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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

410 results found
Article

Tibia and fibula series

The tibia/fibula is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the entirety of the tibia and fibula after trauma.  Indications The tibia/fibula radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including: tr...
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Tibia fibula (AP view)

The tibia fibula anteroposterior view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Indications The tibia fibula AP view is performed for evaluation of the lower leg in patients who have suffered trauma or are suspected to have a foreign body or ...
Article

Tibia fibula (lateral view)

The tibia fibula lateral view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Indications The tibia fibula lateral view is the orthogonal projection to the AP view and is performed for evaluation of fractures or dislocations including their directi...
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Toes (AP view)

Toes AP view is part of a three view toe series and includes the phalanges and the toe(s) of interest and the distal half of the associated metatarsals. Indications This view evaluates any joint abnormalities such as gout and osteoarthritis and is also useful in determining fractures or disloc...
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Toes (lateral view)

The lateral toe projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges of any specified toe(s), and distal half of the associated metatarsals. Indications This view evaluates all phalanges of a specified toe(s) for any fractures or dislocation, allowing the establishment of dorsal...
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Toes (oblique view)

The toes medial oblique view is part of the toe series examining the phalanges and metatarsals of the foot. Indications This view shows the region of interest with 45° medial obliquity. It serves as another angle to evaluate any joint abnormalities such as gout (especially in the first digit) ...
Article

Toes series

The toes series is comprised of an AP, AP oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilized in trauma situations. It examines the entirety of the proximal middle and distal phalanges of the foot.  Indications Toe radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including 1:...
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Toes (sesamoid view)

The sesamoid view of the toes is a specialized view examining the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsal. Indications This view provides a better profile of any fractures or dislocation of the sesamoid bones with their articulation at the first metatarsophalangeal joint 1. Patient position t...
Article

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation planning (CT protocol)

The transcatheter aortic valve implantation or TAVI planning CT protocol is used to plan for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. CT allows for the assessment of the aortic root and valve annulus in order to select an appropriate valve size and location-specific to the patient. An aortic ang...
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Transcranial Doppler sonography (ultrasound)

Transcranial​ ​Doppler​ ​(TCD)​, also known as transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) is a sonographic study of intracranial structures and blood vessels, used most commonly to identify the hemodynamic state present in the vertebrobasilar circulation and the circle of Willis.  Termin...
Article

Transesophageal echocardiography

A standard transesophageal echocardiography (TOE, or TEE in US English) is a type of ultrasound using an endoscopic transducer, which is advanced into the esophagus, offering generally superior visualization of the great vessels and posterior cardiac structures than the standard transthoracic ap...
Article

Triple-rule-out CT

Triple-rule-out CT (TRO CT) angiography may be ordered in the setting of acute chest pain to examine the thoracic aorta and the coronary and pulmonary arteries. The protocol helps exclude life-threatening causes of acute chest pain, especially if atypical, or if alternative causes to acute coron...
Article

Tucked CC views

In the standard CC views posterior tissue may be excluded from the field of view, due to the anatomical attachment to the chest wall restricting mobility of breast tissues. The tucks CC views are useful to depict lesions deep in the posterior portion of the breast, located between 10 and 2 o'clo...
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Ultrasound in practice

Ultrasound is a commonly used imaging tool.  This is a starting page for some general articles about ultrasound in practice in including common pathology and ultrasound techniques.  See also ultrasound (imaging technology)  ultrasound physics
Article

Upper limb radiography

Upper limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the shoulder girdle, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals and metacarpals of the hand. It is often utilized in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. 
Article

Upper limb radiography (pediatric)

Upper limb radiography involves plain film imaging of the shoulder, humerus, ulna, radius, metacarpals and carpal bones in pediatric patients. Depending on the patients' age, the difficulty of the examination will vary, often requiring a specialist trained radiographer familiar with a variety of...
Article

Urinary system imaging (dual-energy CT)

Dual-energy CT has a number of clinical applications in the assessment of the urinary system particularly in the realm of artifact reduction and material composition Renal stone composition Renal calculi are composed of different substances such as uric acid, calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate...
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Vascular imaging (dual-energy CT)

Dual-energy CT has a variety of clinical applications in vascular imaging, due to the utilization of material decomposition and the ability to reconstruct images at a variety of energy levels. Clinical applications High kVp CT scans have lower contrast than that of lower kVp due to the K-edge ...
Article

Virtual non-contrast imaging

Virtual non-contrast imaging is an image post-processing technique used to create 'non-contrast' images of contrast-enhanced scans via the subtraction of iodine. It is an imaging technique unique to dual energy CT. Clinical applications Virtual non-contrast imaging has the potential to replac...
Article

V/Q scan

V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan is a scintigraphic examination of the lung that evaluates pulmonary vasculature perfusion and segmental bronchoalveolar tree ventilation. Indications diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism monitor pulmonary function following lung transplant provide preope...
Article

Waters view

The occipitomental (OM) or Waters view is an angled PA radiograph of the skull, with the patient gazing slightly upwards. Indications It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. In general, radiographs of the skull and facial bones are rapidly becoming obsole...
Article

Windowing (CT)

Windowing, also known as grey-level mapping, contrast stretching, histogram modification or contrast enhancement is the process in which the CT image greyscale component of an image is manipulated via the CT numbers; doing this will change the appearance of the picture to highlight particular st...
Article

World Radiography Day

World Radiography Day (WRD) is an annual event held on 8 November to celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen, on 8 November 1895, and is organized by the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) 1. World Radiography Day occur...
Article

Wrist (carpal bridge view)

The carpal bridge view an additional view of the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is a specialized projection that involves keeping the patient's wrist in flexion. Indications The carpal bridge view is requested to assess the dorsal aspect of the scaphoid, lunate and the tri...
Article

Wrist (carpal tunnel view)

The carpal tunnel view is an axial projection to demonstrate the medial and lateral prominences and the concavity. Indications This carpal tunnel view is seldom performed however it can be utilized to investigate potential hook of hamate, pisiform and trapezium fractures. Patient position pa...
Article

Wrist (clenched fist view)

The clenched fist view is an additional projection used to evaluate suspected widening of the scapholunate interval, often performed bilaterally it is a functional view that requires the patient to clench both hands.  Patient position patient is seated in front of the table  both hands are pl...
Article

Wrist (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral wrist view is a modified lateral projection when performing the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones in trauma Indications This is not a requested view, rather an adaptation to a tricky situation. Most often this projection is conducted on patients who ar...
Article

Wrist (lateral view)

The lateral wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is the orthogonal projection of the PA wrist. Indications The lateral wrist radiograph is requested for myriad reasons including but not limited to trauma, suspected infective processes, injuries the distal...
Article

Wrist (oblique view)

The oblique wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is not generally performed in follow-up studies unless specifically requested. Indications The oblique wrist radiograph is requested for myriad reasons including but not limited to trauma, suspected infecti...
Article

Wrist (PA view)

The PA wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. Although performed PA the view can often be referred to an AP view. Indications The PA wrist radiograph is requested for myriad reasons including but not limited to trauma, suspected infective processes, injuries t...
Article

Wrist (radial deviation view)

The wrist PA radial deviation view is specialized projection employed to better demonstrate the carpal bones that lay on the ulnar aspect of the wrist. Indications Suspected abnormality at the ulnar aspect of the wrist, or in conjunction with a PA and ulnar deviation view to assess carpal move...
Article

Wrist radiograph

Wrist radiographs are ubiquitous in the emergency departments. They are commonly performed in the pediatric and elderly populations after a fall on an outstretched hand as well as in patients after higher force trauma. Moreover, they may be performed as part of a skeletal survey looking for meta...
Article

Wrist series

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint al...
Article

Wrist series (pediatric)

The wrist series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on departmental protocols, the oblique view may also be included as a standard view.  Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected dis...
Article

XCCL view

An XCCL view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the lateral aspect of the breast.  It is often done when a lesion is suspected on a MLO view but cannot be seen on the CC view. In this view, the lateral aspect...
Article

XCCM view

An XCCM view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the medial portion of the breast. In this view, the medial portion of the breast is placed forward. A negative 15° tube tilt is suggested. An optimal XCCM view ...
Article

Xenon-127

Xenon-127 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. It is not a widely used alternative to xenon-133 with the main advantage being a higher proton energy allowing for post perfusion scanning.  photon energy: 203 KeV physical half life: 36.3 days
Article

X-ray artifacts

X-ray artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadows noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality, and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.  There are common and distinct artifacts for fi...

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