Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

274 results found
Article

Foot (lateral view)

The lateral projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  The lateral projection additionally examines the talocrural joint. Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort  the affected le...
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Foot (medial oblique view)

The medial oblique projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is...
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Foot (weightbearing dorsiplantar view)

The weightbearing dorsiplantar foot radiograph is a specialised projection of the foot. It is key to the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. DP foot) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment be...
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Foot (weightbearing lateral)

The weightbearing lateral foot radiograph is important in the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. oblique foot radiograph) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment because the bones of the feet ...
Article

Foot series

The foot series is comprised of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilised in emergency departments after trauma or sports related injuries 2,4. See: approach to foot series. Indications Foot radiographs are performed for a variety of indicatio...
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Forearm (AP view)

Forearm AP view is a standard projection to assess radius and ulna. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table forearm is supinated, and its dorsal surface is kept in contact with the cassette with extension at the elbow joint both elbow joint and wrist joints are also kept in co...
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Forearm (lateral view)

Forearm lateral view is a standard projection to assess radius and ulna. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table elbow is flexed to 90 degrees and the medial aspect of the wrist, forearm and elbow joint are placed in contact with cassette shoulder, elbow and wrist should be in...
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Forearm series

The forearm series is comprised of an anteroposterior and lateral projection. The series examines the entire radius and ulna including articulations distally and proximal. Typically requested for mid shaft injuries, the forearm series is not a 'two-for-one' projection of the wrist and the elbow ...
Article

Fowler-Philip angle

The Fowler-Philip angle reflects the relation of the inferior calcaneus to the posterior calcaneus. Measurement It is an angle measured on the lateral view of a loaded foot; formed between 2 lines: a line tangent to the posterosuperior border of the calcaneus and the calcaneal tuberosity. a ...
Article

Frontal oblique approach mammography

Background Mammographic technique is very important to obtain diagnostic mammograms, to reduce the number of false negatives and to increase the sensitivity of the procedure. As widely noted in literature, most breast pathology occurs in the upper outer quadrant and is very important that this ...
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Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the  five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
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General radiography curriculum

The general radiography section covers in detail the various clinical presentations that require specific plain radiographic investigation, the anatomy covered, and how it is displayed via the chosen view. It outlines standard and modified radiographic technique to accommodate for a wide range o...
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Grid cut off

Grid cutoff is an unwanted absorption of x-rays via an x-ray grid, observed when a grid is employed incorrectly, most often seen with parallel grids. The term cutoff stems from the phenomenon in which the primary x-ray beam is 'cut off' by grid lines, leading to an overall decrease in optical de...
Article

Hand (ball-catcher view)

The Nørgaard projection is also known as the ball-catcher view or posterior oblique view of both hands. It is an additional projection of the routine hand series. The ball-catcher view is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis.  Patient position patient may be seated alongside...
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Hand (bilateral PA view)

The bilateral PA view often compliments the ball-catcher view. It is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Patient position patient may be seated alongside or facing the table both hands are pronated with their palmer surfaces placed on the detector  Tec...
Article

Hand (lateral view)

The lateral hand view is an orthogonal view taken along with the PA view of the hand. Often an additional projection, the lateral view is used primarily to assess for foreign bodies and/or displacement of fractures/dislocations. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table hand is e...
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Hand (oblique view)

The hand oblique view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the hand is rotated externall...
Article

Hand (PA view)

The Hand PA view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the affected hand is placed, palm ...
Article

Hand series

The hand series is comprised of a posteroanterior and oblique, projection although additional radiographs can be taken for specific indications. The series primarily examines the metacarpals, hamate, phalanges along with the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, ...
Article

Hip (Clements-Nakayama view)

The Clements-Nakayama view of the hip is a highly specialised lateral projection utilised on patients with bilateral femoral fractures, or patients unable to mobilise due to postoperative requirements. When performed correctly the projection can yield images of a high diagnostic quality comparab...
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Hip (Dunn view)

The Dunn view is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates and examines the hip joint, femoral head, acetabulum, and particularly the relationship of the femoral head and acetabulum. The Dunn view is the preferred projection to aid and diagnose femoral-acetabular impingement (FAI) ...
Article

Hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view of the hip/s is a special radiographic of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Bilateral examination allows for better visualisation of the hip joints and femoral neck, and therefore is an important view in the assessment of:  slipped capital femoral epiphysis Perthes dise...
Article

Hip (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral hip radiograph or shoot through hip is the in the purist terms the orthogonal view of the neck of the femur to the AP projection 1,3. The projection is used to assess the neck of the femur in profile during the investigation of a suspected neck of femur fracture 2. ...
Article

Humeral neck (AP view)

AP view for neck of humerus is taken to look for fracture in the neck of humerus. Patient position patient can stand or lay down facing the X-ray tube  the dorsal aspect of shoulder of the affected side is kept in contact with the cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a ...
Article

Humerus (AP view)

AP view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire humerus ...
Article

Humerus (lateral view)

Lateral view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in standing position. However, it can also be taken in the supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire hume...
Article

Humerus (supracondylar AP view)

AP view for supracondylar aspect of humerus may be taken to look for supracondylar fracture. Patient position patient stands facing the X-ray tube with the posterior aspect of arm in contact with cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a horizontal beam is employed centred...
Article

Humerus radiographic series

The humerus series is comprised of an AP and lateral radiograph, utilised primarily in trauma, but also in the evaluation of bone tumours. Indications trauma: fracture neck of humerus / shaft of humerus fractures bone tumour detection Projections The two standard projections allows two view...
Article

Humerus series

The humerus series is usually used for the detection of traumatic injury to the shaft of the humerus. Indications Humerus radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including:  trauma  bony tenderness at the glenohumeral joint/region  restriction of abduction  suspected disloca...
Article

Iliofemoral line

The Iliofemoral line is traced on an AP pelvis projection. It is a curvilinear line, along the outer surface of the ilium, through the superior acetabular rim and the femoral neck. It should be bilaterally symmetrical. Asymmetry may be the result of congenital dysplasia, slipped femoral capital...
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Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection

Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection is useful for stereotactic biopsy positioning. This projection allows access to the inferior aspect of the breast to achieve shortest skin to abnormality distance. It is also useful in the nonconforming patient. Technique Rotate C arm to about 125°...
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Intercristal line

The intercristal line (also known as Jacobys’s Line or Tuffier’s Line) is a horizontal line drawn across the highest points of both the iliac crests in an anteroposterior (AP) lumbar radiography 1,2 Intercristal line most often intersects the body of the L4 or its inferior endplate in men and t...
Article

Intraosseous pseudomeningocele

An intraosseous pseudomeningocele is an intradiploic CSF collection communicating with the subarachnoid space. Epidemiology Intraosseous pseudomeningoceles are rare sequelae of a skull fractures of traumatic or iatrogenic ethology occurring in infants and young children. They can be seen in an...
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Iodinated contrast media

Iodinated contrast media are contrast agents frequently used via intravenous administration in computed tomography, although they are also used in fluoroscopy, angiography and venography, and even occasionally, plain radiography. Although the intravenous route is common, they are also administer...
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Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis is rare and may occur in patients with pre-existing thyroid disease and through thyrotoxicosis may be fatal (e.g. cardiac arrhythmia). Patients with a normal thyroid gland are unaffected.  Patients with existing thyrotoxicosis should not receive iodinat...
Article

Iterative reconstruction (CT)

Iterative reconstruction refers to an image reconstruction algorithm used in CT that begins with an image assumption, and compares it to real time measured values while making constant adjustments until the two are in agreement. Computer technology limited early scanners in their ability to per...
Article

Knee (AP view)

The Knee AP view is a standard projection to assess the knee joint, distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the patella.  Patient position patient is supine on the table with the knee and ankle joint in contact with the table leg is extended ensure the knee is not rotated Technical fact...
Article

Knee (AP weight-bearing view)

The Knee AP weight-bearing view is a specialised projection to assess the knee joint, distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the patella. Often used in the context of orthopaedic appointments to obtain images of the knees in their natural anatomical position.  This view is often used to as...
Article

Knee (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral view (cross-table lateral) is an orthogonal view to the AP view of the knee. It is the ideal projection to assess for lipohaemarthrosis in a joint effusion, and requires little to no patient movement; hence, it is the lateral projection of choice for acute knee injuri...
Article

Knee (skyline Laurin view)

The knee skyline Laurin view is an inferior-superior projection of the patella it is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. This projection is best suited to patients able to maintain a semi-recumbent position on the examination table. Patient position pati...
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Knee (skyline Merchant view)

The knee skyline Merchant view is a superior-inferior projection of the patella it is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. This is an ideal projection for patients that are better suited in the supine postion. Patient position patient is supine on the tab...
Article

Knee series

The knee series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate knee joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections can be used for specific indications. See also knee radiograph (an approach). ...
Article

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is a term used to describe the sagittal curvature of the thoracic spine.   Pathology An increased kyphotic angle is seen in the following conditions: Scheuermann disease spondyloarthropathies osteoporosis vertebral body fracture ​compression pathological A decreased kyphotic an...
Article

Late mediolateral view

A late mediolateral projection is an additional view that can be used whenever,in the presence of rounded calcifications of probable intracystic nature, the standard ML view does not allow the recognition of the characteristic tea cups appearance due to the density of milk of calcium. A second ...
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Lateral view

The lateral view is an additional view obtained at virtually every diagnostic evaluation. A lateral view may be obtained as a mediolateral view (ML) or lateromedial view (LM) view depending on where the imaging tube and detector are located. Technique for an ML view, the tube emitting the x-ra...
Article

Lateromedial oblique view

A lateral-medial oblique (LMO) view is a type of supplementary mammographic view.  The advantage of performing the lateromedial view is to depict lesions located far medio-posteriorly visible on the CC view only, or to depict palpable lesions in the inner quadrant not seen on mammography. This...
Article

Lateromedial view

The lateromedial view (or LM view) is a supplementary mammographic view where the bucky is placed up against the sternum and the and film is taken in a true lateral projection. This view allows the medial breast to be closest to the film. This view allows the medial breast to be more carefully e...
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Lower limb radiography

Lower limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the pelvis, hip joint, femur, knee joint, tibia, fibula, ankle joint, tarsal bones of the foot and metatarsals. It is often utilised in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. 
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Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine AP view images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imaging sho...
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Lumbar spine (lateral view)

The lumbar spine lateral view images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is positioned erect, supine or lateral recumbent, depending on clinical h...
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Lumbar spine (oblique view)

The lumbar spine oblique view is used to visualise the articular facets and pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine.  Patient position the radiographs can be performed with the patient in the erect or supine position erect  two radiographs performed with patient at RAO 35-45°  and LAO 35-4...
Article

Lumbar spine series

The lumbar spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilised in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions such as ankylosing spondylosis. Lumbar spine x...
Article

Lung hyperinflation

Lung hyperinflation is a common feature of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is also linked to ageing and other chronic diseases that cause airflow obstruction. Pathology The airflow limitation during expiration is produced by two factors: destruction of the lung ...
Article

Magnification view (mammography)

A magnification view in mammography is performed to evaluate and count microcalcifications and its extension (as well the assessment of the borders and the tissue structures of a suspicious area or a mass) by using a magnification device which brings the breast away from the film plate and close...
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Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
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Mammography views

There are numerous mammography views that can broadly be split into two groups standard views supplementary views - additional information or problem solving Standard views Standard views are those that are performed on routine screening mammograms. The views are usually used for all routine...
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Maquet view

A maquet view is a type of radiographic projection of the lower limbs. They are a well established method of determining the axial alignment of the lower limb in the coronal plane and are of particular use in assessment of total knee replacements. Radiographic assessment Construct the weight ...
Article

Mediolateral oblique view

The mediolateral oblique (MLO) view is one of standard mammographic views. It is the most important projection as it allows to depict most breast tissue.  Adequacy The representation of the pectoral muscle on the MLO view is a key component in assessing the adequacy of patient positioning and ...
Article

Mediolateral view

The mediolateral (ML) view is a supplementary mammographic view and shows less breast tissue and pectoral muscle than the mediolateral oblique view (MLO view). Technique The tube is rotated 90 degrees and the lateral aspect of the chest wall is along the bucky edge. The height is at the level ...
Article

Modified Stenvers view

The modified Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. It is primarily used to assess electrode placement following the insertion of a cochlear implant. Specifically it assesses the: integrity, positioning, and dep...
Article

Motion artifact

Motion artifact is a patient-based artifact that occurs with voluntary or involuntary patient movement during image acquisition. Misregistration artifacts, which appear as blurring, streaking, or shading, are caused by patient movement during a CT scan.  Blurring also occurs with patient moveme...
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MRI pulse sequence abbreviations

This article contains a list of commonly and less commonly used MRI pulse sequence abbreviations and their meaning. If available, an explanation is included in a separate article. spin echo sequences (SE) T1: T1 weighted IR: inversion recovery T2 : T2 weighted RARE: rapid acquisition with r...
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Noise (computed tomography)

Noise in computed tomography is an unwanted change in pixel values in an otherwise homogenous image. Often, noise is defined loosely as, the grainy appearance on cross-sectional imaging; more often than not, this is quantum mottle.  Noise in CT is measured via the signal to noise ratio (SNR); c...
Article

Normal brain imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the brain and surrounding structures, divided by modality and protocol. CT CT (routine) example 1: C- axial, coronal, sagittal example 2: C- axial, coronal, sagittal & axial bone example 3: C- axial, C+ axial, coronal, sagittal example 4: C-...
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Normal breast imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the breast and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Breast Mammography MLO and CC (standard mammographic views) labelled example lateral: example needed compression: example needed cleavage view: example axillary lymph n...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Radiograph Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels example...
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Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: paediatric example 5: young adult example 6: young adult male Barium studies example 1, example 2, example 3: barium swallow example 1: upper GI series example 1: barium follow through example ...
Article

Normal genitourinary tract imaging examples

This article serves as a resource for access to normal examples of imaging studies of the genitourinary tract.  Kidneys Plain radiograph KUB: example 1 abdominal x-ray: example 1 IVU IVU: example 1 Ultrasound renal ultrasound: example 1 renal ultrasound: example 2 renal ultrasound: exa...
Article

Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1 soft tissue: example 2 CT soft tissue contrast: exampl...
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Normal hepatobiliary imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the liver and biliary tree and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Liver Plain radiographs liver silhouette: example Ultrasound liver ultrasound example 1 with shear wave elastography liver Doppler ultrasound: example ne...
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Normal lower limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the lower limb, divided by region and modality. Pelvic girdle plain radiograph pelvis example 1: frontal example 2: frontal (young adult) example 3: paediatric example 4: paediatric (9/12, 11/12 and older child) example 5: trauma supine exam...
Article

Normal spine imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the spine, divided by region and modality. Cervical spine plain films example 1: AP, lat, obliques only example 2: PEG view example 3: flexion and extension views only example 4: paediatric - 12 years old example 5: including Swimmer's view C...
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Normal upper limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the upper limb, divided by region and modality. Shoulder girdle plain films sternoclavicular joint: example clavicle: example, example 2, example 3 acromioclavicular joint example 1 example 2 shoulder example 1: with Y view example 1: axial...
Article

Oral cholecystography

Oral cholecystography was a procedure used to image the gallbladder, now largely superseded by ultrasound and MRCP.  It was first described by Graham et. al in 1925, using sodium tetraiodophenolphthalein.  Although rarely performed now, more modern techniques used other cholegraphic agents such...
Article

Orbitomeatal line

The orbitomeatal line, also known as the canthomeatal line, was the traditional axial plane used for CT of the brain. It was easily identified on the inspection of the patient's head when tilting the gantry or patient's head to achieve a standard axial plane.  The orbitomeatal line was defined ...
Article

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) refers to a heterogeneous group of congenital, non-sex-linked, genetic disorders of collagen type I production, involving connective tissues and bones.  The hallmark feature of osteogenesis imperfecta is osteoporosis and fragile bones that fracture easily, as well a...
Article

Patellar translation (TT-TG distance)

Patellar translation (TT-TG distance) is an analysis performed by overlapping or superimposing axial images of the femoral condyles and tibial tuberosity. The measurements are used to quantify patellar instability. Method žSuperimpose axial images of: —femoral condyles —tibial tuberosity žD...
Article

Pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1.  Patient position patient is supine ...
Article

Pelvis (flamingo view)

The flamingo view series of the pelvis is a specialised orthopaedic series consisting of three separate pelvis projections. It is used for assessing instability of the pubic symphysis, often in the context of previous pelvic trauma. This projection should only be performed under specialist supe...
Article

Pelvis (inlet view)

The AP inlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1. This particular view is perpendicular t...
Article

Pelvis (Judet view)

The oblique pelvis otherwise known as the Judet view is an additional projection to the pelvic series when there is suspicion of an acetabular fracture. The Judet view is comprised of two projections, first the iliac oblique for assessment of the posterior column and anterior wall of the acetab...
Article

Pelvis (outlet view)

The AP outlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1-5.  This particular view allows for ass...
Article

Pelvis series

The pelvis series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) with additional projections based on indications and pathology. The series is used most in emergency departments during the evaluation of multi-trauma patients due to the complex anatomy the AP projection covers. The pelvis series examin...
Article

Peroral pneumocolon

Peroral pneumocolon is a technique that can be used during a small bowel follow through (SBFT) to better visualize the ascending colon and terminal ileum. Procedure The goal of a peroral pneumocolon is to create a double contrast study (oral contrast and air) of the ascending colon and termina...
Article

Pöschl projection

Pöschl projection is used in imaging the temporal bone. The plane of projection is perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal bone. In the Pöschl projection the temporal bone is imaged from its anteromedial to posterolateral aspects. See also Stenvers view
Article

Radiation damage (skin injury)

Radiation-induced skin injuries can occur in both radiotherapy and fluoroscopic procedures such as interventional radiology. Acute radiation doses above 2 Gy are known to result in erythema, permanent epilation will occur at 7 Gy and delayed skin necrosis transpires above doses of 12 Gy. The dam...
Article

Radiographic positioning terminology

Radiographic positioning terminology is used routinely to describe the position of the patient for taking various radiographs. Standard nomenclature is employed with respect to the anatomic position. Terminology Basic terms anterior is towards the front of the body (Latin: before) posterior ...
Article

Radiography article structure

There are two main types of radiography article.  Radiographic series These articles describe the set of projections that make up a series that might be requested by a clinician, e.g. they would request a wrist X-ray, to get a PA and lateral view, together these are termed the series. Each ar...
Article

Rapid ultrasound in shock

The Rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and...
Article

Renal arterial resistive index

The renal arterial resistive index (RI) is a sonographic index to assess for renal arterial disease. It is measured as  RI = (peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity ) / peak systolic velocity the normal value is ≈ 0.60 with 0.70 being around the upper limits of normal Technique M...
Article

Reversed CC view

The reversed CC view is an additional view. It is useful for the study of breasts with surgical scars in the lower quadrants. The ability to see the scar through the compressor paddle offers to the mammographer the possibility to flatten it properly, reducing the formation of scar folds as well ...
Article

Ribs (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique rib projection is performed to best demonstrate the axillary ribs. Oblique ribs may be conducted either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique view. The rib series is often noted as an unnecessary projection in many radiology departments. However, if the projection will chan...
Article

Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves to projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of t...

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