Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

274 results found
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series that includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posit...
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Cervical spine (PA oblique view)

The PA oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, Odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. This projection can be used to visualise the intervertebral foramina. Patient position patie...
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Knee (skyline Merchant view)

The knee skyline Merchant view is a superior-inferior projection of the patella it is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. This is an ideal projection for patients that are better suited in the supine postion. Patient position patient is supine on the tab...
Article

Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
Article

CT head (technique)

CT head technique describes how a CT head is performed. Technique The technique for performing a CT of the head depends on the scanner available and fall into two broad camps:  step-and-shoot volumetric acquisition (most common) Step-and-shoot Step-and-shoot scanning was the first describe...
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Thoracic spine series

The thoracic spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilised in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions. Radiographs of the thoracic spine are consi...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA sacrum view)

The PA Sacrum projection is a useful part of the sacroiliac series. Due to the shallow obliquity of the sacroiliac joints, the prone position allows the diverging x-ray beam to project through the joint space giving better visualisation of the joint compared to the AP projection 1 Patient posit...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP oblique view)

The AP Oblique view of the sacroiliac joint is one projection that makes up the sacroiliac series. Both sides of the SIJs are examined for comparison. Patient position patient positioned supine on the imaging table with legs extended elevate the side of interest approximately 25 to 30 de...
Article

Sacrum (AP view)

The sacrum AP view is used to demonstrate the sacrum and its articulations. It can be utilised in the event of trauma, or for evaluating degenerative change 1. The efficacy of this radiographical projection is debatable, with radiographers encouraged to follow department protocol when imaging th...
Article

Computed tomography curriculum

The radiography computed tomography section covers in detail the various clinical presentations that require specific computed tomography investigations, the anatomy examined and the different protocols utilised for specific pathology. It is broken down into region specific sections and is cater...
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General radiography curriculum

The general radiography section covers in detail the various clinical presentations that require specific plain radiographic investigation, the anatomy covered, and how it is displayed via the chosen view. It outlines standard and modified radiographic technique to accommodate for a wide range o...
Article

Radiography curriculum

The radiography curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent core radiographic knowledge. As radiography encompasses multiple modalities, its content is split into subsections based on the modality. Definition Topics pertaining to radiogra...
Article

Shoulder (modified trauma axial view)

The modified trauma axial view is a supplementary projection that replaces the ‘Y view’ of the two-view shoulder series often performed in the context of trauma. It is an orthogonal view of the AP projection of the glenohumeral joint, with a higher diagnostic yield than the lateral scapular sho...
Article

Thoracic spine (AP view)

The thoracic spine AP view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imag...
Article

Shoulder (lateral scapula view)

The lateral scapula shoulder or Y view is part of the standard shoulder series. Orthogonal to the AP shoulder (note so is an axillary view); It is a pertinent projection to assess suspected dislocations, scapula fractures and degenerative changes. Excellent projection to see both the coracoid a...
Article

X-ray artifacts

Artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadow noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.  There are common and distinct artifacts for film, comp...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification

Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. gro...
Article

V/Q scan

V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan is a scintigraphic examination of the lung that evaluates pulmonary vasculature perfusion and segmental bronchoalveolar tree ventilation. Indications diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) monitor pulmonary function following lung transplant provide p...
Article

Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
Article

Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves two projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of ...
Article

Tc-99m DMSA

Tc-99m DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) is a technetium radiopharmaceutical used in renal imaging to evaluate renal structure and morphology, particularly in paediatric imaging for detection of scarring and pyelonephritis. DMSA is an ideal agent for the assessment of renal cortex as it binds to th...
Article

Abdomen (AP supine view)

AP supine radiograph can be performed as a standalone projection or as part of an acute abdominal series, depending on the clinical question posed, local protocol and the availability of other imaging modalities. Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back, either on the X-ray ...
Article

Elbow (external oblique view)

The elbow external oblique view is an additional projection of the elbow often used to better demonstrate the radial head free from superposition. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the fully extended arm and forearm, in a supinated position, are kept in contact with the t...
Article

Elbow series

The elbow series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections are utilised for specific indications. Indications Elbow x-rays are indicate...
Article

Chest (AP lordotic view)

The AP lordotic chest radiograph (or AP axial chest radiograph) demonstrates areas of the lung apices that appear obscured on the PA/AP chest radiographic views. It is often used to evaluate suspicious areas within the lung apices that appeared obscured by overlying soft tissue, upper ribs or th...
Article

CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma (also called trauma CT) is an increasingly used test in the patient with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. There is some evidence that trauma patients who undergo whole body CT (WBCT) / panscan have better survival than patients who undergo selectiv...
Article

Bouchard node

Bouchard nodes are a clinical sign relating to bony nodules of the the proximal interphalangeal joints, and are much less common than Heberden nodes. They generally (but not always) correspond to palpable osteophytes. Clinical presentation They are sometimes painful, and are typically associat...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS)

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks. EVAS was designed by End...
Article

Windowing (CT)

Windowing, also known as gray-level mapping, contrast stretching, histogram modification or contrast enhancement is the process in which the CT image grayscale component of an image is manipulated via the CT numbers; doing this will change the appearance of the picture to highlight particular st...
Article

MRI pulse sequence abbreviations

This article contains a list of commonly and less commonly used MRI pulse sequence abbreviations and their meaning. If available, an explanation is included in a separate article. spin echo sequences (SE) T1: T1 weighted IR: inversion recovery T2 : T2 weighted RARE: rapid acquisition with r...
Article

Motion artifact

Motion artifact is a patient-based artifact that occurs with voluntary or involuntary patient movement during image acquisition. Misregistration artifacts, which appear as blurring, streaking, or shading, are caused by patient movement during a CT scan.  Blurring also occurs with patient moveme...
Article

Beam hardening

Beam hardening is observed when an X-ray beam comprised of polychromatic energies passes through an object and becomes ‘harder’ as the lower energy photons will be absorbed leaving only the higher energy photons 1. The resultant artifact has two distinct appearances, streaking or dark bands and...
Article

Iodinated contrast media

Iodinated contrast media are contrast agents frequently used via intravenous administration in computed tomography, although they are also used in fluoroscopy, angiography and venography, and even occasionally, plain radiography. Although the intravenous route is common, they are also administer...
Article

Noise (computed tomography)

Noise in computed tomography is an unwanted change in pixel values in an otherwise homogenous image. Often, noise is defined loosely as, the grainy appearance on cross-sectional imaging; more often than not, this is quantum mottle.  Noise in CT is measured via the signal to noise ratio (SNR); c...
Article

Hip (Clements-Nakayama view)

The Clements-Nakayama view of the hip is a highly specialised lateral projection utilised on patients with bilateral femoral fractures, or patients unable to mobilise due to postoperative requirements. When performed correctly the projection can yield images of a high diagnostic quality comparab...
Article

Chest (PA view)

Posteroanterior (PA) chest view is the most common radiological investigation in the emergency department 1. The PA view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The chest X-ray is frequently used to aid diagnosis of acute and chronic conditions.   Patient positi...
Article

Knee (skyline Laurin view)

The knee skyline Laurin view is an inferior-superior projection of the patella it is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. This projection is best suited to patients able to maintain a semi-recumbent position on the examination table. Patient position pati...
Article

Orbitomeatal line

The orbitomeatal line, also known as the canthomeatal line, was the traditional axial plane used for CT of the brain. It was easily identified on the inspection of the patient's head when tilting the gantry or patient's head to achieve a standard axial plane.  The orbitomeatal line was defined ...
Article

Aliasing artifact (CT)

Aliasing artifact, otherwise known as undersampling, in CT refers to an error in the accuracy proponent of analogue to digital converter (ADC) during image digitisation.  Image digitisation has three distinct steps: scanning, sampling, and quantization.  When sampling, the brightness of each p...
Article

Dual energy CT

Dual energy CT utilises two separate energy sets to examine the differing attenuation properties of matter, having a significant advantage over traditional single energy CT. Independent attenuation values at two energy sets can create virtual non-contrast images from contrast enhanced imaging as...
Article

Lung hyperinflation

Lung hyperinflation is a common feature of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is also linked to ageing and other chronic diseases that cause airflow obstruction. Pathology The airflow limitation during expiration is produced by two factors: destruction of the lung ...
Article

Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: paediatric example 5: young adult example 6: young adult male Barium studies example 1, example 2, example 3: barium swallow example 1: upper GI series example 1: barium follow through example ...
Article

Stenvers view

Stenvers view is a oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrode placement following t...
Article

Abdomen (PA erect view)

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is often obtained in conjunction with the AP supine abdominal view in the acute abdominal series of radiographs. When used together it is a valuable projection in assessing air fluid levels, and free air in the abdominal cavity. The erect abdominal radiograph h...
Article

Acute abdominal series

The acute abdominal series is a common set of abdominal radiographs obtained to evaluate bowel gas.  Indications The acute series is used for a variety of indications including:  determine the amount of bowel gas, with possible bowel distention assess air-fluid levels query pneumoperitoneum...
Article

Normal spine imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the spine, divided by region and modality. Cervical spine plain films example 1: AP, lat, obliques only example 2: PEG view example 3: flexion and extension views only example 4: paediatric - 12 years old example 5: including Swimmer's view C...
Article

Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
Article

Normal genitourinary tract imaging examples

This article serves as a resource for access to normal examples of imaging studies of the genitourinary tract.  Kidneys Plain radiograph KUB: example 1 abdominal x-ray: example 1 IVU IVU: example 1 Ultrasound renal ultrasound: example 1 renal ultrasound: example 2 renal ultrasound: exa...
Article

Pelvis (flamingo view)

The flamingo view series of the pelvis is a specialised orthopaedic series consisting of three separate pelvis projections. It is used for assessing instability of the pubic symphysis, often in the context of previous pelvic trauma. This projection should only be performed under specialist supe...
Article

Pelvis series

The pelvis series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) with additional projections based on indications and pathology. The series is used most in emergency departments during the evaluation of multi-trauma patients due to the complex anatomy the AP projection covers. The pelvis series examin...
Article

Triple-rule-out CT

Triple-rule-out CT (TRO CT) angiography may be ordered in the setting of acute chest pain to examine the thoracic aorta and the coronary and pulmonary arteries. The protocol helps exclude life-threatening causes of acute chest pain, especially if atypical, or if alternative causes to acute coron...
Article

Normal upper limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the upper limb, divided by region and modality. Shoulder girdle plain films sternoclavicular joint: example clavicle: example, example 2, example 3 acromioclavicular joint example 1 example 2 shoulder example 1: with Y view example 1: axial...
Article

Renal arterial resistive index

The renal arterial resistive index (RI) is a sonographic index to assess for renal arterial disease. It is measured as  RI = (peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity ) / peak systolic velocity the normal value is ≈ 0.60 with 0.70 being around the upper limits of normal Technique M...
Article

Hand (ball-catcher view)

The Nørgaard projection is also known as the ball-catcher view or posterior oblique view of both hands. It is an additional projection of the routine hand series. The ball-catcher view is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis.  Patient position patient may be seated alongside...
Article

Anatomic position

The anatomic position, also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined a...
Article

Dacryocystography

Dacryocystography is fluoroscopic contrast examination of the nasolacrimal apparatus. The duct is cannulated enabling contrast to be instilled into the nasolacrimal system. Indications The most frequent indication is epiphoria: tearing or watering of the eyes. Technique Equipment is similar ...
Article

Ectopic testis

Ectopic testes are a rare congenital anomaly, differing from undescended testis (cryptorchidism) in that ectopic testis is a congenitally abnormally located testis, that has descended from the abdominal cavity away from the normal path of descent while undescended testis are congenitally abnorma...
Article

Effect of isolated pronation-supination (lateral wrist radiograph)

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones (namely, the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate). It also examines the radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna....
Article

Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (CXR) is the most ubiquitous radiological investigation. Indications The chest radiograph is performed for a broad content of indications, including but not limited to 1-4: respiratory disease cardiac disease haemoptysis   suspected pulmonary embolism investigation of...
Article

Hip (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral hip radiograph or shoot through hip is the in the purist terms the orthogonal view of the neck of the femur to the AP projection 1,3. The projection is used to assess the neck of the femur in profile during the investigation of a suspected neck of femur fracture 2. ...
Article

Foot (lateral view)

The lateral projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  The lateral projection additionally examines the talocrural joint. Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort  the affected le...
Article

Digital radiography

Digital radiography is based on the use of discrete values in comparison to conventional radiography which uses analogue/continuous values. It removes the requirement of dark room procedures. Types computed radiography (CR) uses photostimulable phosphor plates (PSP) in cassettes direct digit...
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Computed radiography

Computed radiography (CR) is the use of photostimulable phosphor as an image receptor. The image receptor is held in a similar casing (cassette) to that of the traditional film screen. CR harnesses the absorption of radiation, trapping electrons at energy levels via the process of photostimulabl...
Article

Shoulder (Stryker notch view)

The Stryker notch view is a specialised projection of the shoulder frequently used to evaluate the articulation of the glenoid and the humeral head; it is an effective projection in assessing for Hill-Sachs lesions 1. Patient position the patient is preferably erect the midcoronal plane of th...
Article

Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine AP view images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imaging sho...
Article

Tibia/fibula series

The tibia/fibula is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the entirety of the tibia and fibula after trauma.  Indications The tibia/fibula radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including: tr...
Article

Shoulder girdle radiography

The radiography of the shoulder girdle is a commonly requested plain radiographic examination; the particular radiographic series will be dependent on the suspected pathology or injury. The extent of each series is determined by the radiography department protocols. Radiographic series shoulde...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series. The oblique positioning manoeuvres the join of interest away from central structures to produce a clearer view of articulation. The side of obliquity p...
Article

Wrist (lateral view)

The lateral wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is the orthogonal projection of the PA wrist. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the table abduct the hum...
Article

Shoulder (Garth view)

The Garth view of the shoulder is a projection used in trauma when evaluating the glenohumeral joint for dislocations and trauma to the glenoid of the scapula; this projection is often used as a replacement to the lateral scapula view in trauma. It is an optimal projection to demonstrate Bankar...
Article

Contrast media extravasation

Contrast media extravasation (CMEV) refers to the leakage of contrast media from the normal intravascular compartment into surrounding soft tissues; It is a well-known complication of contrast-enhanced CT scanning. It can also occur in MRI studies, but the complications are rare given the low vo...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint series

The sternoclavicular radiographic series is a used to evaluate sternoclavicular joint and the proximal clavicle. Imaging of the sternoclavicular joint has since been replaced by computed tomography. Indications Sternoclavicular joint radiographs are performed for a variety of indications inclu...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialised radiographic projection utilised in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, however still utilised in postoperative imaging. Patient position the ...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Patient position the patient is preferably laid prone with arms resting above the he...
Article

Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Article

Wrist series

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint al...
Article

Foot series

The foot series is comprised of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilised in emergency departments after trauma or sports related injuries 2,4. See: approach to foot series. Indications Foot radiographs are performed for a variety of indicatio...
Article

Hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view of the hip/s is a special radiographic of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Bilateral examination allows for better visualisation of the hip joints and femoral neck, and therefore is an important view in the assessment of:  slipped capital femoral epiphysis Perthes dise...
Article

Scapula (AP view)

The scapula AP view is a specialised projection of the scapular bone, performed in conjunction with the lateral scapular view. This projection can be performed erect or supine, involving 90-degree abduction of the affected arm. Patient position the patient is preferably erect however this can ...
Article

Cervical spine (AP view)

The AP cervical spine projection is part of the cervical spine series. Patient position patient positioned erect in AP position unless trauma the patient will be supine patient’s shoulders should be at equal distances from the image receptor to avoid rotation, the head facing straight forward...
Article

Digital image

A digital image is a numerical representation of an image via a set of picture elements known as pixels. This simplified article lists three parameters of a digital image that moderate resolution. Image matrix The image matrix comprised of columns (M) and rows (N) that define the elements or p...
Article

Wrist (PA view)

The PA wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. Although performed PA the view can often be referred to an AP view. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the table ...
Article

Wrist (carpal tunnel view)

The carpal tunnel view is an axial projection to demonstrate the medial and lateral prominences and the concavity. It can be utilised to investigate potential hook of hamate, pisiform and trapezium factures. Patient position patient stands with the back facing the table palmar surface of hand...
Article

Foot (weightbearing lateral)

The weightbearing lateral foot radiograph is important in the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. oblique foot radiograph) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment because the bones of the feet ...
Article

Toes (AP view)

Toes AP view is part of a three view toe series and includes the phalanges and the toe(s) of interest and the distal half of the associated metacarpals. Patient position the patient can be either supine or be sitting upright on the table knee should be flexed so the plantar surface of the foo...
Article

Tibia fibula (lateral view)

The tibia fibula lateral view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Patient position the patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the knee and ankle joint should be in contact with the table resulting...
Article

Tibia fibula (AP view)

The tibia fibula AP view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes will be pointing directly toward th...
Article

Thumb series

The thumb series is comprised of a posteroanterior and oblique, projection. The posteroanterior projection is interchangeably performed anterioposter or posteroanterior depending on mobility. It examines in detail the first metacarpal and its articulations. Thumbs have a vital impact in our day ...
Article

Thumb (AP/PA view)

The thumb AP (anteroposterior) view is one of the standard views for assessment of the thumb. The PA (posteroanterior) view can be utilised when the patient is unable to achieve the position required for the AP view.  They are one part of the three view thumb series. There will be some magnific...
Article

Skull (PA view)

The skull PA view is a non-angled PA radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the patient is erect the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector allowing for the nose to be in...
Article

Scaphoid (lateral view)

The scaphoid lateral view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid in the orthogonal plane. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible ...
Article

Sacrum and coccyx (lateral view)

The sacrum and coccyx lateral view is utilised to demonstrate the most distal region of the spine in a lateral position. It is commonly used in conjunction with the AP projection or can be used as a sole projection, depending on department protocols. It is used to demonstrate sacrum and coccyx a...
Article

Pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1.  Patient position patient is supine ...

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