Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

310 results found
Article

Iodinated contrast media

Iodinated contrast media are contrast agents that contain iodine atoms used for x-ray-based imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT), although they are also used in fluoroscopy, angiography and venography, and even occasionally, plain radiography. Although the intravenous route of adm...
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Lipiodol

Lipiodol® (also known as ethiodized oil) is an oil-based iodinated contrast medium that was historically used for myelography and hysterosalpingography. It was later superseded by newer, less hazardous, agents, and now is used primarily as a therapeutic agent. Guerbet is now the sole manufacture...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
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Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
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Xenon-127

Xenon-127 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. It is not a widely used alternative to xenon-133 with the main advantage being a higher proton energy allowing for post perfusion scanning.  photon energy: 203 KeV physical half life: 36.3 days
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Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart excretion: hepatobiliary target organ: colon, kidneys, bladder, gallbladder Uses, doses and timings parathy...
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Skull (Waters view)

The occipitomental (OM) or Waters view is an angled PA radiograph of the skull, with the patient gazing slightly upwards. It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. Skull radiographs, in general, are rapidly becoming obsolete, being replaced by much more sensi...
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Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (also known as the chest x-ray or CXR) is the most ubiquitous radiological investigation. Indications The chest radiograph is performed for a broad content of indications, including but not limited to 1-4: respiratory disease cardiac disease haemoptysis   suspected pul...
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Abdomen (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus abdominal radiograph is used to identify free intraperitoneal gas (pneumoperitoneum). It can be performed when the patient is unable to be transferred to, or other imaging modalities (e.g. CT) are not available. The most useful position for detecting free intraperitoneal ai...
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Shoulder (modified trauma axial view)

The modified trauma axial view is a supplementary projection that replaces the ‘Y view’ of the two-view shoulder series often performed in the context of trauma. It is an orthogonal view of the AP projection of the glenohumeral joint, with a higher diagnostic yield than the lateral scapular sho...
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Shoulder girdle radiography

The radiography of the shoulder girdle is a commonly requested plain radiographic examination; the particular radiographic series will be dependent on the suspected pathology or injury. The extent of each series is determined by the radiography department protocols. Radiographic series shoulde...
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Skull radiography

Skull radiography is the radiological investigation of the skull vault and associated bony structures. Seldom requested in modern medicine, plain radiography of the skull is often a last resort in trauma imaging in the absence of a CT. However, it is still utilised in the setting of skeletal su...
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Cervical spine (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. Patient position patient is standing erect with either the left or right posterior side clos...
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Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves two projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of ...
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Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series. The oblique positioning manoeuvres the join of interest away from central structures to produce a clearer view of articulation. The side of obliquity p...
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Lumbar spine series

The lumbar spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilised in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions such as ankylosing spondylosis. Lumbar spine x...
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Chest (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus view of the chest is a specialised projection utilised to demonstrate small pleural effusions, or for the investigation of pneumothorax and air trapping due to inhaled foreign bodies. Patient position the patient is laying either left lateral or right lateral on a trolley...
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Elbow (external oblique view)

The elbow external oblique view is an additional projection of the elbow often used to better demonstrate the radial head free from superposition. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the fully extended arm and forearm, in a supinated position, are kept in contact with the t...
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Acromioclavicular joint (AP view)

The acromioclavicular AP view is single projection assessing the patency of the acromioclavicular joint. See also, acromioclavicular joint injuries. Patient position patient is erect midcoronal plane of the patient is parallel to the image receptor, in other words, the patient's back is agai...
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Knee (skyline Merchant view)

The knee skyline Merchant view is a superior-inferior projection of the patella it is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. This is an ideal projection for patients that are better suited in the supine postion. Patient position patient is supine on the tab...
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Facial bones (reverse Waters)

The acanthioparietal or reverse water's view modified Water's view used in trauma. It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. Skull radiographs, in general, are rapidly becoming obsolete, being replaced by much more sensitive CT scans. Patient position the ...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series that includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posit...
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Knee (oblique view)

The Knee oblique view is an additional projection requested to examine the knee joint in greater detail, often in the absence of a CT scanner. The view is comprised of both an internal and external oblique. Patient position patient is supine on the table with the knee and ankle joint in contac...
Article

Wrist (radial deviation view)

The wrist PA radial deviation view is specialised projection employed to better demonstrate the carpal bones that lay on the ulnar aspect of the wrist. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the tab...
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Scaphoid (oblique view)

The oblique scaphoid view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. The positioning is similar if not identical to the oblique wrist.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and w...
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Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Patient position the patient is preferably laid prone with arms resting above the he...
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Shoulder (modified transthoracic supine lateral)

The modified transthoracic supine lateral scapula is a modification of the supine lateral shoulder, used to safely image patients on spinal precautions, or patients who are unable to move; often employed in major trauma hospitals, it produces a diagnostic lateral projection of the shoulder with ...
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Sacroiliac joint (PA oblique view)

 The PA oblique view of the sacroiliac joints can be performed in patients who cannot assume the supine position. Both sides of the sacroiliac joints are examined for comparison. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis 1.  Oblique views can be taken either AP or PA....
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Elbow (acute flexion AP)

The elbow acute flexion AP is a modified elbow AP projection for patients whom cannot straighten their arm for examination. It is comprised of two views demonstrating the distal humerus and proximal forearm structures Patient position Distal humerus projection patient is seated alongside the ...
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Elbow (medial oblique view)

The elbow medial oblique view is a specialised projection, utilised to demonstrate both the coronoid process in profile and the olecranon process sitting within the olecranon fossa of the humerus. Patient position the patient is seated alongside the table fully extended arm and forearm, in a ...
Article

Shoulder (Garth view)

The Garth view of the shoulder is a projection used in trauma when evaluating the glenohumeral joint for dislocations and trauma to the glenoid of the scapula; this projection is often used as a replacement to the lateral scapula view in trauma. It is an optimal projection to demonstrate Bankar...
Article

Knee (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral view (cross-table lateral) is an orthogonal view to the AP view of the knee. It is the ideal projection to assess for lipohaemarthrosis in a joint effusion, and requires little to no patient movement; hence, it is the lateral projection of choice for acute knee injuri...
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Elbow (Coyle's view)

The Coyle's view of the elbow is an axial projection that is performed in addition to the standard elbow series when there is suspicion of a radial head fracture 1-3. The projection isolates the radial head using a modified radiographic technique. Patient position patient is sitting next to th...
Article

Abdomen (oblique view)

AP oblique supine radiograph is normally performed when localising foreign bodies or lines within the abdominal cavity. Additionally, the oblique abdominal series can be utilised in the assessment of the upper intestinal tract during barium studies. Patient position the patient is laying 30 de...
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Abdomen (PA prone view)

PA prone radiograph is rarely performed, often utilised when a patient is unable to lay supine. The projection is adequate for the examination of the abdominal cavities, however, not as practical for the renal structures due to magnification. Patient position the patient is prone, either on th...
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Ribs (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique rib projection is performed to best demonstrate the axillary ribs. Oblique ribs may be conducted either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique view. The rib series is often noted as an unnecessary projection in many radiology departments. However, if the projection will chan...
Article

Ribs (PA view)

The ribs PA view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the anterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. The rib series is often considered to be an unnecessary projection in many radiolo...
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Ankle radiograph (an approach)

Ankle radiographs are frequently performed in emergency departments, usually, after trauma, the radiographic series is comprised of three views: an anteroposterior, mortise, and a lateral. They may be performed to assess degenerative or inflammatory arthritis as well as to look for the sequela o...
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Toes (sesamoid view)

The sesamoid view of the toes is a specialed view examing the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsal. Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes pulled back toward the patient  Technical factors ...
Article

Skull (lateral view)

The skull lateral view is a nonangled lateral radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the sagittal midline of the patient's head is parallel to the image detector sella turcica in profile ...
Article

Brain tumour protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for brain tumour assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach CNS tumours in general. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary depending on MRI hardware and software, radiologist's and refe...
Article

Shoulder (outlet view)

The outlet or Neers projection of the shoulder is a specialised projection demonstrating the coracoacromial arch often utilised in the investigation of shoulder impingement 1. This projection is most commonly seen in orthopaedic clinics and closely resembles a lateral scapular projection but i...
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Cervical spine (swimmer's lateral view)

Cervical spine swimmer's lateral view is a modified lateral projection of the cervical spine to visualise the C7/T1 junction. It is most often performed in the setting of trauma, where a standard lateral projection cannot image the cervicothoracic junction. As technology advances, computed tomo...
Article

Elbow (inferosuperior view)

The inferior-superior elbow view is a modified elbow projection for patients in acute flexion greater than 90 degrees, it is also an additional projection to better demonstrate the olecranon process.It is comprised of two views demonstrating the distal humerus and proximal forearm structures Pa...
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Shoulder (inferosuperior axial)

The inferosuperior axial view of the shoulder is a modified axial projection best utilised with supine patients. It is an orthogonal projection to the AP view and replaces the lateral shoulder projection. It is an appropriate projection to assess suspected dislocations, proximal humerus patholo...
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Cervical spine (AP view)

The AP cervical spine projection is part of the cervical spine series. Patient position patient positioned erect in AP position unless trauma the patient will be supine patient’s shoulders should be at equal distances from the image receptor to avoid rotation, the head facing straight forward...
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Ankle (mortise view)

Ankle AP mortise view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, talus and proximal metatarsals. It is the most pertinent projection for assessing the articulation of the tibial plafond and two malleoli with the talar dome, otherwise known as the mortise joint of the ankl...
Article

Lumbar spine (flexion and extension views)

The lumbar spine flexion and extension views images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. They are specialised projection, assessing for instability of the lumbar spine often in the context of spondylolisthesis.  Patient position the patient is positioned erect: ideally, spinal i...
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Grid cutoff

Grid cutoff is an unwanted absorption of x-rays via an x-ray grid, observed when a grid is employed incorrectly, most often seen with parallel grids. The term cutoff stems from the phenomenon in which the primary x-ray beam is 'cut off' by grid lines, leading to an overall decrease in optical de...
Article

Scapula (AP view)

The scapula AP view is a specialised projection of the scapular bone, performed in conjunction with the lateral scapular view. This projection can be performed erect or supine, involving 90-degree abduction of the affected arm. Patient position the patient is preferably erect however this can ...
Article

Wrist radiograph

Wrist radiographs are ubiquitous in the emergency departments. They are commonly performed in the paediatric and elderly populations after a fall on an outstretched hand as well as in patients after higher force trauma. Moreover, they may be performed as part of a skeletal survey looking for met...
Article

Shoulder (superior-inferior axial view)

The axial shoulder view is a supplementary projection to the lateral scapula view for obtaining orthogonal images to the AP shoulder. It is an appropriate projection to assess suspected dislocations, proximal humerus pathology, and glenohumeral articular surface abnormalities 1-3 . Patient pos...
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Scapula series

The scapula series is the plain radiographic assessment of the scapular bone of the shoulder girdle, seldom used in departments with 24 hour computed tomography departments. Many radiographic departments, do not have a stand alone scapula series, rather include the assessment of the scapula in ...
Article

Wrist (carpal bridge view)

The carpal bridge view an additional view to the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is used to assess the dorsal aspect of the scaphoid, lunate and the triquetrum. Patient position the patient is seated alongside the table dorsal aspect of affected wrist is placed on the dete...
Article

Hip (Clements-Nakayama view)

The Clements-Nakayama view of the hip is a highly specialised lateral projection utilised on patients with bilateral femoral fractures, or patients unable to mobilise due to postoperative requirements. When performed correctly the projection can yield images of a high diagnostic quality comparab...
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Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing the upright detector; the projection is performed RAO to project the st...
Article

Bone age (radiograph)

The bone age, hand and wrist PA is a commonly performed examination to determine the radiographic age of the patient via the assessment of growth centres Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the non-dominant hand is placed, palm down on the image receptor shoulder, elbow, a...
Article

Shoulder (Stryker notch view)

The Stryker notch view is a specialised projection of the shoulder frequently used to evaluate the articulation of the glenoid and the humeral head; it is an effective projection in assessing for Hill-Sachs lesions 1. Patient position the patient is preferably erect the midcoronal plane of th...
Article

Acromioclavicular joint (AP weight-bearing view)

The acromioclavicular AP weight-bearing view is and additional interjection often performed to rule out displacement when it is suspected yet not confirmed on the AP view See also, acromioclavicular joint injuries. Patient position the patient is erect holding a weight in the affected sides h...
Article

Cervical spine (PA oblique view)

The PA oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, Odontoid and lateral c-spine series. It can be taken either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique projection. This projection can be used to visualise the intervertebral foramina. Patient position patie...
Article

Abdomen (dorsal decubitus view)

The dorsal decubitus view is a supplementary projection often replacing the lateral decubitus view in the context of an unstable patient who is unable to roll nor stand. Used to identify free intraperitoneal gas (pneumoperitoneum). It can be performed when the patient is unable to be transferred...
Article

Hip (AP view)

The AP hip is part of a radiographic series examining the anatomy of the hip joint and proximal femur. Patient position patient is supine lower limbs are internally rotated 15-25° from the hip (do not attempt this if a fracture is suspected) Technical factors AP projection centring point ...
Article

Knee (AP weight-bearing view)

The Knee AP weight-bearing view is a specialised projection to assess the knee joint, distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the patella. Often used in the context of orthopaedic appointments to obtain images of the knees in their natural anatomical position.  This view is often used to as...
Article

Ankle and foot radiography

Ankle and foot radiography is the plain radiographic investigation of the distal tibia and fibula, the tarsal bones and metatarsals. Radiographic examination of the foot and ankle are often requested together, however, there is a plethora of literature to aid in the correct request of x-ray exam...
Article

Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: paediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies example 1, exampl...
Article

Toes (oblique view)

The toes medial oblique view is part of the toe series examining the phalange and metatarsals of the foot. Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is resting on the image receptor th...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialised radiographic projection utilised in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, however still utilised in postoperative imaging. Patient position the ...
Article

Ankle (horizontal beam lateral view)

The ankle horizontal beam lateral view is a modified lateral view part of a three view ankle series; this projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. The horizontal beam lateral is a highly adaptable projectio...
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Normal brain imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the brain and surrounding structures, divided by modality and protocol. CT CT (routine) example 1: C- axial, coronal, sagittal example 2: C- axial, coronal, sagittal & axial bone example 3: C- axial, C+ axial, coronal, sagittal example 4: C-...
Article

Review areas on chest x-ray

Review areas on a chest x-ray are common areas for missed findings, and special attention should be paid to them: lung apices: masses (e.g. Pancoast tumour), pneumothorax behind the heart: consolidation, masses, hiatus hernia below the diaphragm: free gas, lines and tubes (e.g. nasogastric tu...
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Aliasing artifact (CT)

Aliasing artifact, otherwise known as undersampling, in CT refers to an error in the accuracy proponent of analogue to digital converter (ADC) during image digitisation.  Image digitisation has three distinct steps: scanning, sampling, and quantization.  When sampling, the brightness of each p...
Article

Windowing (CT)

Windowing, also known as grey-level mapping, contrast stretching, histogram modification or contrast enhancement is the process in which the CT image greyscale component of an image is manipulated via the CT numbers; doing this will change the appearance of the picture to highlight particular st...
Article

Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a technique used to aid in the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis.  Radiographic features Values are calculated for the lumbar vertebrae and femur preferentially, and if one of those sites is not suitable (e.g. artifact, patient mobility), or if...
Article

Chest (lateral view)

The lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly useful in assessing the ret...
Article

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.
Article

Radiograph

Radiograph (or plain radiograph although the word plain is strictly superfluous) is the radiologist's preferred term for the static image generated following the passage of x-rays through the patient. Non-imaging clinicians and the lay population generally use the term "x-ray" to refer to a radi...
Article

Radiographic distortion

Several factors contribute to radiographic distortion whereby the anatomy examined is misrepresenting on the plain radiograph.  X-ray beam  The x-ray beam originates from a point source within the x-ray tube. It is due to this point source nature that x-ray beams will all possess 'beam diverge...
Article

Thumb (lateral view)

The thumb lateral view is an orthogonal projection of AP/PA view and helps in the localisation of a foreign body in the thenar eminence, as well as providing valuable information of suspected dislocations. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the forearm is placed on table ...
Article

Pelvis (Judet view)

The oblique pelvis otherwise known as the Judet view is an additional projection to the pelvic series when there is suspicion of an acetabular fracture. The Judet view is comprised of two projections, first the iliac oblique for assessment of the posterior column and anterior wall of the acetab...
Article

Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease and Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which, as the name suggests, results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. E...
Article

Hip (Von Rosen view)

The Von Rosen view is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates the relationship between the femoral head and the acetabulum. The von Rosen view is used in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in paediatric patients. This view forces dislocation of the affected hip(s...
Article

Style guide and help

Our style guide is a set of guidelines to help authors write content in a uniform way. This has become increasingly important as the number of contributors has grown. Take a look through the guide and get involved at Radiopaedia.org. general overview of Radiopaedia.org what Radiopaedia.org IS ...
Article

Hip (Dunn view)

The Dunn view is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates and examines the hip joint, femoral head, acetabulum, and particularly the relationship of the femoral head and acetabulum. The Dunn view is the preferred projection to aid and diagnose femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) du...
Article

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a worldwide standard for the storage and transmission of medical imaging. The standard therefore defines both a file format and a networking protocol. It has been developed with input from members of the DICOM standards committee, with re...
Article

X-ray artifacts

Artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadow noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.  There are common and distinct artifacts for film, comp...
Article

Tardus parvus

Tardus parvus refers to a pattern of Doppler ultrasound spectral waveform resulting from arterial stenosis. The phenomenon is observed downstream to the site of stenosis, and is due to reduced magnitude of blood flow through the narrowed vessel during ventricular systole 7. This characteristic ...
Article

Off focus radiation

During x-ray generation, off focus radiation refers to emission of x-ray photons which originate outside of the anode focal spot. Essentially a form of scatter, photons produced in this manner may result in blurring and are of no use for diagnostic purposes. They are shielded as much as possible...
Article

Foot series

The foot series is comprised of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilised in emergency departments after trauma or sports related injuries 2,4. See: approach to foot series. Indications Foot radiographs are performed for a variety of indicatio...
Article

Cassette

Cassettes are rigid holders used in conventional and computed radiography (CR) for the screen film system and imaging plate respectively.  The back side of the cassette has a rubber or felt for adequate contact between screen film system or with the imaging plate. The front is made of low atomi...
Article

Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
Article

Normal genitourinary tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the genitourinary tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Kidneys Plain radiograph KUB: example 1 abdominal x-ray: example 1 Intravenous Urogram (IVU) / Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) IVU: example 1 Ultrasound renal ultrasound:...
Article

MRI pulse sequence abbreviations

This article contains a list of commonly and less commonly used MRI pulse sequence abbreviations and their meaning. If available, an explanation is included in a separate article. spin echo sequences (SE) T1: T1 weighted IR: inversion recovery T2 : T2 weighted RARE: rapid acquisition with r...
Article

Anatomic position

The anatomic position, also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined a...

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