CT polytrauma/multitrauma (also called trauma CT) is an increasingly used test in the patient with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma.
There is some evidence that trauma patients who undergo whole body CT (WBCT) / panscan have better survival than patients who undergo selectiv...
Dacryocystography is fluoroscopic contrast examination of the nasolacrimal apparatus. The duct is cannulated enabling contrast to be instilled into the nasolacrimal system.
The most frequent indication is epiphoria: tearing or watering of the eyes.
Equipment is similar ...
The modified Stenvers view is an oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. It is primarily used to assess electrode placement following the insertion of a cochlear implant. Specifically it assesses the:
integrity, positioning, and dep...
This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality.
For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging
soft tissue: example 1
soft tissue: example 2
Pöschl projection is used in imaging the temporal bone. The plane of projection is perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal bone. In the Pöschl projection the temporal bone is imaged from its anteromedial to posterolateral aspects.
The skull AP view is a nonangled AP radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region.
the back of patient's head is placed against the image detector
the petrous ridge will overlap the lower 1/3 of ...
The Caldwell view is a caudally angled PA radiograph of the skull, designed to better visualise the paranasal sinuses, especially the frontal sinus.
the patient is seated in front of the upright detector
the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector
The skull PA view is a non-angled PA radiograph of the skull. This view provides an overview of the entire skull rather than attempting to highlight any one region.
the patient is erect
the patient's forehead is placed against the image detector allowing for the nose to be in...
The Towne view is an angled AP radiograph of the skull.
the patient's nuchal ridge is placed against the image detector
dorsum sella overlies the foramen magnum
image size: 24 x 30 cm
X-ray beam features
the beam travels anterior to posterior (AP) direction, with ~30-40° o...
The occipitomental (OM) or Waters view is an angled PA radiograph of the skull, with the patient gazing slightly upwards. It can be used to assess for facial fractures, as well as for acute sinusitis. Skull radiographs, in general, are rapidly becoming obsolete, being replaced by much more sensi...
Stenvers view is a oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrode placement following t...
Tc-99m sestamibi is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.
photon energy: 140 KeV
physical half life: 6 hours
normal distribution: thyroid, parathyroid, heart
target organ: colon, kidneys, bladder, gallbladder
Uses, doses and timings
The axiolateral temporomandibular view allows for visualisation of the articular tubercle, mandibular condyle and fossa and is thus useful to identify structural changes and displaced fractures, as well as assess excursion and joint spaces.
Clinical indications include trauma, the presence of ...