Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

19 results found
Article

Axial plane for imaging of the brain

A consistent axial plane for imaging of the brain needs to be chosen to allow for reproducible image acquisition and comparison. Unlike the sagittal plane, which is intrinsically defined by our inherent left-right plane of symmetry, axial and coronal planes need to be agreed upon and over the ye...
Article

Brain tumor protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for brain tumor assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach CNS tumors in general. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary depending on MRI hardware and software, radiologist's and referr...
Article

Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is an interventional procedure for the diagnosis and/or treatment of intracranial pathology. Indications Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated in a variety of settings including: diagnosis and treatment of: aneurysms acute ischemic stroke vascular...
Article

Lipiodol

Lipiodol® (also known as ethiodized oil) is an oil-based iodinated contrast medium that was historically used for myelography and hysterosalpingography 1. It was later superseded by newer, less hazardous, agents, and now is used primarily as a therapeutic agent. Guerbet is now the sole manufactu...
Article

Nasal bones (lateral view)

The lateral nasal bones view is a nonangled lateral radiograph showcasing two small oblong bones situated side by side, together forming the nasal ridge. Indications This view is often primarily used in assessing various nasal bone fractures in the trauma setting. Depending on the department, ...
Article

Normal brain imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the brain and surrounding structures, divided by modality and protocol. CT CT (routine) example 1: C- axial, coronal, sagittal example 2: C- axial, coronal, sagittal & axial bone example 3: C- axial, C+ axial, coronal, sagittal example 4: C-...
Article

Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1, example 2, example 3 Ultrasound example 1 CT soft tis...
Article

Normal spine imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the spine and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Cervical spine plain films example 1: AP, lat, obliques only example 2: PEG view example 3: flexion and extension views only example 4: pediatric - 12 years old example 5...
Article

Orbitomeatal line

The orbitomeatal line, also known as the canthomeatal line, was the traditional axial plane used for CT of the brain. It was easily identified on the inspection of the patient's head when tilting the gantry or patient's head to achieve a standard axial plane.  The orbitomeatal line was defined ...
Article

Paranasal sinuses and facial bones (lateral view)

The lateral paranasal sinuses and facial bones view is a nonangled lateral radiograph showcasing the facial bones (i.e. mandible, maxilla, zygoma, nasal, and lacrimal bone) and paranasal sinuses. Indications This view is useful in assessing any inflammatory processes or fractures to the facial...
Article

Pineal and tectal plate protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for the pineal and tectal plate assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach tumors involving this region.  The pineal region is best imaged with MRI although CT, angiography, and ultrasound (in infants) also play a role. Please refer to the article pineal r...
Article

Radionuclide cisternography

Radionuclide cisternography is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that uses intrathecal 111In-DTPA (diethyletriaminepentaacetic acid; pentetate) to visualize the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are a few indications 1: localization of CSF leak, such as in spontaneous intracranial hy...
Article

Skull (AP view)

The skull anteroposterior (AP) view is a non-angled radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Indications This examination is able to assess for medial and lateral displacements of skull fractures, in additio...
Article

Skull (lateral view)

The skull lateral view is a non-angled lateral radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Indications This projection is used to evaluate for skull fractures, in addition to neoplastic changes and Paget diseas...
Article

Skull (PA view)

The skull posteroanterior (PA) view is a non-angled radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region. Indications This examination is able to assess for medial and lateral displacements of skull fractures, in additio...
Article

Skull radiography

Skull radiography is the radiological investigation of the skull vault and associated bony structures. Seldom requested in modern medicine, plain radiography of the skull is often a last resort in trauma imaging in the absence of a CT. However, it is still utilized in the setting of skeletal sur...
Article

Skull (submentovertex view)

The skull submentovertex view is an angled inferosuperior radiograph of the base of skull. As this view involves radiographic positioning that is uncomfortable for the patient and with CT being more sensitive to bony detail, this view is rapidly becoming obsolete. Indications This view is usef...
Article

Subcallosal line

The subcallosal line connects the inferior surface of the genu of the corpus callosum to the inferior surface of the splenium and is used to define an axial plane for imaging of the brain 1.  The alternative AC-PC line is most commonly used, however, the subcallosal plane remains recommended fo...
Article

Transcranial Doppler sonography (ultrasound)

Transcranial​ ​Doppler​ ​(TCD)​, also known as transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) is a sonographic study of intracranial structures and blood vessels, used most commonly to identify the hemodynamic state present in the vertebrobasilar circulation and the circle of Willis.  Termin...

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