Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

192 results found
Article

ABER position

The ABER position relates to MR arthrography of the shoulder joint and is a mnemonic for ABduction and External Rotation. In this position, labral tears are made conspicuous by tightening the inferior glenohumeral labroligamentous complex (which are also the most important glenohumeral ligament...
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Acromioclavicular joint (AP view)

The acromioclavicular AP view is a single projection assessing the patency of the acromioclavicular joint. See also, acromioclavicular joint injuries. Indications The AP view of the acromioclavicular joint is often requested when the referrer either knows about or highly suspects an acromiocl...
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Acromioclavicular joint (AP weight-bearing view)

The acromioclavicular joint AP weight-bearing view, often performed together with the normal non-weight-bearing AP view, helps in ruling out joint displacement when it is suspected but not confirmed on the frontal image. Indications This view is used in the assessment of possible acromioclavic...
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Acromioclavicular joint series

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint radiographic series is used to evaluate the acromioclavicular joint and the distal clavicle. Indications AC radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including:  shoulder trauma direct blows to the shoulder region following a fall onto an adduct...
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ADIR position

The ADIR (ADduction and Internal Rotation) position relates to MR arthrography of the shoulder joint. When added to a neutral-position shoulder protocol, MR arthrography in the ADIR position facilitates the diagnosis of labroligamentous lesions in patients with recurrent shoulder dislocations, ...
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Ankle and foot radiography

Ankle and foot radiography is the plain radiographic investigation of the distal tibia and fibula, the tarsal bones and metatarsals. Radiographic examination of the foot and ankle are often requested together, however, there is a plethora of literature to aid in the correct request of x-ray exam...
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Ankle (AP view)

The ankle AP view is part of a three view series, and visualizes the distal tibia, distal fibula, proximal talus and proximal fifth metatarsal. Indications The true anteroposterior view of the ankle is often performed in the setting of ankle trauma and suspected ankle fractures in addition to ...
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Ankle (horizontal beam lateral view)

The ankle horizontal beam lateral view is a modified lateral view part of a three view ankle series. Indications This projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. It is a highly adaptable projection that can b...
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Ankle (lateral view)

The ankle lateral view is part of a three view ankle series; this projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. Indications This projection aids in evaluating fractures, dislocations and joint effusions surroun...
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Ankle (mortise view)

The ankle AP mortise (mortice is equally correct) view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, talus and proximal 5th metatarsal. Indications This projection is the most pertinent for assessing the articulation of the tibial plafond and two malleoli with the talar do...
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Ankle radiograph (an approach)

Ankle radiographs are frequently performed in emergency departments, usually, after trauma, the radiographic series is comprised of three views: an anteroposterior, mortise, and a lateral. They may be performed to assess degenerative or inflammatory arthritis as well as to look for the sequela o...
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Ankle series

The ankle series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), mortise and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the distal tibia, distal fibula, and the talus; forming the ankle joint. See approach to an ankle series. Indications Ankle radiographs are p...
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Ankle (stress view)

The AP stress view of the ankle is a highly specialized view used to assess the integrity of the syndesmosis and deltoid ligament. It can be performed one of two ways, with gravity or via manual external rotation.  Indications In intermediate ankle injuries that have no syndesmotic widening on...
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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease or Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. Epidemiology Traditional...
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Baumann angle

Baumann angle, also known as the humeral-capitellar angle, is used for the evaluation of the displacement of  pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. It is measured on a frontal radiograph, with elbow in extension. This angle is formed  by the humeral axis and a straight line through the epi...
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Bone age (radiograph)

The bone age radiograph of the hand and wrist is a commonly performed examination to determine the radiographic age of the patient via the assessment of growth centers. Indications Bone age radiographs may be indicated for both clinical and non-clinical purposes 6,7: for the investigation of ...
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Bone scintigraphy

Bone scintigraphy (a.k.a. bone scans) are a nuclear medicine (scintigraphic) study that makes use of technetium-99m (commonly Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP)) as the active agent. The study has three phases which follow intravenous injection of the tracer. Sometimes a fourth (delayed/delay...
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Calcaneus (axial view)

The calcaneus axial view is part of the two view calcaneus series assessing the talocalcaneal joint and plantar aspects of the calcaneus. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has widely been used 1 to better visualize and characterize calcaneum fragment displacements and fracture li...
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Calcaneus (lateral view)

The calcaneus lateral view is part of the two view calcaneus series; this projection is used to assess the calcaneus, talocrural, talonavicular and talocalcaneal joint. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has widely been used 1 to better visualize and characterize calcaneum fragmen...
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Calcaneus series

The calcaneus series is comprised of a lateral and axial (plantodorsal) projection. The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone accounting for ~60% of all tarsal fractures 1. This series provides a two view investigation of the calcaneus alongside the talar articulations and talocal...
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Cervical spine (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, odontoid and lateral images in the cervical spine series and are always done bilaterally for comparison purposes. However, the PA oblique projection is preferred as it reduces radiation dose to the thyroid 1 co...
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Cervical spine (flexion and extension views)

The cervical spine flexion and extension views demonstrate the seven vertebrae of the cervical spine when the patient is in a lateral position. Indications These views are specialized projections often requested to assess for spinal stability. Note, such functional views should not be perform...
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Cervical spine (Fuchs view)

The closed mouth odontoid AP view (Fuchs view) is a non-angled AP radiograph of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). Indications This view focuses primarily on the odontoid process, and is useful in visualizing odontoid and Jefferson fractures. The standard Fuchs view (Figure 1 and 3) should not be used...
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Cervical spine (lateral view)

Cervical spine lateral view is a lateral projection of the cervical spine.  As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has replaced this projection, yet there remain many institutions (especially in rural areas) where CT is not readily available. Indications This projection helps to vis...
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Cervical spine (odontoid view)

The odontoid or 'peg' projection, also known as the open mouth AP projection (or radiograph), is an AP projection of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) with the patient's mouth open. Indications This view focuses primarily on the odontoid process of C2, and is useful in visualizing odontoid and Jefferso...
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Cervical spine (PA oblique view)

The PA oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, odontoid and lateral images in the cervical spine series and are always done bilaterally for comparison purposes. The PA oblique projection is preferred as it reduces radiation dose to the thyroid 1, compared t...
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Clavicle (AP cephalic view)

The clavicle AP cephalic angulation view is a standard projection part of the clavicle series and is often used in conjunction with the AP clavicle view. Indication This projection straightens out the clavicle and projects most of it above the scapula and second and third rib. It can help to d...
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Clavicle (AP view)

The clavicle AP view is a standard projection part of the clavicle series. The projection demonstrates the shoulder in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire clavicle. Indications The AP clavicle is often indicated in patients with suspecte...
Article

Clavicle series

The radiographic series of the clavicle is utilized in emergency departments to assess the clavicle, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint.   Indications Clavicle x-rays are indicated for a variety of settings including: trauma bony tenderness suspected fracture  congenital abnormal...
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Coccyx (AP view)

The coccyx anteroposterior (AP) view is used to demonstrate the coccyx, in conjunction with the sacrum and coccyx (lateral view). Follow departmental protocol in relation to imaging this region.  Indications This projection helps to visualize pathology of the coccyx, especially fractures. To m...
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Computed bone maturity (bone age) measurement

Computed bone age measurement refers to the automatic computer analysis of a left hand radiograph in order to estimate accurately bone age in cases of suspected growth delay.  Function Advanced digital processing of data from automatic computer analysis of the phalangeal/carpal bones and/or ep...
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Contrast media extravasation

Contrast media extravasation (CMEV) refers to the leakage of intravenously-administered contrast media from the normal intravascular compartment into surrounding soft tissues; it is a well-known complication of contrast-enhanced CT scanning. It can also occur in MRI studies, but the complication...
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Densitometric vertebral fracture assessment

Densitometric vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is an image of the lumbar and thoracic spine acquired on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners, for the purpose of diagnosing osteoporotic vertebral fractures.  Terminology The technique is available on DXA scanners under a variety of...
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Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) is a technique used to aid in the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis.  Radiographic features Values are calculated for the lumbar vertebrae and femur preferentially, and if one of those sites is not suitable (e.g. artifact, patient mobility)...
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Ducroquet view of hip

The Ducroquet view is a radiographic projection of the femoral neck with flexed and abducted affected hip joint.1,4 The view can be used for examining cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Patient position Patient is supine; the affected hip joint is flexed on pelvis of 90° and abducted...
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Effect of isolated pronation-supination (lateral wrist radiograph)

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones (namely, the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate). It also examines the radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna....
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Elbow (acute flexion AP)

The elbow acute flexion AP is a modified elbow AP projection for patients who cannot straighten their arm for examination. It is comprised of two views demonstrating the distal humerus and proximal forearm structures Indications  This is a modified projection (chosen by the radiographer when a...
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Elbow (AP view)

The elbow AP view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  The projection demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the articulations of the elbow including the radiohum...
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Elbow (Coyle's view)

The Coyle's view or trauma oblique view of the elbow is an axial projection that is performed in addition to the standard elbow series when there is suspicion of a radial head or capitellum fracture. Indications The Coyle's view is performed for any patient with a suspected radial head fractur...
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Elbow (external oblique view)

The elbow external oblique view is an additional projection of the elbow often used to better demonstrate the radial head free from superposition. Indications This external oblique view is an additional projection often used to separate the proximal radius from the ulna for closer inspection o...
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Elbow (lateral view)

The lateral elbow view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. It is deceptively one of the more technically demanding projections in radiography 1-3. The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna...
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Elbow (medial oblique view)

The elbow medial oblique view is a specialized projection, utilized to demonstrate both the coronoid process in profile and the olecranon process sitting within the olecranon fossa of the humerus. Indications The medial oblique view is not a standard projection of the elbow, however helpful wh...
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Elbow series

The elbow series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections are utilized for specific indications. Indications Elbow x-rays are indicate...
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Elbow series (pediatrics)

The elbow series for pediatrics is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an anteroposterior and lateral projection in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indicati...
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Femoral torsion analysis

Femoral torsion analysis is used to assess the alignment of a femur post-surgery. If one side has been operated on it can be compared to the non-operated side. Method Superimpose axial images of ref: femoral heads the neck of femurs femoral condyles Draw a line from the center of the femor...
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Femur (AP view)

The anteroposterior femur view is part of a standard series examining the femur in its entirety, including the hip and knee joint. Due to the limitations of the image detector, these projections are often performed in two images per view to ensure inclusion of both knee and hip joints. Indicati...
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Femur (lateral view)

The lateral femur view is part of a standard series examining the femur in its entirety, including the hip and knee joint. Due to the limitations of the image detector, these projections are often performed in two images per view to ensure inclusion of both knee and hip joints. Indications Thi...
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Finger (oblique view)

Finger oblique view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers.  Indications The oblique view s not required for follow-up studies, or 'query foreign body' unless specifically requested. It is, however, a very useful projection in the acute setting and should be includ...
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Finger (PA view)

Finger PA view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers; it is one of three views of the finger series.  Indications This projection is best to access the joint spaces and distal, middle and proximal phalanx in the AP plane. It is not advisable to only obtain one vie...
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Finger series

The finger series is comprised, conventionally of a posteroanterior, oblique and a lateral view. The series examines in detail the distal, middle and proximal phalanx as well as the interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joints.  Note: the thumb (first digit) reviewed under th...
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Fingers (lateral view)

Finger lateral view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers; it is one of three views of the finger series. it is divided into: lateral index and middle fingers lateral of ring and little fingers Indications The lateral projection is an ideal projection to assess ...
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Foot (dorsoplantar view)

The dorsoplantar view is part of a three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Indications This view demonstrates the location and extent of fractures in the foot, joint space abnormalities, soft tissue effusions and is the frontal view for t...
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Foot (lateral view)

The lateral foot projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot. This view additionally examines the talocrural joint. Indications This view is useful in the assessment for joint abnormalities, determining the degree of d...
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Foot (medial oblique view)

The medial oblique projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Indications This view demonstrates the location and extent of fractures in the foot and joint space abnormalities. It is also used in the determination o...
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Foot series

The foot series is comprised of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilized in emergency departments after trauma or sports related injuries 2,4. See: approach to foot series. Indications Foot radiographs are performed for a variety of indicatio...
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Foot (weightbearing dorsoplantar view)

The weightbearing dorsoplantar foot radiograph is a specialized projection of the foot. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. DP foot) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment because the bones of the feet are not in a functional position. Indications This view is key to the assessment of foot a...
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Foot (weightbearing lateral view)

The weightbearing lateral foot radiograph is important in the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. lateral foot) would be inadequate for the assessment of alignment as the bones of the feet are not in ...
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Forearm (AP view)

The forearm AP view is one of two standard projections in the forearm series to assess the radius and ulna. Indications This view demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for assessment of suspected dislocations or fractures and localizing foreign bodies within ...
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Forearm (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral forearm view is one of two modified trauma projections in the forearm series, examining the radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard forearm positioning technique but require assessment of sus...
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Forearm (lateral view)

Forearm lateral view is one of two standard projections in the forearm series to assess the radius and ulna. Indications This view allows for the assessment of suspected dislocations or fractures and localizing foreign bodies within the forearm. Patient position patient is seated alongside t...
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Forearm (PA view)

The posteroanterior forearm view is one of two modified trauma projections in the forearm series, examining the radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard forearm positioning technique but require assessment of suspected r...
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Forearm series

The forearm series is comprised of an anteroposterior and lateral projection. The series examines the entire radius and ulna including articulations distally and proximal. Typically requested for midshaft injuries, the forearm series is not a 'two-for-one' projection of the wrist and the elbow j...
Article

Forearm series (pediatrics)

The forearm series for pediatrics comprises an anteroposterior and lateral projection. These projections examine the entire radius and ulna including the distal and proximal articulations. Indications Forearm x-rays are indicated for a variety of settings including: trauma bony tenderness s...
Article

Gluteoplasty

A gluteoplasty, also called gluteal augmentation, is a surgical procedure performed to improve the shape and the size of the buttocks. Indications A cosmetic desire to boost the volume and shape of the buttocks. Surgical technique Many types of procedures are performed 1: subfascial gluteal...
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Hand (ball-catcher view)

The ball-catcher view, Nørgaard projection, or posterior oblique view of both hands is an additional projection of the routine hand series. Indications The ball-catcher view is typically undertaken to assess for erosive arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis. It often complements the bilat...
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Hand (bilateral PA view)

The bilateral PA view is merely a single film that includes both hands, side by side.  Indications This view often complements the ball-catcher view and is performed almost exclusively to examine for evidence of rheumatological disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic ar...
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Hand (lateral view)

The lateral hand view is an orthogonal view taken along with the PA view of the hand. Indications The lateral hand view is requested for diagnosing a variety of clinical indications such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, suspected fracture or dislocation and localizing foreign bodies.  ...
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Hand (oblique view)

The hand oblique view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Indications The oblique hand view is requested for diagnosing a variety of clinical indications such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, suspected fracture or dislocatio...
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Hand (PA view)

The Hand PA view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Indications The PA hand view is requested for diagnosing a variety of clinical indications such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, suspected fracture or dislocation and loca...
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Hand series

The hand series consists of posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projections. Although additional radiographs can be taken for specific indications. The series primarily examines the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints, the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. Indications Hand x-rays ar...
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Hand series (pediatric)

The hand series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indication, an additional oblique view may also be done. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected di...
Article

Hip (AP view)

The AP hip is part of a radiographic series examining the anatomy of the hip joint and proximal femur. Indications This view helps to visualize any potential fractures, dislocations, bone lesions or degenerative diseases to the hip joint. It is also often requested in post-operative examinatio...
Article

Hip (Clements-Nakayama view)

The Clements-Nakayama view of the hip is a highly specialized lateral projection utilized on patients with bilateral femoral fractures, or patients unable to mobilize due to postoperative requirements. When performed correctly the projection can yield images of a high diagnostic quality comparab...
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Hip (Dunn view)

The Dunn view is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates and examines the hip joint, femoral head, acetabulum, and particularly the relationship of the femoral head and acetabulum. Indications The Dunn view is the preferred projection to aid in the diagnosis of femoroacetabular ...
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Hip (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral hip radiograph or shoot through hip is in the purest terms the orthogonal view of the neck of the femur to the AP projection 1. Indications The projection is used to assess the neck of the femur in profile during the investigation of a suspected neck of femur fractu...
Article

Hip (lateral view)

The lateral hip view is a radiographic projection assessing the relationship of the femoral head to the acetabulum. Indications This view assesses the hip joint for any potential fractures, dislocations, bone lesions or degenerative diseases (i.e. suspected osteoarthritis of the hip) in an ort...
Article

Hip series

The hip series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiograph of the hip joint. The series is requested for a myriad of reasons from trauma to atraumatic hip pain. Indications Hip radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including 1-3:  trauma hip pain abnormal...
Article

Hip (Von Rosen view)

The Von Rosen view also known as the abduction-internal rotation view (AIR view) is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates the relationship between the femoral head and the acetabulum. Indications The von Rosen view is used in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip...
Article

Humeral neck (AP view)

AP view for neck of humerus is taken to look for fracture in the neck of humerus. Patient position patient can stand or lay down facing the X-ray tube  the dorsal aspect of shoulder of the affected side is kept in contact with the cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a ...
Article

Humerus (AP view)

The AP view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire hume...
Article

Humerus (lateral view)

The lateral view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in a standing position. However, it can also be taken in the supine position in the acute, trauma setting. The projection demonstrates the humerus in the lateral position allowing for adequate radiographic examin...
Article

Humerus radiographic series

The humerus series is comprised of an AP and lateral radiograph, utilized primarily in trauma, but also in the evaluation of bone tumors. Indications trauma: fracture neck of humerus/shaft of humerus fractures bone tumor detection Projections The two standard projections allow two views of ...
Article

Humerus series

The humerus series is usually used for the detection of traumatic injury to the shaft of the humerus. Indications Humerus radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including:  trauma  bony tenderness at the glenohumeral joint/region  restriction of abduction  suspected disloca...
Article

Humerus (supracondylar AP view)

AP view for supracondylar aspect of humerus may be taken to look for supracondylar fracture. Patient position patient stands facing the X-ray tube with the posterior aspect of arm in contact with cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a horizontal beam is employed centere...
Article

Knee (AP view)

The knee anteroposterior view is a standard projection to assess the knee joint, distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the patella. Indications This view demonstrates the distal femur and proximal tibia/fibula in their natural anatomical position allowing for assessment of suspected disl...
Article

Knee (AP weight-bearing view)

The knee AP weight-bearing view is a specialized projection to assess the knee joint, distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the patella.  Indications Knee AP weight-bearing views will often be used in the context of orthopedic appointments to assess the alignment and degree of arthropath...
Article

Knee (Beclere method intercondylar view)

The Béclere method intercondylar view is an additional projection of the knee, used to better examine the tibial plateau and femoral intercondylar spaces. It is anecdotally known as a 'notch view'. Indication The commonest indications for this additional knee view is for the assessment of a lo...
Article

Knee (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral view (cross-table lateral) is an orthogonal view of the AP view of the knee requiring little to no patient movement and is hence the lateral projection of choice for acute knee injuries. Indications This view is the ideal projection to assess for lipohemarthrosis as...
Article

Knee (lateral view)

The lateral knee view is an orthogonal view of the AP view of the knee. The projection requires the patient to 'roll' onto the side of their knee, hence it is not an appropriate projection in trauma, in all suspected traumatic injuries of the knee, the horizontal beam lateral method should be ut...
Article

Knee (oblique view)

The knee oblique view is an additional projection requested to examine the knee joint in greater detail, often in the absence of a CT scanner. The view is comprised of both an internal and external oblique. Indications The internal and external oblique views of the knee can showcase pathology ...
Article

Knee (Rosenberg view)

The Rosenberg view of the knees is a specialized series often used to detect early signs of osteoarthritis. It should be the initial study for any patient with a suspicion of knee osteoarthritis. Indications The Rosenberg view is performed for any patient with a suspicion of knee osteoarthriti...
Article

Knee series

The knee series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate knee joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections can be used for specific indications. See also knee radiograph (an approach). ...
Article

Knee (skyline Laurin view)

The knee skyline Laurin view is an inferior-superior projection of the patella. It is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. Indication This view is used in trauma to assess for a patellar fracture or subluxation and in orthopedics for patellofemoral joint ...

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