Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

309 results found
Article

Oral cholecystography

Oral cholecystography was a procedure used to image the gallbladder, now largely superseded by ultrasound and MRCP.  It was first described by Graham et. al in 1925, using sodium tetraiodophenolphthalein.  Although rarely performed now, more modern techniques used other cholegraphic agents such...
Article

Orbitomeatal line

The orbitomeatal line, also known as the canthomeatal line, was the traditional axial plane used for CT of the brain. It was easily identified on the inspection of the patient's head when tilting the gantry or patient's head to achieve a standard axial plane.  The orbitomeatal line was defined ...
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Orthogonal projection

The orthogonal projection (or view) is, by definition, a radiographic projection obtained 90 degrees to the original view. It forms the basic requirements of a 'radiographic series', that being 'two orthogonal projections of the region of interest' Acute imaging  Cases can appear normal in one...
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Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.
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Patellar translation (TT-TG distance)

Patellar translation (TT-TG distance) is an analysis performed by overlapping or superimposing axial images of the femoral condyles and tibial tuberosity. The measurements are used to quantify patellar instability. Method žSuperimpose axial images of: —femoral condyles —tibial tuberosity žD...
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Pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1.  Patient position patient is supine ...
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Pelvis (flamingo view)

The flamingo view series of the pelvis is a specialised orthopaedic series consisting of three separate pelvis projections. It is used for assessing instability of the pubic symphysis, often in the context of previous pelvic trauma. This projection should only be performed under specialist supe...
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Pelvis (inlet view)

The AP inlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1. This particular view is perpendicular t...
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Pelvis (Judet view)

The oblique pelvis otherwise known as the Judet view is an additional projection to the pelvic series when there is suspicion of an acetabular fracture. The Judet view is comprised of two projections, first the iliac oblique for assessment of the posterior column and anterior wall of the acetab...
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Pelvis (outlet view)

The AP outlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1-5.  This particular view allows for ass...
Article

Pelvis series

The pelvis series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) with additional projections based on indications and pathology. The series is used most in emergency departments during the evaluation of multi-trauma patients due to the complex anatomy the AP projection covers. The pelvis series examin...
Article

Peroral pneumocolon

Peroral pneumocolon is a technique that can be used during a small bowel follow through (SBFT) to better visualize the ascending colon and terminal ileum. Procedure The goal of a peroral pneumocolon is to create a double contrast study (oral contrast and gas) of the ascending colon and termina...
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Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
Article

Pöschl projection

Pöschl projection is used in imaging the temporal bone. The plane of projection is perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal bone. In the Pöschl projection the temporal bone is imaged from its anteromedial to posterolateral aspects. See also Stenvers view
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Radiograph

Radiograph (or plain radiograph although the word plain is strictly superfluous) is the radiologist's preferred term for the static image generated following the passage of x-rays through the patient. Non-imaging clinicians and the lay population generally use the term "x-ray" to refer to a radi...
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Radiographer abnormality detection system

The radiographer abnormality detection system, otherwise known as the red dot system, is a system that was first trialled during 1981 in London, United Kingdom at the Ealing Hospital, and soon after at Northwick Park Hospital. The results of the trial were reported in 1985 1. Radiographers commu...
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Radiographic contrast

Radiographic contrast is the density difference between neighbouring regions on a plain radiograph. High radiographic contrast is observed in radiographs where density differences are notably distinguished (black to white). Low radiographic contrast is seen on radiographic images where adjacent ...
Article

Radiographic distortion

Several factors contribute to radiographic distortion whereby the anatomy examined is misrepresenting on the plain radiograph.  X-ray beam  The x-ray beam originates from a point source within the x-ray tube. It is due to this point source nature that x-ray beams will all possess 'beam diverge...
Article

Radiographic positioning terminology

Radiographic positioning terminology is used routinely to describe the position of the patient for taking various radiographs. Standard nomenclature is employed with respect to the anatomic position. Terminology Basic terms of relations anterior is towards the front of the body (Latin: before...
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Radiography article structure

There are two main types of radiography article.  Radiographic series These articles describe the set of projections that make up a series that might be requested by a clinician, e.g. they would request a wrist X-ray, to get a PA and lateral view, together these are termed the series. Each ar...
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Radiography curriculum

The radiography curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent core radiographic knowledge. As radiography encompasses multiple modalities, its content is split into subsections based on the modality. Definition Topics pertaining to radiogra...
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Renal arterial resistive index

The renal arterial resistive index (RI) is a sonographic index to assess for renal arterial disease. It is measured as  RI = (peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity ) / peak systolic velocity the normal value is ≈ 0.60 with 0.70 being around the upper limits of normal Technique M...
Article

Reversed CC view

The reversed CC view is an additional view. It is useful for the study of breasts with surgical scars in the lower quadrants. The ability to see the scar through the compressor paddle offers to the mammographer the possibility to flatten it properly, reducing the formation of scar folds as well ...
Article

Review areas on chest x-ray

Review areas on a chest x-ray are common areas for missed findings, and special attention should be paid to them: lung apices: masses (e.g. Pancoast tumour), pneumothorax behind the heart: consolidation, masses, hiatus hernia below the diaphragm: free gas, lines and tubes (e.g. nasogastric tu...
Article

Ribs (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique rib projection is performed to best demonstrate the axillary ribs. Oblique ribs may be conducted either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique view. The rib series is often noted as an unnecessary projection in many radiology departments. However, if the projection will chan...
Article

Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves two projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of ...
Article

Ribs (PA view)

The ribs PA view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the anterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. The rib series is often considered to be an unnecessary projection in many radiolo...
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Rolled CC view

Given that the rolled projections can be performed from any standard projection, the most commonly used is certainly the cranio-caudal one.  A rolled CC view It's performed to locate a lesion only visible in the cranio-caudal view, or when overlapped tissues in the standard view can simulate or...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP oblique view)

The AP Oblique view of the sacroiliac joint is one projection that makes up the sacroiliac series. Both sides of the SIJs are examined for comparison. Patient position patient positioned supine on the imaging table with legs extended elevate the side of interest approximately 25 to 30 de...
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Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series that includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posit...
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Sacroiliac joint (PA oblique view)

 The PA oblique view of the sacroiliac joints can be performed in patients who cannot assume the supine position. Both sides of the sacroiliac joints are examined for comparison. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis 1.  Oblique views can be taken either AP or PA....
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA sacrum view)

The PA Sacrum projection is a useful part of the sacroiliac series. Due to the shallow obliquity of the sacroiliac joints, the prone position allows the diverging x-ray beam to project through the joint space giving better visualisation of the joint compared to the AP projection 1 Patient posit...
Article

Sacroiliac joints (posterior oblique view)

The sacroiliac posterior oblique view is used to demonstrate the sacroiliac joints in an open profile. It is commonly used in conjunction with the sacroiliac AP view. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis 1.  Patient position patient is positioned in an oblique ...
Article

Sacrum and coccyx (lateral view)

The sacrum and coccyx lateral view is utilised to demonstrate the most distal region of the spine in a lateral position. It is commonly used in conjunction with the AP projection or can be used as a sole projection, depending on department protocols. It is used to demonstrate sacrum and coccyx a...
Article

Sacrum (AP view)

The sacrum AP view is used to demonstrate the sacrum and its articulations. It can be utilised in the event of trauma, or for evaluating degenerative change 1. The efficacy of this radiographical projection is debatable, with radiographers encouraged to follow department protocol when imaging th...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification

Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. gro...
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Scaphoid (lateral view)

The scaphoid lateral view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid in the orthogonal plane. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible ...
Article

Scaphoid (oblique view)

The oblique scaphoid view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. The positioning is similar if not identical to the oblique wrist.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and w...
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Scaphoid (PA axial view)

The scaphoid PA axial view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid free from superimposition. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possib...
Article

Scaphoid (PA view)

The scaphoid PA view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. Although performed PA the view can often be referred to an AP view. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and wrist...
Article

Scaphoid series

The scaphoid series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, lateral and angled posteroanterior projection. The series examines the carpal bones focused mainly on the scaphoid. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna. Scaphoid fractu...
Article

Scapula (AP view)

The scapula AP view is a specialised projection of the scapular bone, performed in conjunction with the lateral scapular view. This projection can be performed erect or supine, involving 90-degree abduction of the affected arm. Patient position the patient is preferably erect however this can ...
Article

Scapula series

The scapula series is the plain radiographic assessment of the scapular bone of the shoulder girdle, seldom used in departments with 24 hour computed tomography departments. Many radiographic departments, do not have a stand alone scapula series, rather include the assessment of the scapula in ...
Article

Schuss view

Schuss views are PA weight-bearing knee radiographs taken in 30 degrees of flexion. They are a variant of the Rosenberg view. Several studies have shown them to be more sensitive to detect early knee osteoarthritis than standard extension AP views 1.
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Scoliosis erect lateral view

The scoliosis erect lateral view is performed to visualise the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of interest in profile in cases of scoliosis. It is also often done upon first presentation and is useful for identifying spondylolisthesis and the degree of kyphosis and/or lordosis 1,2. Patient posit...
Article

Scoliosis (lateral bending view)

Scoliosis lateral bending views are additional scoliosis projections accompanying the standard PA/AP views with the aim of assessing the patient’s lateral range of spinal motion 1. Patient position patient erect or supine patient bending their upper body laterally (right and left) from the h...
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Scoliosis PA/AP view

The scoliosis anteroposterior (or posteroanterior) view allows for the visualisation of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies of interest in scoliosis and allows for the severity of lateral spinal curvature to be assessed 1. Patient position patient erect (or supine depending on protocol) ...
Article

Scoliosis radiography

Scoliosis radiography is useful in identifying the degree of the scoliosis curvature (major/minor or primary/compensatory curves), as well as observe its progression to determine the best method of treatment 1.   Indications Scoliosis radiographs are performed specifically when the disease is...
Article

Shoulder (AP glenoid view)

The shoulder AP glenoid view (also known as a "Grashey view") is an additional projection to the two view shoulder series. The projection is used to assess the integrity of the glenohumeral joint. Patient position the patient is preferably erect the midcoronal plane of the patient is parallel...
Article

Shoulder (AP view)

The shoulder AP view is a standard projection that makes up the two view shoulder series. The projection demonstrates the shoulder in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire clavicle and scapula, as well as the glenohumeral, acromioclavicular ...
Article

Shoulder (external rotation view)

The shoulder external rotation view is an additional projection to the standard shoulder series it is often combined with the internal rotation view to visualise the entirety of the humeral head. This projection best demonstrates the greater tubercle humerus in profile. Patient position patien...
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Shoulder (Garth view)

The Garth view of the shoulder is a projection used in trauma when evaluating the glenohumeral joint for dislocations and trauma to the glenoid of the scapula; this projection is often used as a replacement to the lateral scapula view in trauma. It is an optimal projection to demonstrate Bankar...
Article

Shoulder girdle radiography

The radiography of the shoulder girdle is a commonly requested plain radiographic examination; the particular radiographic series will be dependent on the suspected pathology or injury. The extent of each series is determined by the radiography department protocols. Radiographic series shoulde...
Article

Shoulder (inferosuperior axial)

The inferosuperior axial view of the shoulder is a modified axial projection best utilised with supine patients. It is an orthogonal projection to the AP view and replaces the lateral shoulder projection. It is an appropriate projection to assess suspected dislocations, proximal humerus patholo...
Article

Shoulder (internal rotation view)

The shoulder internal rotation view is an additional projection to the standard shoulder series it is often combined with the external rotation view to visualise the entirety of the humeral head. This projection shows the lesser tubercle of the humerus in profile and can be used to detected susp...
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Shoulder (lateral scapula view)

The lateral scapula shoulder or Y view is part of the standard shoulder series. Orthogonal to the AP shoulder (note so is an axillary view); It is a pertinent projection to assess suspected dislocations, scapula fractures and degenerative changes. Excellent projection to see both the coracoid a...
Article

Shoulder (modified transthoracic supine lateral)

The modified transthoracic supine lateral scapula is a modification of the supine lateral shoulder, used to safely image patients on spinal precautions, or patients who are unable to move; often employed in major trauma hospitals, it produces a diagnostic lateral projection of the shoulder with ...
Article

Shoulder (modified trauma axial view)

The modified trauma axial view is a supplementary projection that replaces the ‘Y view’ of the two-view shoulder series often performed in the context of trauma. It is an orthogonal view of the AP projection of the glenohumeral joint, with a higher diagnostic yield than the lateral scapular sho...
Article

Shoulder (outlet view)

The outlet or Neers projection of the shoulder is a specialised projection demonstrating the coracoacromial arch often utilised in the investigation of shoulder impingement 1. This projection is most commonly seen in orthopaedic clinics and closely resembles a lateral scapular projection but i...
Article

Shoulder radiograph protocol

A shoulder radiograph protocol will depend on the age of the patient, and on whether the indication is because of trauma. Best practice is to have 2 orthogonal views of any bone or joint, so an AP and lateral film are obtained. The anatomy of the shoulder and the position required to acquire th...
Article

Shoulder series

The shoulder series is fundamentally composed of two orthogonal views of the glenohumeral joint including the entire scapula. The extension of the shoulder series depends on the radiography department protocols and the clinical indications for imaging. Indications Shoulder radiographs are perf...
Article

Shoulder (Stryker notch view)

The Stryker notch view is a specialised projection of the shoulder frequently used to evaluate the articulation of the glenoid and the humeral head; it is an effective projection in assessing for Hill-Sachs lesions 1. Patient position the patient is preferably erect the midcoronal plane of th...
Article

Shoulder (superior-inferior axial view)

The axial shoulder view is a supplementary projection to the lateral scapula view for obtaining orthogonal images to the AP shoulder. It is an appropriate projection to assess suspected dislocations, proximal humerus pathology, and glenohumeral articular surface abnormalities 1-3 . Patient pos...
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Shoulder (supine lateral view)

The supine lateral scapula view (anterior oblique AP) is a modified lateral shoulder projection often utilised in trauma imaging. Orthogonal to the AP shoulder (note so is an axillary view); It is a pertinent projection to assess suspected dislocations, scapula fractures and degenerative changes...
Article

Sitz marker study

The Sitz marker study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Indications In constipation it can help distinguish between slow colonic transit and a defecation disorder. Procedure The patient ingests a number of radio-opaque markers (plastic rings containing radio-opaque mat...
Article

Skull (AP view)

The skull AP view is a nonangled AP radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the back of patient's head is placed against the image detector Technical factors anterior-posterior projection...
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Skull (Caldwell view)

The Caldwell view is a caudally angled PA radiograph of the skull, designed to better visualise the paranasal sinuses, especially the frontal sinus. Patient position the patient is seated in front of the upright detector the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector forehead an...
Article

Skull (lateral view)

The skull lateral view is a nonangled lateral radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the sagittal midline of the patient's head is parallel to the image detector sella turcica in profile ...
Article

Skull (PA view)

The skull PA view is a non-angled PA radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Patient position the patient is erect the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector allowing for the nose to be in...
Article

Skull radiography

Skull radiography is the radiological investigation of the skull vault and associated bony structures. Seldom requested in modern medicine, plain radiography of the skull is often a last resort in trauma imaging in the absence of a CT. However, it is still utilised in the setting of skeletal su...
Article

Skull (Towne view)

The Towne view is an angled AP radiograph of the skull, used to evaluate for fractures of the skull and neoplastic changes Patient position the patient's nuchal ridge is placed against the image detector the infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) is perpendicular to the image receptor  Technical fact...
Article

Skull (Waters view)

The occipitomental (OM) or Waters view is an angled PA radiograph of the skull, with the patient gazing slightly upwards. It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. Skull radiographs, in general, are rapidly becoming obsolete, being replaced by much more sensi...
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Spot view

A spot view (also known as a spot compression view or focal compression view) is an additional view performed by applying the compression to a smaller area of tissue using a small compression paddle, increasing the effective pressure on that spot. This results in better tissue separation and all...
Article

Stenvers view

Stenvers view is a oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrode placement following t...
Article

Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series. The oblique positioning manoeuvres the join of interest away from central structures to produce a clearer view of articulation. The side of obliquity p...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Patient position the patient is preferably laid prone with arms resting above the he...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialised radiographic projection utilised in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, however still utilised in postoperative imaging. Patient position the ...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint series

The sternoclavicular radiographic series is a used to evaluate sternoclavicular joint and the proximal clavicle. Imaging of the sternoclavicular joint has since been replaced by computed tomography. Indications Sternoclavicular joint radiographs are performed for a variety of indications inclu...
Article

Sternum (lateral view)

The lateral sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire length of the sternum in profile. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position patient is erect with the left or right side of the thorax adjacent to the image receptor patient's hands are behind their...
Article

Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing the upright detector; the projection is performed RAO to project the st...
Article

Style guide and help

Our style guide is a set of guidelines to help authors write content in a uniform way. This has become increasingly important as the number of contributors has grown. Take a look through the guide and get involved at Radiopaedia.org. general overview of Radiopaedia.org what Radiopaedia.org IS ...
Article

Systematic radiographic technical evaluation (mnemonic)

Systematic radiographic technical evaluation is an important aspect to evaluative, effective radiography. It is the process of assessing a radiographic image to ensure it meets a high level of diagnostic standard. Two mnemonics are commonly used when assessing a radiographic image: PACEMAN IMA...
Article

Talonavicular coalition

Talonavicular coalition is one of the less common subtypes of tarsal coalition, the most commons being talocalcaneal coalition and calcaneonavicular coalition. As with other forms of coalition it can be osseous, cartilaginous or fibrous. Clinical presentation Uni-or bilateral. Most patients ar...
Article

Tangential views

Tangential views are useful to differentiate intracutaneous radiopaque particles in a tattoo from intraparenchymal microcalcifications. Mammographic findings close to the skin such as masses, microcalcifications, skin dimpling or shaded areas always pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Va...
Article

Tardus parvus

Tardus parvus refers to a pattern of Doppler ultrasound spectral waveform resulting from arterial stenosis. The phenomenon is observed downstream to the site of stenosis, and is due to reduced magnitude of blood flow through the narrowed vessel during ventricular systole 7. This characteristic ...
Article

Tc-99m sestamibi

Tc-99m sestamibi is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.  Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart excretion: hepatobiliary target organ: colon, kidneys, bladder, gallbladder Uses, doses and timings parathy...
Article

Temporomandibular joint (axiolateral view)

The axiolateral temporomandibular view allows for visualisation of the articular tubercle, mandibular condyle and fossa and is thus useful to identify structural changes and displaced fractures, as well as assess excursion and joint spaces.  Clinical indications include trauma, the presence of ...
Article

The air gap technique

The air gap technique is a radiographic technique that improves image contrast resolution through reducing the amount of scattered radiation that reaches the image detector. In select situations, this technique can be used instead of an anti-scatter grid as the primary scatter reduction method i...
Article

Thermoluminescent dosimeter

Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) is a passive radiation detection device that is used for personal dose monitoring or to measure patient dose.  Parts plastic holder nickel-coated aluminium card with TLD discs the discs are made of a thermoluminescent material, commonly calcium sulphate dope...
Article

Thoracic spine (AP view)

The thoracic spine AP view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imag...
Article

Thoracic spine (lateral view)

The thoracic spine lateral view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It is used in conjunction with the thoracic spine AP view to complete a thoracic spine series.  P...
Article

Thoracic spine series

The thoracic spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilised in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions. Radiographs of the thoracic spine are consi...

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