Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

32 results found
Article

20° oblique projection

20° oblique projection is a troubleshooting projection used in mammography, especially in young women and in follow-up patients. Technique The C-arm is turned approximately 20° for a superomedial-inferolateral oblique. With the patient's feet pointing towards the unit and her torso turned slig...
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Axillary view

An axillary view (also known as a "Cleopatra view“) is a type of supplementary mammographic view. It is an exaggerated craniocaudal view for better imaging of the lateral portion of the breast to the axillary tail. This projection is performed whenever we want to show a lesion seen only in the a...
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Bullseye view

The bullseye view is designed for better evaluation of lesion located in retroareolar area. In this view, the nipple-areola complex are directed upward or downward on the detector surface to visualize the areolar and periareolar region en face,  allowing characterization of lesions in this area.
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Caudal cranial projection

Caudal cranial projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique invert the C arm as for a CC projection step the patient forward and have her bend excessively forward at the waist to ensure that the abdomen does not encroach in the x ray field place the image receptor above the b...
Article

Cleavage view

A cleavage view (also called "valley view") is a mammogram view that depict the posteromedial portion of both breasts (the “valley” between the two breasts) by placing them on the cassette at the same time and pulling them anteriorly.  Manual technical factors should be used. A cleavage view m...
Article

Contrast enhanced mammography

Contrast enhanced mammography (CEM) is a complementary breast imaging modality. A finite number of sequential images are obtained with X-ray beam produced at a high energy, above the K-edge of Iodine, and with an intravenous non-ionic Iodine contrast agent  injected between pre and post contrast...
Article

Craniocaudal view

The craniocaudal view (CC view), along with the MLO view, is one of the two standard projections in a screening mammography. It must show the medial part as well the external lateral portion of the breast as much as possible. A correctly performed CC projection may show the pectoral muscle on t...
Article

Digital breast tomosynthesis

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an imaging technique that allows a volumetric reconstruction of the whole breast from a finite number of low-dose two-dimensional projections obtained by different X-ray tube angles, with a geometric principle very similar to that applied in stratigraphic te...
Article

Double spot compression view

A double spot compression view is obtained by focal compression of both sides of the breast to produce higher spatial and contrast resolution. This is made possible due to the increased amount of breast thinning and a significant decreased incidence of blurring because of decreased exposure time...
Article

Dual-energy mammography

Dual-energy digital mammography is a complementary breast imaging modality. The technique consists of high-energy and low-energy digital mammograms after administration of iodinated contrast agent. Breast is exposed to low- and high-energy X-ray beams during a single breast compression in MLO ...
Article

Eklund technique

Eklund modified compression technique  is a technique which can be used for patients with augmented or reconstructed breasts post mastectomy.  Technique It consists of postero-superior displacement of the implants simultaneously to an anterior traction of the breast, pushing the implants towar...
Article

Elevated craniocaudal projection

Elevated craniocaudal projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique direct beam superiorly to inferiroly face patient towards unit, feet forward lean patient inward, relaxing the shoulders bring inferior aspect of breast onto the image receptor pull breast outward and forwar...
Article

Frontal oblique approach mammography

Background Mammographic technique is very important to obtain diagnostic mammograms, to reduce the number of false negatives and to increase the sensitivity of the procedure. As widely noted in literature, most breast pathology occurs in the upper outer quadrant and is very important that this ...
Article

Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection

Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection is useful for stereotactic biopsy positioning. This projection allows access to the inferior aspect of the breast to achieve shortest skin to abnormality distance. It is also useful in the nonconforming patient. Technique Rotate C arm to about 125°...
Article

Late mediolateral view

A late mediolateral projection is an additional view that can be used whenever,in the presence of rounded calcifications of probable intracystic nature, the standard ML view does not allow the recognition of the characteristic tea cups appearance due to the density of milk of calcium. A second ...
Article

Lateral view

The lateral view is an additional view obtained at virtually every diagnostic evaluation. A lateral view may be obtained as a mediolateral view (ML) or lateromedial view (LM) view depending on where the imaging tube and detector are located. Technique for an ML view, the tube emitting the x-ra...
Article

Lateromedial oblique view

A lateral-medial oblique (LMO) view is a type of supplementary mammographic view.  The advantage of performing the lateromedial view is to depict lesions located far medio-posteriorly visible on the CC view only, or to depict palpable lesions in the inner quadrant not seen on mammography. This...
Article

Lateromedial view

The lateromedial view (or LM view) is a supplementary mammographic view where the bucky is placed up against the sternum and the and film is taken in a true lateral projection. This view allows the medial breast to be closest to the film. This view allows the medial breast to be more carefully e...
Article

Magnification view (mammography)

A magnification view in mammography is performed to evaluate and count microcalcifications and its extension (as well the assessment of the borders and the tissue structures of a suspicious area or a mass) by using a magnification device which brings the breast away from the film plate and close...
Article

Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
Article

Mammography views

There are numerous mammography views that can broadly be split into two groups standard views supplementary views - additional information or problem solving Standard views Standard views are those that are performed on routine screening mammograms. The views are usually used for all routine...
Article

Mediolateral oblique view

The mediolateral oblique (MLO) view is one of standard mammographic views. It is the most important projection as it allows to depict most breast tissue.  Adequacy The representation of the pectoral muscle on the MLO view is a key component in assessing the adequacy of patient positioning and ...
Article

Mediolateral view

The mediolateral (ML) view is a supplementary mammographic view and shows less breast tissue and pectoral muscle than the mediolateral oblique view (MLO view). Technique The tube is rotated 90 degrees and the lateral aspect of the chest wall is along the bucky edge. The height is at the level ...
Article

Normal breast imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the breast and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Breast Mammography MLO and CC (standard mammographic views) labelled example lateral: example needed compression: example needed cleavage view: example axillary lymph n...
Article

Reversed CC view

The reversed CC view is an additional view. It is useful for the study of breasts with surgical scars in the lower quadrants. The ability to see the scar through the compressor paddle offers to the mammographer the possibility to flatten it properly, reducing the formation of scar folds as well ...
Article

Rolled CC view

Given that the rolled projections can be performed from any standard projection, the most commonly used is certainly the cranio-caudal one.  A rolled CC view It's performed to locate a lesion only visible in the cranio-caudal view, or when overlapped tissues in the standard view can simulate or...
Article

Spot view

A spot view (also known as a spot compression view or focal compression view) is an additional view performed by applying the compression to a smaller area of tissue using a small compression paddle, increasing the effective pressure on that spot. This results in better tissue separation and all...
Article

Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Article

Tangential views

Tangential views are useful to differentiate intracutaneous radiopaque particles in a tattoo from intraparenchymal microcalcifications. Mammographic findings close to the skin such as masses, microcalcifications, skin dimpling or shaded areas always pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Va...
Article

Tucked CC views

In the standard CC views posterior tissue may be excluded from the field of view, due to the anatomical attachment to the chest wall restricting mobility of breast tissues. The tucks CC views are useful to depict lesions deep in the posterior portion of the breast, located between 10 and 2 o'clo...
Article

XCCL view

An XCCL view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the lateral aspect of the breast.  It is often done when a lesion is suspected on a MLO view but cannot be seen on the CC view. In this view, the lateral aspect...
Article

XCCM view

An XCCM view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the medial portion of the breast. In this view, the medial portion of the breast is placed forward. A negative 15° tube tilt is suggested. An optimal XCCM view ...

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