...
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Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves two projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of ...
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Ribs (PA view)

The ribs PA view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the anterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. Indications The PA view specifically focuses on the anterior ribs. The rib series...
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Rolled CC view

Given that the rolled projections can be performed from any standard projection, the most commonly used is certainly the cranio-caudal one.  A rolled CC view It's performed to locate a lesion only visible in the cranio-caudal view, or when overlapped tissues in the standard view can simulate or...
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Sacroiliac joint (AP oblique view)

The sacroiliac joint anteroposterior (AP) oblique view of the sacroiliac joint is one of the projections that make up the sacroiliac series. Indications This projection examines both left and right sacroiliac joints for comparison purposes in the evaluation of sacroiliitis and ankylosing spond...
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Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series that includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posit...
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Sacroiliac joint (PA oblique view)

The posteroanterior (PA) oblique sacroiliac joint view demonstrates the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in an open profile. It is commonly used in conjunction with the sacroiliac AP view.  Indications This projection examines both left and right sacroiliac joints for comparison purposes in the evalua...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA sacrum view)

The posteroanterior sacrum projection is a useful part of the sacroiliac series and demonstrates the opened sacroiliac joint spaces and L5-S1 intervertebral joint space. Indications This view is useful in visualizing any fractures, sacroiliac joint dislocations or subluxations, and possible in...
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Sacrum and coccyx (lateral view)

The sacrum and coccyx lateral view is utilized to demonstrate the most distal region of the spine in a lateral position. Indications This projection is commonly used in conjunction with the AP projection or can be used as a sole projection, depending on department protocols. It helps to visual...
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Sacrum (AP view)

The sacrum anteroposterior (AP) view is used to demonstrate the sacrum and its articulations. The efficacy of this radiographic projection is debatable, with radiographers encouraged to follow department protocol when imaging this region 1.  Indications This view can be utilized in the event o...
Article

Saline flush during contrast medium administration

The saline flush during contrast medium administration otherwise known as a saline chaser is a secondary injection following the administration of contrast medium via a power injector. It is used in both CT and MRI. The primary purpose of the saline chaser is to ‘push’ the otherwise unused cont...
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Scaphoid (lateral view)

The scaphoid lateral view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid in the orthogonal plane. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible ...
Article

Scaphoid (oblique view)

The oblique scaphoid view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. The positioning is similar if not identical to the oblique wrist.  Indications Although you would not request this view in isolation, this is a great projection to assess the tubercle o...
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Scaphoid (PA axial view)

The scaphoid posteroanterior axial view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. This view is a complementary projection to the PA view. Indications This view aims to show the scaphoid in its true anatomical appearance without any superimposition or fo...
Article

Scaphoid (PA view)

The posteroanterior scaphoid view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. Although performed PA, the view can often be referred to as an AP view. Indications This view aims to show the scaphoid in its anatomical position, hence allowing the visualizat...
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Scaphoid series

The scaphoid series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, lateral and angled posteroanterior projection. The series examines the carpal bones focused mainly on the scaphoid. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna. Scaphoid fractu...
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Scapula (AP view)

The scapula AP view is a specialized projection of the scapular bone, performed in conjunction with the lateral scapular view. This projection can be performed erect or supine, involving 90-degree abduction of the affected arm. Indications This view is rarely requested due to the accessibility...
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Scapula series

The scapula series is the plain radiographic assessment of the scapular bone of the shoulder girdle, seldom used in departments with 24 hour computed tomography departments. Many radiographic departments, do not have a stand alone scapula series, rather include the assessment of the scapula in ...
Article

Schuss view

Schuss views are PA weight-bearing knee radiographs taken in 30 degrees of flexion. They are a variant of the Rosenberg view. Several studies have shown them to be more sensitive to detect early knee osteoarthritis than standard extension AP views 1.
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Scoliosis (erect lateral view)

The scoliosis erect lateral view is performed to visualize the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of interest in profile. Indications This projection is done in cases of scoliosis and often done upon first presentation as a useful examination in identifying spondylolisthesis and the degree of kyph...
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Scoliosis (lateral bending view)

Scoliosis lateral bending views are additional scoliosis projections accompanying the standard PA/AP and lateral views. Indications The aim of this view is to assess patients' lateral range of spinal motion 1 in the vertebral column as part of a scoliosis series. Patient position patient er...
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Scoliosis (PA/AP view)

The scoliosis posteroanterior/anteroposterior (PA/AP) view allows for the visualization of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies of interest. Indications This projection is used in determining scoliosis in patients and allows for the severity of lateral spinal curvature to be assessed 1. P...
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Scoliosis radiography

Scoliosis radiography is useful in identifying the degree of the scoliosis curvature (major/minor or primary/compensatory curves), as well as observe its progression to determine the best method of treatment 1.   Indications Scoliosis radiographs are performed specifically when the disease is...
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Shoulder (AP glenoid view)

The shoulder AP glenoid view also known as a true AP or a 'Grashey view' is an additional projection to the two view shoulder series. The projection is used to assess the integrity of the glenohumeral joint. Indications  The glenoid view is an ideal projection to inspect the glenoid rim, the g...
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Shoulder (AP view)

The shoulder AP view is a standard projection that makes up the two view shoulder series. The projection demonstrates the shoulder in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire clavicle and scapula, as well as the glenohumeral, acromioclavicular ...
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Shoulder (external rotation view)

The shoulder external rotation view is an additional projection to the standard shoulder series it is often combined with the internal rotation view to visualize the entirety of the humeral head. Indications This projection is often done as a series, it is useful to demonstrate the greater tub...
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Shoulder (Garth view)

The apical oblique projection or the Garth view of the shoulder is the tangential projection of the shoulder used in trauma 4. Indications The view is best for evaluating the glenohumeral joint for dislocations and trauma to the glenoid of the scapula; this projection can be used as a replacem...
Article

Shoulder girdle radiography

The radiography of the shoulder girdle is a commonly requested plain radiographic examination; the particular radiographic series will be dependent on the suspected pathology or injury. The extent of each series is determined by the radiography department protocols. Radiographic series shoulde...
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Shoulder (inferosuperior axial)

The inferosuperior axial view also known as a Lawrence view of the shoulder is a modified axial projection best utilized with supine patients. It is an orthogonal projection to the AP view and replaces the lateral shoulder projection. Indications It is an appropriate projection to assess suspe...
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Shoulder (internal rotation view)

The shoulder internal rotation view is an additional projection to the standard shoulder series it is often combined with the external rotation view to visualize the entirety of the humeral head.  Indications This projection shows the lesser tubercle of the humerus in profile and can be used t...
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Shoulder (lateral scapula view)

The lateral scapula shoulder or Y view is part of the standard shoulder series. Indications Orthogonal to the AP shoulder (note: as is an axillary view); this view is a pertinent projection to assess suspected dislocations, scapula fractures, and degenerative changes. It is also useful in seei...
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Shoulder (modified transthoracic supine lateral)

The modified transthoracic supine lateral scapula is a modification of the supine lateral shoulder, used to safely image patients on spinal precautions, or patients who are unable to move; often employed in major trauma hospitals, it produces a diagnostic lateral projection of the shoulder with ...
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Shoulder (modified trauma axial view)

The modified trauma axial view is a supplementary projection that replaces the ‘Y view’ of the two-view shoulder series. It is an orthogonal view of the AP projection of the glenohumeral joint and is often performed in the context of trauma. Indications The modified trauma axial view is used t...
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Shoulder (outlet view)

The outlet or Neers projection of the shoulder is a specialized projection demonstrating the coracoacromial arch often utilized in the investigation of shoulder impingement 1. This projection is most commonly seen in orthopedic clinics and closely resembles a lateral scapular projection but in...
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Shoulder series

The shoulder series is fundamentally composed of two orthogonal views of the glenohumeral joint including the entire scapula. The extension of the shoulder series depends on the radiography department protocols and the clinical indications for imaging. Indications Shoulder radiographs are perf...
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Shoulder (Stryker notch view)

The Stryker notch view is a specialized projection of the shoulder, aimed at assessing the posterior humerus. Indications The Stryker notch view can be used post anterior glenohumeral dislocation, assessing for Hill-Sachs lesions 1. Patient position the patient is preferably erect the mid-c...
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Shoulder (superior-inferior axial view)

The axial shoulder view is a supplementary projection to the lateral scapula view for obtaining orthogonal images to the AP shoulder. It is an appropriate projection to assess suspected dislocations, proximal humerus pathology, and glenohumeral articular surface abnormalities 1-3. Indication T...
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Shoulder (supine lateral view)

The supine lateral scapula view (anterior oblique AP) is a modified lateral shoulder projection often utilized in trauma imaging. Orthogonal to the AP shoulder (note so is an axillary view); It is a pertinent projection to assess suspected dislocations, scapula fractures and degenerative changes...
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Shoulder (Velpeau view)

The Velpeau view of the glenohumeral joint is a modified axial projection performed in the context of shoulder immobilization. The name was coined after the Velpeau Bandage 1, and first described in 1967 by Bloom and Obata 2. Indications This projection is performed on patients with a shoulder...
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Shoulder (West Point view)

The West Point view of the glenohumeral joint is a modified axial projection of the glenohumeral joint in which the patient is prone.  Indications The West Point view is a highly specific radiographic projection to assess the anteroinferior glenoid rim often in the context of recurrent instabi...
Article

Shunt series

The shunt series is a set of radiographic images performed to assess the location and integrity of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.  Indications Departmental protocols will vary but the overall goal is to image the shunt in its entirety to assess for mechanical causes of shunt failure 1,2. The sh...
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Signal-to-noise ratio (CT)

Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a generic term which, in radiology, is a measure of true signal (i.e. reflecting actual anatomy) to noise (e.g. random quantum mottle). Signal-to-noise ratio in CT roughly follows the same principles as those of plain radiographs. It is calculated by comparing the...
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Signal-to-noise ratio (radiography)

Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a generic term which, in radiology, is a measure of true signal (i.e. reflecting actual anatomy) to noise (e.g. random quantum mottle). A lower signal-to-noise ratio generally results in a grainy appearance to images.  In radiography, the signal-to-noise ratio, an...
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Skeletal survey (overview)

The skeletal survey is a radiographic series performed to survey the entire skeleton (axial skeleton, upper and lower limbs) for pathology or injury. Specific projections vary depending on the clinical indication and the institution's protocol. There are various clinical indications that may wa...
Article

Skull (AP view)

The skull anteroposterior (AP) view is a non-angled radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Indications This examination is able to assess for medial and lateral displacements of skull fractures, in additio...
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Skull (lateral view)

The skull lateral view is a non-angled lateral radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Indications This projection is used to evaluate for skull fractures, in addition to neoplastic changes and Paget diseas...
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Skull (PA view)

The skull posteroanterior (PA) view is a non-angled radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Indications This examination is able to assess for medial and lateral displacements of skull fractures, in additio...
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Skull radiography

Skull radiography is the radiological investigation of the skull vault and associated bony structures. Seldom requested in modern medicine, plain radiography of the skull is often a last resort in trauma imaging in the absence of a CT. However, it is still utilized in the setting of skeletal sur...
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Skull (submentovertex view)

The skull submentovertex view is an angled inferosuperior radiograph of the base of skull. As this view involves radiographic positioning that is uncomfortable for the patient and with CT being more sensitive to bony detail, this view is rapidly becoming obsolete. Indications This view is usef...
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Skull (Towne view)

The Towne view is an angled anteroposterior radiograph of the skull and visualizes the petrous part of the pyramids, the dorsum sellae and the posterior clinoid processes, which are visible in the shadow of the foramen magnum. Indications This projection is used to evaluate for medial and late...
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Spine radiography

Spine radiography is utilized in both trauma and general imaging. Spine radiography explores the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions. In more specialized departments, full-length spine radiography via projectional, CT, or slit-beam digital radiography is still frequently utilized in t...
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Spot view (mammography)

A spot view (also known as a spot compression view or focal compression view) is an additional mammographic view performed by applying the compression to a smaller area of tissue using a small compression paddle, increasing the effective pressure on that spot. This results in better tissue separ...
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Stenvers view

Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrode placement following ...
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Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artifact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
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Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series The side of obliquity pertains to the joint of interest i.e. RAO to assess the right sternoclavicular joint. However, this projection is often performed...
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Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Indications  The PA view of the sternoclavicular joint is often requested in the con...
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Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialized radiographic projection utilized in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, but still utilized in postoperative imaging. Indications The serendipi...
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Sternoclavicular joint series

The sternoclavicular radiographic series is a used to evaluate sternoclavicular joint and the proximal clavicle. Imaging of the sternoclavicular joint has since been replaced by computed tomography. Indications Sternoclavicular joint radiographs are performed for a variety of indications inclu...
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Sternum (lateral view)

The lateral sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire length of the sternum in profile. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Indication This view is invariably undertaken for one of two reasons, to assess for a fracture or metastasis.  It may also rarely be perform...
Article

Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection.  Indications The oblique view will show the sternal body in the AP plane, it is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing t...
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Style guide and help

Our style guide is a set of guidelines to help authors write content in a uniform way. This has become increasingly important as the number of contributors has grown. Take a look through the guide and get involved at Radiopaedia.org. general overview of Radiopaedia.org what Radiopaedia.org IS ...
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Subcallosal line

The subcallosal line connects the inferior surface of the genu of the corpus callosum to the inferior surface of the splenium and is used to define an axial plane for imaging of the brain 1.  The alternative AC-PC line is most commonly used, however, the subcallosal plane remains recommended fo...
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Systematic radiographic technical evaluation (mnemonic)

Systematic radiographic technical evaluation is an important aspect to evaluative, effective radiography. It is the process of assessing a radiographic image to ensure it meets a high level of diagnostic standard. Two mnemonics are commonly used when assessing a radiographic image: PACEMAN IMA...
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Tangential views

Tangential views are useful to differentiate intracutaneous radiopaque particles in a tattoo from intraparenchymal microcalcifications. Mammographic findings close to the skin such as masses, microcalcifications, skin dimpling or shaded areas always pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Va...
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Tardus parvus

Tardus parvus refers to a pattern of Doppler ultrasound spectral waveform resulting from arterial stenosis. The phenomenon is observed downstream to the site of stenosis, and is due to reduced magnitude of blood flow through the narrowed vessel during ventricular systole 7. This characteristic ...
Article

Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi (sestamibi is a shortening of sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours lipophilic cation normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart (myocardium) excretion: hepat...
Article

Temporomandibular joint (axiolateral view)

The axiolateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) view allows for visualization of the articular tubercle, mandibular condyle and fossa of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Indications This projection is useful in identifying structural changes and displaced fractures, assessing excursion and joi...
Article

Thermoluminescent dosimeter

Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) is a passive radiation detection device that is used for personal dose monitoring or to measure patient dose.  Parts plastic holder nickel-coated aluminum card with TLD discs the discs are made of a thermoluminescent material, commonly calcium sulphate doped...
Article

Thoracic spine (AP view)

The thoracic spine anteroposterior (AP) view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It can help to visualize any compression fractures, sublux...
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Thoracic spine (lateral view)

The thoracic spine lateral view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It can help to visualize any compression fractures, subluxation or kyph...
Article

Thoracic spine series

The thoracic spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilized in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions. Radiographs of the thoracic spine are consi...
Article

Thumb (AP/PA view)

The thumb AP (anteroposterior) view is one of the standard views for assessment of the thumb. The PA (posteroanterior) view can be utilized when the patient is unable to achieve the position required for the AP view. They are one part of the three view thumb series. There will be some magnifica...
Article

Thumb (lateral view)

The thumb lateral view is an orthogonal projection of AP/PA view. Indications As with all thumb radiographs, this is a view requested for a number of reasons including trauma, suspected inflammatory process or foreign body (to name a few). This particular view helps in the localization of a fo...
Article

Thumb (oblique view)

The thumb oblique view is a part of the thumb series and is particularly useful in cases with traumatic indications. Indications This projection will demonstrate the thumb in its natural 'AP' position, it is the thumb radiograph you would observe on an AP hand radiograph. It is a great project...
Article

Thumb series

The thumb series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The posteroanterior projection is interchangeably performed anterioposter or posteroanterior depending on mobility. It examines in detail the first metacarpal and its articulations. Thumbs have a vital impact in...
Article

Thumb series (pediatric)

The thumb series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indication, an additional oblique view may also be done. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected d...
Article

Tibia and fibula series

The tibia/fibula is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the entirety of the tibia and fibula after trauma.  Indications The tibia/fibula radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including: tr...
Article

Tibia fibula (AP view)

The tibia fibula anteroposterior view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Indications The tibia fibula AP view is performed for evaluation of the lower leg in patients who have suffered trauma or are suspected to have a foreign body or ...
Article

Tibia fibula (lateral view)

The tibia fibula lateral view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Indications The tibia fibula lateral view is the orthogonal projection to the AP view and is performed for evaluation of fractures or dislocations including their directi...
Article

Toes (AP view)

Toes AP view is part of a three view toe series and includes the phalanges and the toe(s) of interest and the distal half of the associated metatarsals. Indications This view evaluates any joint abnormalities such as gout and osteoarthritis and is also useful in determining fractures or disloc...
Article

Toes (lateral view)

The lateral toe projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges of any specified toe(s), and distal half of the associated metatarsals. Indications This view evaluates all phalanges of a specified toe(s) for any fractures or dislocation, allowing the establishment of dorsal...

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