Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

274 results found
Article

Ribs (PA view)

The ribs PA view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the anterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. The rib series is often considered to be an unnecessary projection in many radiolo...
Article

Rolled CC view

Given that the rolled projections can be performed from any standard projection, the most commonly used is certainly the cranio-caudal one.  A rolled CC view It's performed to locate a lesion only visible in the cranio-caudal view, or when overlapped tissues in the standard view can simulate or...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP oblique view)

The AP Oblique view of the sacroiliac joint is one projection that makes up the sacroiliac series. Both sides of the SIJs are examined for comparison. Patient position patient positioned supine on the imaging table with legs extended elevate the side of interest approximately 25 to 30 degree ...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP Sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series which includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posi...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA oblique view)

 The PA oblique view of the sacroiliac joints can be performed in patients who cannot assume the supine position. Both sides of the sacroiliac joints are examined for comparison. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis 1.  Oblique views can be taken either AP or PA....
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA sacrum view)

The PA Sacrum projection is a useful part of the sacroiliac series. Due to the shallow obliquity of the sacroiliac joints, the prone position allows the diverging x-ray beam to project through the joint space giving better visualisation of the joint compared to the AP projection 1 Patient posit...
Article

Sacroiliac joints (posterior oblique view)

The sacroiliac posterior oblique view is used to demonstrate the sacroiliac joints in an open profile. It is commonly used in conjunction with the sacroiliac AP view. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis 1.  Patient position patient is positioned in an oblique ...
Article

Sacrum (AP view)

The sacrum AP view is used to demonstrate the sacrum and its articulations. It can be utilised in the event of trauma, or for evaluating degenerative change 1. The efficacy of this radiographical projection is debatable, with radiographers encouraged to follow department protocol when imaging th...
Article

Sacrum and coccyx (lateral view)

The sacrum and coccyx lateral view is utilised to demonstrate the most distal region of the spine in a lateral position. It is commonly used in conjunction with the AP projection or can be used as a sole projection, depending on department protocols. It is used to demonstrate sacrum and coccyx a...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification

  Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. ...
Article

Scaphoid (lateral view)

The scaphoid lateral view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid in the orthogonal plane. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible ...
Article

Scaphoid (oblique view)

The oblique scaphoid view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. The positioning is similar if not identical to the oblique wrist.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and w...
Article

Scaphoid (PA axial view)

The scaphoid PA axial view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid free from superimposition. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possib...
Article

Scaphoid (PA view)

The scaphoid PA view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. Although performed PA the view can often be referred to an AP view. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist...
Article

Scaphoid series

The scaphoid series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, lateral and angled posteroanterior projection. The series examines the carpal bones focused mainly on the scaphoid. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna. Scaphoid fractu...
Article

Scapula (AP view)

The scapula AP view is a specialised projection of the scapular bone, performed in conjunction with the lateral scapular view. This projection can be performed erect or supine, involving 90-degree abduction of the affected arm. Patient position the patient is preferably erect however this can ...
Article

Scapula series

The scapula series is the plain radiographic assessment of the scapular bone of the shoulder girdle, seldom used in departments with 24 hour computed tomography departments. Many radiographic departments, do not have a stand alone scapula series, rather include the assessment of the scapula in ...
Article

Shoulder (AP glenoid view)

The shoulder AP glenoid view (also known as a "Grashey view") is an additional projection to the two view shoulder series. The projection is used to assess the integrity of the glenohumeral joint. Patient position the patient is preferably erect the midcoronal plane of the patient is parallel...
Article

Shoulder (AP view)

The shoulder AP view is a standard projection that makes up the two view shoulder series. The projection demonstrates the shoulder in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire clavicle and scapula, as well as the glenohumeral, acromioclavicular ...
Article

Shoulder (axial view)

The shoulder axial view is a supplementary projection to the lateral scapula view to obtaining orthogonal images to the AP shoulder; it is an appropriate projection to assess suspected dislocations, proximal humerus pathology and effective in demonstrating the articular surfaces of the humeral h...
Article

Shoulder (external rotation view)

The shoulder external rotation view is an additional projection to the standard shoulder series it is often combined with the internal rotation view to visualise the entirety of the humeral head. This projection best demonstrates the greater tubercle humerus in profile. Patient position patien...
Article

Shoulder (Garth view)

The Garth view of the shoulder is a projection used in trauma when evaluating the glenohumeral joint for dislocations and trauma to the glenoid of the scapula; this projection is often used as a replacement to the lateral scapula view in trauma. It is an optimal projection to demonstrate Bankar...
Article

Shoulder (inferosuperior axial)

The inferosuperior axial view of the shoulder is a modified axial projection best utilised with supine patients. It is an orthogonal projection to the AP view and replaces the lateral shoulder projection. It is an appropriate projection to assess suspected dislocations, proximal humerus patholo...
Article

Shoulder (internal rotation view)

The shoulder internal rotation view is an additional projection to the standard shoulder series it is often combined with the external rotation view to visualise the entirety of the humeral head. This projection shows the lesser tubercle of the humerus in profile and can be used to detected susp...
Article

Shoulder (lateral scapula view)

The lateral scapula shoulder or Y view is part of the standard shoulder series. Orthogonal to the AP shoulder (note so is an axillary view); It is a pertinent projection to assess suspected dislocations, scapula fractures and degenerative changes. Excellent projection to see both the coracoid a...
Article

Shoulder (modified transthoracic supine lateral)

The modified transthoracic supine lateral scapula is a modification of the supine lateral shoulder, used to safely image patients on spinal precautions, or patients who are unable to move; often employed in major trauma hospitals, it produces a diagnostic lateral projection of the shoulder with ...
Article

Shoulder (modified trauma axial view)

The modified trauma axial view is a supplementary projection that replaces the ‘Y view’ of the two-view shoulder series often performed in the context of trauma. It is an orthogonal view of the AP projection of the glenohumeral joint, with a higher diagnostic yield than the lateral scapular sho...
Article

Shoulder (outlet view)

The outlet or Neers projection of the shoulder is a specialised projection demonstrating the coracoacromial arch often utilised in the investigation of speculated shoulder impingement 1 This projection is most commonly seen in orthopaedic clinics and closely resembles a lateral scapular projec...
Article

Shoulder (Stryker notch view)

The Stryker notch view is a specialised projection of the shoulder frequently used to evaluate the articulation of the glenoid and the humeral head; it is an effective projection in assessing for Hill-Sachs lesions 1. Patient position the patient is preferably erect the midcoronal plane of th...
Article

Shoulder (supine lateral view)

The supine lateral scapula view (anterior oblique AP) is a modified lateral shoulder projection often utilised in trauma imaging. Orthogonal to the AP shoulder (note so is an axillary view); It is a pertinent projection to assess suspected dislocations, scapula fractures and degenerative changes...
Article

Shoulder girdle radiography

The radiography of the shoulder girdle is a commonly requested plain radiographic examination; the particular radiographic series will be dependent on the suspected pathology or injury. The extent of each series is determined by the radiography department protocols. Radiographic series shoulde...
Article

Shoulder radiograph protocol

A shoulder radiograph protocol will depend on the age of the patient, and on whether the indication is because of trauma. Best practice is to have 2 orthogonal views of any bone or joint, so an AP and lateral film are obtained. The anatomy of the shoulder and the position required to acquire th...
Article

Shoulder series

The shoulder series is fundamentally composed of two orthogonal views of the glenohumeral joint including the entire scapula. The extension of the shoulder series depends on the radiography department protocols and the clinical indications for imaging. Indications Shoulder radiographs are perf...
Article

Sitz marker study

The Sitz marker study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Indications In constipation it can help distinguish between slow colonic transit and a defecation disorder. Procedure The patient ingests a number of radio-opaque markers (plastic rings containing radio-opaque mat...
Article

Skeletal age assessment

Performing skeletal age assessment is an important part of the diagnostic and management pathway in children with a variety of growth and endocrine disorders. It is used in the evaluation of children who are on growth hormone therapy or of children who present in delayed or advanced stages of pu...
Article

Skull (AP view)

The skull AP view is a nonangled AP radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the back of patient's head is placed against the image detector the petrous ridge will overlap the lower 1/3 of ...
Article

Skull (Caldwell view)

The Caldwell view is a caudally angled PA radiograph of the skull, designed to better visualise the paranasal sinuses, especially the frontal sinus. Patient position the patient is seated in front of the upright detector the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector forehead an...
Article

Skull (lateral view)

The skull lateral view is a nonangled lateral radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the sagittal midline of the patient's head is parallel to the image detector sella turcica in profile ...
Article

Skull (PA view)

The skull PA view is a non-angled PA radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the patient is erect the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector allowing for the nose to be in...
Article

Skull (Towne view)

The Towne view is an angled AP radiograph of the skull. Patient position the patient's nuchal ridge is placed against the image detector dorsum sella overlies the foramen magnum image size: 24 x 30 cm X-ray beam features the beam travels anterior to posterior (AP) direction, with ~30-40° o...
Article

Skull (Waters view)

The occipitomental (OM) or Waters view is an angled PA radiograph of the skull, with the patient gazing slightly upwards. It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. Skull radiographs, in general, are rapidly becoming obsolete, being replaced by much more sensi...
Article

Spot view

A spot view (also known as a spot compression view or focal compression view) is an additional view performed by applying the compression to a smaller area of tissue using a small compression paddle, increasing the effective pressure on that spot. This results in better tissue separation and all...
Article

Stenvers view

Stenvers view is a oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrode placement following t...
Article

Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series. The oblique positioning manoeuvres the join of interest away from central structures to produce a clearer view of articulation. The side of obliquity p...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Patient position the patient is preferably laid prone with arms resting above the he...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialised radiographic projection utilised in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, however still utilised in postoperative imaging. Patient position the ...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint series

The sternoclavicular radiographic series is a used to evaluate sternoclavicular joint and the proximal clavicle. Imaging of the sternoclavicular joint has since been replaced by computed tomography. Indications Sternoclavicular joint radiographs are performed for a variety of indications inclu...
Article

Sternum (lateral view)

The lateral sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire length of the sternum in profile. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position patient is erect with the left or right side of the thorax adjacent to the image receptor patient's hands are behind their...
Article

Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing the upright detector; the projection is performed RAO to project the st...
Article

Talonavicular coalition

Talonavicular coalition is one of the less common subtypes of tarsal coalition, the most commons being talocalcaneal coalition and calcaneonavicular coalition. As with other forms of coalition it can be osseous, cartilaginous or fibrous. Clinical presentation Uni-or bilateral. Most patients ar...
Article

Tangential views

Tangential views are useful to differentiate intracutaneous radiopaque particles in a tattoo from intraparenchymal microcalcifications. Mammographic findings close to the skin such as masses, microcalcifications, skin dimpling or shaded areas always pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Va...
Article

Tardus parvus

Tardus parvus refers to a particular pattern of Doppler ultrasound spectral waveform. It commonly occurs downstream from significant arterial stenosis, and in particular is useful in assessing for renal artery stenosis.  Radiographic features tardus: prolonged systolic acceleration (i.e. slow ...
Article

Tc-99m DMSA

Tc-99m DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) is a technetium radiopharmaceutical used in renal imaging to evaluate renal structure and morphology, particularly in paediatric imaging for detection of scarring and pyelonephritis. DMSA is an ideal agent for the assessment of renal cortex as it binds to th...
Article

Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart excretion: hepatobiliary target organ: colon, kidneys, bladder, gallbladder Uses, doses and timings parathy...
Article

Temporomandibular joint (axiolateral view)

The axiolateral temporomandibular view allows for visualisation of the articular tubercle, mandibular condyle and fossa and is thus useful to identify structural changes and displaced fractures, as well as assess excursion and joint spaces.  Clinical indications include trauma, the presence of ...
Article

The air gap technique

The air gap technique is a radiographic technique that improves image contrast resolution through reducing the amount of scattered radiation that reaches the image detector. In select situations, this technique can be used instead of an anti-scatter grid as the primary scatter reduction method i...
Article

Thermoluminescent dosimeter

Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) is a passive radiation detection device that is used for personal dose monitoring or to measure patient dose.  Parts plastic holder nickel-coated aluminium card with TLD discs the discs are made of a thermoluminescent material, commonly calcium sulphate dope...
Article

Thoracic spine (AP view)

The thoracic spine AP view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imag...
Article

Thoracic spine (lateral view)

The thoracic spine lateral view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It is used in conjunction with the thoracic spine AP view to complete a thoracic spine series.  P...
Article

Thoracic spine series

The thoracic spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilised in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions. Radiographs of the thoracic spine are consi...
Article

Thumb (AP/PA view)

The thumb AP (anteroposterior) view is one of the standard views for assessment of the thumb. The PA (posteroanterior) view can be utilised when the patient is unable to achieve the position required for the AP view.  They are one part of the three view thumb series. There will be some magnific...
Article

Thumb (lateral view)

The thumb lateral view is an orthogonal projection of AP/PA view and helps in the localisation of a foreign body in the thenar eminence, as well as providing valuable information of suspected dislocations. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the forearm is placed on table ...
Article

Thumb (oblique view)

The thumb oblique view is a part of the thumb series and is particularly useful in cases with traumatic indications. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table forearm is placed on table the wrist is kept in ulnar deviation and thumb abducted fingers are kept in contact with the...
Article

Thumb series

The thumb series is comprised of a posteroanterior and oblique, projection. The posteroanterior projection is interchangeably performed anterioposter or posteroanterior depending on mobility. It examines in detail the first metacarpal and its articulations. Thumbs have a vital impact in our day ...
Article

Tibia fibula (AP view)

The tibia fibula AP view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes will be pointing directly toward th...
Article

Tibia fibula (lateral view)

The tibia fibula lateral view is part of a two view series of the entire tibia, fibula, and both the knee and ankle joint.  Patient position the patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the knee and ankle joint should be in contact with the table resulting...
Article

Tibia/fibula series

The tibia/fibula is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the entirety of the tibia and fibula after trauma.  Indications The tibia/fibula radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including: tr...
Article

Toes (AP view)

Toes AP view is part of a three view toe series and includes the phalanges and the toe(s) of interest and the distal half of the associated metacarpals. Patient position the patient can be either supine or be sitting upright on the table knee should be flexed so the plantar surface of the foo...
Article

Toes (oblique view)

The toes medial oblique view is part of the toe series examining the phalange and metatarsals of the foot. Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is resting on the image receptor th...
Article

Toes series

The toes series is comprised of an AP, AP oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilised in trauma situations. It examines the entirety of the proximal middle and distal phalanges of the foot.  Indications Toe radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including 1:...
Article

Triple-rule-out CT

Triple-rule-out CT (TRO CT) angiography may be ordered in the setting of acute chest pain to examine the thoracic aorta and the coronary and pulmonary arteries. The protocol helps exclude life-threatening causes of acute chest pain, especially if atypical, or if alternative causes to acute coron...
Article

Tucked CC views

In the standard CC views posterior tissue may be excluded from the field of view, due to the anatomical attachment to the chest wall restricting mobility of breast tissues. The tucks CC views are useful to depict lesions deep in the posterior portion of the breast, located between 10 and 2 o'clo...
Article

Upper limb radiography

Upper limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the shoulder girdle, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals and metacarpals of the hand. It is often utilised in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. 
Article

V/Q scan

V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan is a scintigraphic examination of the lung that evaluates pulmonary vasculature perfusion and segmental bronchoalveolar tree ventilation. Indications diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) monitor pulmonary function following lung transplant provide p...
Article

Windowing (CT)

Windowing, also known as gray-level mapping, contrast stretching, histogram modification or contrast enhancement is the process in which the CT image grayscale component of an image is manipulated via the CT numbers; doing this will change the appearance of the picture to highlight particular st...
Article

Wrist (carpal bridge view)

The carpal bridge view an additional view to the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is used to assess the dorsal aspect of the scaphoid, lunate and the triquetrum. Patient position the patient is seated alongside the table dorsal aspect of affected wrist is placed on the dete...
Article

Wrist (carpal tunnel view)

The carpal tunnel view is an axial projection to demonstrate the medial and lateral prominences and the concavity. It can be utilised to investigate potential hook of hamate, pisiform and trapezium factures. Patient position patient stands with the back facing the table palmar surface of hand...
Article

Wrist (clenched fist view)

The clenched fist view is an additional projection used to evaluate suspected widening of the scapholunate interval, often performed bilaterally it is a functional view that requires the patient to clench both hands.  Patient position patient is seated in front of the table  both hands are pl...
Article

Wrist (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral wrist view is a modified lateral projection when performing the three view series of the wrist and carpal bones in trauma. It is the orthogonal projection of the PA wrist without any patient movement, making it the most appropriate projection for patients in pain. Pa...
Article

Wrist (lateral view)

The lateral wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is the orthogonal projection of the PA wrist. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the table abduct the hum...
Article

Wrist (oblique view)

The oblique wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. It is not generally performed in follow-up studies unless specifically requested. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can ...
Article

Wrist (PA view)

The PA wrist view is part of a three view series of the wrist and carpal bones. Although performed PA the view can often be referred to an AP view. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist can rest on the table ...
Article

Wrist series

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint al...
Article

X-ray artifacts

Artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadow noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.  There are common and distinct artifacts for film, comp...
Article

XCCL view

An XCCL view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the lateral aspect of the breast.  It is often done when a lesion is suspected on a MLO view but cannot be seen on the CC view. In this view, the lateral aspect...
Article

XCCM view

An XCCM view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the medial portion of the breast. In this view, the medial portion of the breast is placed forward. A negative 15° tube tilt is suggested. An optimal XCCM view ...
Article

Xenon-127

Xenon-127 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. It is an not widely used alternative to xenon-133 with the main advantage being a higher proton energy allowing for post perfusion scanning.  photon energy: 203 KeV physical half life: 36.3 days

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.