Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

19 results found
Article

Abdomen (AP supine view)

The AP supine abdominal radiograph can be performed as a standalone projection or as part of an acute abdominal series, depending on the clinical question posed, local protocol and the availability of other imaging modalities. Indications This view is useful in assessing abdominal pathologies,...
Article

Abdomen (dorsal decubitus view)

The dorsal decubitus view is a supplementary projection often replacing the lateral decubitus view in the context of an unstable patient who is unable to roll nor stand. Used to identify free intraperitoneal gas (pneumoperitoneum). It can be performed when the patient is unable to be transferred...
Article

Abdomen (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus abdominal radiograph is used to identify free intraperitoneal gas (pneumoperitoneum). It can be performed when the patient is unable to be transferred to, or other imaging modalities (e.g. CT) are not available. The most useful position for detecting free intraperitoneal ai...
Article

Abdomen (oblique view)

AP oblique supine radiograph is a projection often used in barium studies and foreign body localization. Indications This view is normally performed when localizing foreign bodies or lines within the abdominal cavity. Additionally, the oblique abdominal series can be utilized in the assessment...
Article

Abdomen (PA erect view)

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is often obtained in conjunction with the AP supine abdominal view in the acute abdominal series of radiographs. The erect abdominal radiograph has virtually disappeared from clinical practice in the United Kingdom, with studies dating back to the 1980s affirmi...
Article

Abdomen (PA prone view)

The PA prone radiograph is rarely performed and is often utilized when a patient is unable to lay supine. The projection is adequate for the examination of the abdominal cavity, however, not as practical for the renal structures due to magnification. Indications This view is useful in visualiz...
Article

Abdomen radiograph (pediatric)

The abdomen radiograph is a commonly requested examination in the pediatric patient. Children that present for abdominal x-rays are often very unwell, therefore specialized techniques and appropriate communication are essential for gaining the child's cooperation.  Indications Performing abdom...
Article

Abdominal radiography

Abdominal radiography can be useful in many settings. Before the advent of computed tomography (CT) imaging, it was a primary means of investigating gastrointestinal pathology and often allowed indirect evaluation of other abdominal viscera. Indications Although abdominal radiography has lower...
Article

Acute abdominal series

The acute abdominal series is a common set of abdominal radiographs obtained to evaluate bowel gas.  Indications The acute series is used for a variety of indications including:  determine the amount of bowel gas, with possible bowel distention assess air-fluid levels query pneumoperitoneum...
Article

Colonic transit study

The colonic transit study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Terminology Various names are used for this type of study including shapes study, colon motility test, Sitz marker study and Transit-PelletsmethodTM, and variations thereof.  Indications In constipation, it ca...
Article

CT abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists CT abdomen is an increasingly common investigation that is used to help make diagnoses of a broad range of pathologies. A CT abdomen in its simplest form is a CT from diaphragm to symphysis pubis performed 60 seconds after ...
Article

CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. Clinical assessment and mechanism of injury may underestimate injury severity by 30% 8. There is some e...
Article

Neonatal abdominal radiograph (supine view)

AP supine radiograph for neonates is a mobile examination performed on the neonatal unit. It can be taken as a standalone projection or as part of a series including a left lateral decubitus x-ray in cases of suspected perforation.  Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back i...
Article

Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiograph abdominal film example 1 example 2: erect and supine example 3: pediatric example 4: pediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies barium ...
Article

Oral cholecystography

Oral cholecystography is a procedure used to image the gallbladder, now largely superseded by ultrasound and MRCP. It was first described by Graham et al. in 1925, using sodium tetraiodophenolphthalein. Although rarely performed now, more modern techniques use other cholegraphic agents such as ...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (AP supine view)

The AP supine abdominal radiograph is a routine view when imaging the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the PA erect and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocols may only perform one view (either t...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (invertogram view)

The invertogram view is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen and is often used exclusively in characterizing anal atresia. However, as this view may be less comfortable for the patient and result in a more technically challenging examination, a more ideal alternative tec...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (prone cross-table lateral view)

The prone cross-table lateral view is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen and is a more ideal alternative to the invertogram, which may be less comfortable for the patient. This discomfort may result in a continuously crying baby, causing the puborectalis sling to contr...
Article

Peroral pneumocolon

Peroral pneumocolon is a technique that can be used during a small bowel follow through (SBFT) to better visualize the ascending colon and terminal ileum. Procedure The goal of a peroral pneumocolon is to create a double contrast study (oral contrast and gas) of the ascending colon and termina...

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