Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

128 results found
Article

ABER position

The ABER position relates to MR arthrography of the shoulder joint and is a mnemonic for ABduction and External Rotation. In this position, labral tears are made conspicuous by tightening the inferior glenohumeral labroligamentous complex (which are also the most important glenohumeral ligament...
Article

Acromioclavicular joint series

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint radiographic series is a used to evaluate the acromioclavicular joint and the distal clavicle. Indications AC radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including:  shoulder trauma direct blows to the should region following a fall onto adducted ...
Article

ADIR position

The ADIR (ADduction and Internal Rotation) position relates to MR arthrography of the shoulder joint. When added to a neutral-position shoulder protocol, MR arthrography in the ADIR position facilitates the diagnosis of labroligamentous lesions in patients with recurrent shoulder dislocations, ...
Article

Ankle (AP view)

Ankle AP view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, proximal talus and proximal metatarsals. Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes will be pointing directly toward...
Article

Ankle (lateral view)

Ankle lateral view is part of a three view ankle series; this projection is used to assess the distal tibia and fibula, talus, navicular, cuboid, the base of the 5th metatarsal and calcaneus. Patient position patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the kn...
Article

Ankle (mortise view)

Ankle AP mortise view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, talus and proximal metatarsals. It is the most pertinent projection for assessing the articulation of the tibial plafond and two malleoli with the talar dome, otherwise known as the mortise joint of the ankl...
Article

Ankle series

The ankle series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), mortise and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the distal tibia, distal fibula, and the talus; forming the ankle joint. See approach to an ankle series. Indications Ankle radiographs are p...
Article

Baumann angle

Baumann angle, also known as the humeral-capitellar angle, is used for the evaluation of the displacement of  paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. It is measured on a frontal radiograph, with elbow in extension. This angle is formed  by the humeral axis and a straight line through the ep...
Article

Bouchard node

Bouchard nodes are a clinical sign relating to bony nodules of the the proximal interphalangeal joints, and are much less common than Heberden nodes. They generally (but not always) correspond to palpable osteophytes. Clinical presentation They are sometimes painful, and are typically associat...
Article

Calcaneus (axial view)

Calcaneus axial view is part of the two view calcaneus series, this projection is best used to asses the talocalcaneal joint and plantar aspects of the calcaneus. The axial view has a diagnostic sensitivity of 87% for calcaneus fractures 1.  Patient position patient is supine or seated with th...
Article

Calcaneus (lateral view)

Calcaneus lateral view is part of the two view calcaneus series; this projection is used to assess the calcaneus, talocrural, talonavicular and talocalcaneal joint. Patient position the patient is in a lateral recumbent position on the table the lateral aspect of the knee and ankle joint shou...
Article

Calcaneus series

The calcaneus series is comprised of a lateral and axial (plantodorsal) projection. The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone accounting for ~60% of all tarsal fractures 1. This series provides a two view investigation of the calcaneus alongside the talar articulations and talocal...
Article

Cervical spine (flexion-extension views)

Cervical spine flexion-extension lateral views are specialised projections of the cervical spine often requested to assess for spinal stability. Cervical spine flexion-extension lateral views should not be performed on trauma patients without strict instructions of a qualified clinician. Patie...
Article

Cervical spine (Fuchs view)

The closed mouth odontoid AP view (Fuchs view) is a nonangled AP radiograph of C1 and C2. This view focuses primarily on the odontoid process. The standard Fuchs view should not be used in a trauma setting and the modified Fuchs view may be used instead. Patient position supine or erect head...
Article

Cervical spine (lateral view)

Cervical spine lateral view is a lateral projection of the cervical spine. It is often performed in the setting of trauma. As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has replaced this projection, yet there remain many institutions (especially in rural areas) where CT is not readily availa...
Article

Cervical spine (odontoid view)

The odontoid or 'peg' projection is an AP projection of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). Patient position patient positioned erect in AP position unless trauma the patient will be supine patient’s shoulders should be at equal distances from the image receptor to avoid rotation, the head facing strai...
Article

Clavicle (AP cephalic view)

The clavicle AP cephalic angulation view is a standard projection part of the clavicle series. Often used in conjunction with the AP clavicle, this projection straightens out the clavicle and projects it above overlaying anatomy. Patient position patient is preferably erect midcoronal plane o...
Article

Clavicle (AP view)

The clavicle AP view is a standard projection part of the clavicle series. The projection demonstrates the shoulder in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire clavicle, as well as the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints of the should...
Article

Clavicle series

The radiographic series of the clavicle is utilised in emergency departments to assess the clavicle, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint.   Indications Clavicle x-rays are indicated for a variety of settings including: trauma bony tenderness suspected fracture  congenital abnormal...
Article

Coccyx (AP view)

The coccyx AP view is used to demonstrate the coccyx, in conjunction with the sacrum and coccyx (lateral view). Follow departmental protocol in relation to imaging this region.  Patient position the radiograph is performed with the patient in a supine position, with arms placed comfortably by ...
Article

Computed bone maturity (bone age) measurement

Computed bone age measurement refers to the automatic computer analysis of a left hand radiograph in order to estimate accurately bone age in cases of suspected growth delay.  Function Advanced digital processing of data from automatic computer analysis of the phalangeal/carpal bones and/ or e...
Article

Contrast media extravasation

Contrast media extravasation (CMEV) refers to the leakage of contrast media from the normal intravascular compartment into surrounding soft tissues; It is a well-known complication of contrast-enhanced CT scanning. It can also occur in MRI studies, but the complications are rare given the low vo...
Article

Densitometric vertebral fracture assessment

Densitometric vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is an image of the lumbar and thoracic spine acquired on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners, for the purpose of diagnosing osteoporotic vertebral fractures.  Terminology The technique is available on DXA scanners under a variety of...
Article

Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a technique used to aid in the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis.  Radiographic features Values are calculated for the lumbar vertebrae and femur preferentially, and if one of those sites is not suitable (e.g. artifact, patient mobility, histor...
Article

Effect of isolated pronation-supination (lateral wrist radiograph)

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones (namely, the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate). It also examines the radiocarpal joint along with the distal radius and ulna....
Article

Elbow (AP view)

The elbow AP view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  The projection demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the articulations of the elbow including the radiohum...
Article

Elbow (lateral view)

The lateral elbow view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. It is deceptively one of the more technically demanding projections in radiography 1-3. The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna...
Article

Elbow series

The elbow series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections are utilised for specific indications. Indications Elbow x-rays are indicate...
Article

Femoral torsion analysis

Femoral torsion analysis is used to assess the alignment of a femur post surgery. If one side has been operated on it can be compared to the non-operated side. Method Superimpose axial images of: femoral heads the neck of femurs femoral condyles Draw a line from the centre of the femoral h...
Article

Finger (oblique view)

Finger oblique view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers. It is not required for follow-up studies for 'query Foreign Body' unless specifically requested. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table (similar to a projection of hand) from a pronated po...
Article

Finger (PA view)

Finger PA view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers; it is one of three views of the finger series.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table (similar to the projection of hand) palmar aspect of pronated hand is placed over detector and extended fi...
Article

Finger series

The finger series is comprised, conventionally of a posteroanterior, oblique and a lateral view. The series examines in detail the distal, middle and proximal phalanx as well as the interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joints.  Note: the thumb (first digit) reviewed under th...
Article

Fingers (lateral view)

Finger lateral view is a standard projection for radiographic assessment of the fingers; it is one of three views of the finger series. it is divided into: lateral index and middle fingers lateral of ring and little fingers Patient position Lateral of index and middle fingers patient seated...
Article

Foot (dorsoplantar view)

The dorsoplantar view is part of a three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is resting o...
Article

Foot (lateral view)

The lateral projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  The lateral projection additionally examines the talocrural joint. Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort  the affected le...
Article

Foot (medial oblique view)

The medial oblique projection is part of the three view series examining the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones that make up the foot.  Patient position the patient may be supine or upright depending on comfort the affected leg must be flexed enough that the plantar aspect of the foot is...
Article

Foot series

The foot series is comprised of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique, and a lateral projection. The series is often utilised in emergency departments after trauma or sports related injuries 2,4. See: approach to foot series. Indications Foot radiographs are performed for a variety of indicatio...
Article

Foot (weightbearing dorsiplantar view)

The weightbearing dorsiplantar foot radiograph is a specialised projection of the foot. It is key to the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. DP foot) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment be...
Article

Foot (weightbearing lateral)

The weightbearing lateral foot radiograph is important in the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. oblique foot radiograph) are inadequate for the assessment of alignment because the bones of the feet ...
Article

Forearm (AP view)

Forearm AP view is a standard projection to assess radius and ulna. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table forearm is supinated, and its dorsal surface is kept in contact with the cassette with extension at the elbow joint both elbow joint and wrist joints are also kept in co...
Article

Forearm (lateral view)

Forearm lateral view is a standard projection to assess radius and ulna. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table elbow is flexed to 90 degrees and the medial aspect of the wrist, forearm and elbow joint are placed in contact with cassette shoulder, elbow and wrist should be in...
Article

Forearm series

The forearm series is comprised of an anteroposterior and lateral projection. The series examines the entire radius and ulna including articulations distally and proximal. Typically requested for mid shaft injuries, the forearm series is not a 'two-for-one' projection of the wrist and the elbow ...
Article

Fowler-Philip angle

The Fowler-Philip angle reflects the relation of the inferior calcaneus to the posterior calcaneus. Measurement It is an angle measured on the lateral view of a loaded foot; formed between 2 lines: a line tangent to the posterosuperior border of the calcaneus and the calcaneal tuberosity. a ...
Article

Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
Article

Gymnast wrist

Gymnast wrist is a term that used to describe variety of chronic overuse injuries of the wrist in gymnasts with immature skeleton. Gymnast wrist is a combined of osseous and ligamentous injury and usually manifests as a chronic Salter-Harris type I fracture of the distal radial physis on radiogr...
Article

Hand (ball-catcher view)

The Nørgaard projection is also known as the ball-catcher view or posterior oblique view of both hands. It is an additional projection of the routine hand series. The ball-catcher view is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis.  Patient position patient may be seated alongside...
Article

Hand (bilateral PA view)

The bilateral PA view often compliments the ball-catcher view. It is often done to investigate signs of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Patient position patient may be seated alongside or facing the table both hands are pronated with their palmer surfaces placed on the detector  Tec...
Article

Hand (lateral view)

The lateral hand view is an orthogonal view taken along with the PA view of the hand. Often an additional projection, the lateral view is used primarily to assess for foreign bodies and/or displacement of fractures/dislocations. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table hand is e...
Article

Hand (oblique view)

The hand oblique view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the hand is rotated externall...
Article

Hand (PA view)

The Hand PA view is part of a two view series metacarpals, phalanges, carpal bones and distal radial ulnar joint.  Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible is flexed at 90° so the arm and hand can rest on the table the affected hand is placed, palm ...
Article

Hand series

The hand series consists of a posteroanterior and oblique projection, although additional radiographs can be taken for specific indications. The series primarily examines the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints, the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges. Indications Hand x-rays are indicate...
Article

Hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view is a special radiographic of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Bilateral examination allows for better visualisation of the hip joints and femoral neck, and therefore is an important view in the assessment of:  slipped capital femoral epiphysis Perthes disease Patient ...
Article

Hip (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral hip radiograph or shoot through hip is the in the purist terms the orthogonal view of the neck of the femur to the AP projection 1,3. The projection is used to assess the neck of the femur in profile during the investigation of a suspected neck of femur fracture 2. ...
Article

Hip (von Rosen view)

The von Rosen view is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates the relationship between the femoral head and the acetabulum. The von Rosen view is used in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in paediatric patients. This view forces dislocation of the affected hip(s...
Article

Humeral neck (AP view)

AP view for neck of humerus is taken to look for fracture in the neck of humerus. Patient position patient can stand or lay down facing the X-ray tube  the dorsal aspect of shoulder of the affected side is kept in contact with the cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a ...
Article

Humerus (AP view)

AP view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in standing position. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire humerus ...
Article

Humerus (lateral view)

Lateral view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in standing position. However, it can also be taken in the supine position. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire hume...
Article

Humerus radiographic series

The humerus series is comprised of an AP and lateral radiograph, utilised primarily in trauma, but also in the evaluation of bone tumours. Indications trauma: fracture neck of humerus / shaft of humerus fractures bone tumour detection Projections The two standard projections allows two view...
Article

Humerus series

The humerus series is usually used for the detection of traumatic injury to the shaft of the humerus. Indications Humerus radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including:  trauma  bony tenderness at the glenohumeral joint/region  restriction of abduction  suspected disloca...
Article

Humerus (supracondylar AP view)

AP view for supracondylar aspect of humerus may be taken to look for supracondylar fracture. Patient position patient stands facing the X-ray tube with the posterior aspect of arm in contact with cassette (placed on a vertical stand) X-ray beam features a horizontal beam is employed centred...
Article

Iliofemoral line

The Iliofemoral line is traced on an AP pelvis projection. It is a curvilinear line, along the outer surface of the ilium, through the superior acetabular rim and the femoral neck. It should be bilaterally symmetrical. Asymmetry may be the result of congenital dysplasia, slipped femoral capital...
Article

Knee (AP view)

The Knee AP view is a standard projection to assess the knee joint, distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the patella.  Patient position patient is supine on the table with the knee and ankle joint in contact with the table leg is extended ensure the knee is not rotated Technical fact...
Article

Knee (Beclere method intercondylar view)

The Beclere method intercondylar view is an additional projection of the knee, used to better examine the tibial plateau and femoral intercondylar spaces. It is anecdotally known as a 'notch view' Patient position patient is supine on the table with the knee flexed 40 degrees  image receptor ...
Article

Knee (Rosenberg view)

The Rosenberg view of the knees is a specialised series often used to detect early signs of osteoarthritis. It should be the initial study for any patient with a suspicion of knee osteoarthritis. It consists of a PA radiograph with weight bearing and 45 degrees of knee flexion. It is more sensi...
Article

Knee series

The knee series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate knee joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections can be used for specific indications. See also knee radiograph (an approach). ...
Article

Knee (skyline Laurin view)

The knee skyline Laurin view is an inferior-superior projection of the patella. It is one of many different methods to obtain an axial projection of the patella. This projection is best suited to patients able to maintain a semi-recumbent position on the examination table. Patient position the...
Article

Lower limb radiography

Lower limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the pelvis, hip joint, femur, knee joint, tibia, fibula, ankle joint, tarsal bones of the foot and metatarsals. It is often utilised in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. 
Article

Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine AP view images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is erect or supine, depending on clinical history ideally, spinal imaging sho...
Article

Lumbar spine (flexion and extension views)

The lumbar spine flexion and extension views images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. They are specialised projection, assessing for instability of the lumbar spine often in the context of spondylolisthesis.  Patient position the patient is positioned erect: ideally, spinal i...
Article

Lumbar spine (lateral view)

The lumbar spine lateral view images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. It is utilised in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions.  Patient position the patient is positioned erect, supine or lateral recumbent, depending on clinical h...
Article

Lumbar spine (oblique view)

The lumbar spine oblique view is used to visualise the articular facets and pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine.  Patient position the radiographs can be performed with the patient in the erect or supine position erect  two radiographs performed with patient at RAO 35-45°  and LAO 35-4...
Article

Maquet view

A maquet view is a type of radiographic projection of the lower limbs. They are a well established method of determining the axial alignment of the lower limb in the coronal plane and are of particular use in assessment of total knee replacements. Radiographic assessment Construct the weight ...
Article

Normal lower limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the lower limb, divided by region and modality. Pelvic girdle plain radiograph pelvis example 1: frontal example 2: frontal (young adult) example 3: paediatric example 4: paediatric (9 months, 11 months, and older child) example 5: trauma sup...
Article

Normal spine imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the spine and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Cervical spine plain films example 1: AP, lat, obliques only example 2: PEG view example 3: flexion and extension views only example 4: paediatric - 12 years old example ...
Article

Normal upper limb imaging examples

This page lists examples of normal imaging of the upper limb, divided by region and modality. Shoulder girdle plain films sternoclavicular joint: example clavicle: example, example 2, example 3 acromioclavicular joint example 1 example 2 shoulder example 1: with Y view example 1: axial...
Article

Orthogonal projection

The orthogonal projection (or view) is, by definition, a radiographic projection obtained 90 degrees to the original view. It forms the basic requirements of a 'radiographic series', that being 'two orthogonal projections of the region of interest' Acute imaging  Cases can appear normal in one...
Article

Patellar translation (TT-TG distance)

Patellar translation (TT-TG distance) is an analysis performed by overlapping or superimposing axial images of the femoral condyles and tibial tuberosity. The measurements are used to quantify patellar instability. Method žSuperimpose axial images of: —femoral condyles —tibial tuberosity žD...
Article

Pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1.  Patient position patient is supine ...
Article

Pelvis (flamingo view)

The flamingo view series of the pelvis is a specialised orthopaedic series consisting of three separate pelvis projections. It is used for assessing instability of the pubic symphysis, often in the context of previous pelvic trauma. This projection should only be performed under specialist supe...
Article

Pelvis (inlet view)

The AP inlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1. This particular view is perpendicular t...
Article

Pelvis (Judet view)

The oblique pelvis otherwise known as the Judet view is an additional projection to the pelvic series when there is suspicion of an acetabular fracture. The Judet view is comprised of two projections, first the iliac oblique for assessment of the posterior column and anterior wall of the acetab...
Article

Pelvis (outlet view)

The AP outlet view is part of a pelvic series examining the iliac crest, sacrum, proximal femur, pubis, ischium and the great pelvic ring. It is of considerable importance in the management of severely injured patients presenting to emergency departments 1-5.  This particular view allows for ass...
Article

Pelvis series

The pelvis series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) with additional projections based on indications and pathology. The series is used most in emergency departments during the evaluation of multi-trauma patients due to the complex anatomy the AP projection covers. The pelvis series examin...
Article

Pilon fracture

A pilon fracture is a type of fracture involving the distal tibia. These are considered to represent 1-10% of all lower limb fractures 6.  Mechanism Typically occurs as a result of an axial loading injury which drives the talus into the tibial plafond. Classification Several classification s...
Article

Pöschl projection

Pöschl projection is used in imaging the temporal bone. The plane of projection is perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal bone. In the Pöschl projection the temporal bone is imaged from its anteromedial to posterolateral aspects. See also Stenvers view
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP oblique view)

The AP Oblique view of the sacroiliac joint is one projection that makes up the sacroiliac series. Both sides of the SIJs are examined for comparison. Patient position patient positioned supine on the imaging table with legs extended elevate the side of interest approximately 25 to 30 de...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA sacrum view)

The PA Sacrum projection is a useful part of the sacroiliac series. Due to the shallow obliquity of the sacroiliac joints, the prone position allows the diverging x-ray beam to project through the joint space giving better visualisation of the joint compared to the AP projection 1 Patient posit...
Article

Sacroiliac joints (posterior oblique view)

The sacroiliac posterior oblique view is used to demonstrate the sacroiliac joints in an open profile. It is commonly used in conjunction with the sacroiliac AP view. Clinical indications include sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis 1.  Patient position patient is positioned in an oblique ...
Article

Sacrum and coccyx (lateral view)

The sacrum and coccyx lateral view is utilised to demonstrate the most distal region of the spine in a lateral position. It is commonly used in conjunction with the AP projection or can be used as a sole projection, depending on department protocols. It is used to demonstrate sacrum and coccyx a...
Article

Sacrum (AP view)

The sacrum AP view is used to demonstrate the sacrum and its articulations. It can be utilised in the event of trauma, or for evaluating degenerative change 1. The efficacy of this radiographical projection is debatable, with radiographers encouraged to follow department protocol when imaging th...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification

Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. gro...
Article

Scaphoid (lateral view)

The scaphoid lateral view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid in the orthogonal plane. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possible ...
Article

Scaphoid (PA axial view)

The scaphoid PA axial view is part of a four view series of the scaphoid, wrist and surrounding carpal bones. It is a complementary projection to the PA view demonstrating the scaphoid free from superimposition. Patient position patient is seated alongside the table the affected arm if possib...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.