Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

54 results found
Article

Abdomen radiograph (pediatric)

The abdomen radiograph is a commonly requested examination in the pediatric patient. Children that present for abdominal x-rays are often very unwell, therefore specialized techniques and appropriate communication are essential for gaining the child's cooperation.  Indications Performing abdom...
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Baumann angle

Baumann angle, also known as the humeral-capitellar angle, is used for the evaluation of the displacement of  pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. It is measured on a frontal radiograph, with elbow in extension. This angle is formed  by the humeral axis and a straight line through the epi...
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Bone age (radiograph)

The bone age radiograph of the hand and wrist is a commonly performed examination to determine the radiographic age of the patient via the assessment of growth centers. Indications Bone age radiographs may be indicated for both clinical and non-clinical purposes 6,7: for the investigation of ...
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Chest radiograph (pediatric)

The chest radiograph is one of the most commonly requested radiographic examinations in the assessment of the pediatric patient. Depending on the patients' age, the difficulty of the examination will vary, often requiring a specialist trained radiographer familiar with a variety of distraction a...
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Colonic transit study

The colonic transit study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Terminology Various names are used for this type of study including shapes study, colon motility test, Sitz marker study and Transit-PelletsmethodTM, and variations thereof.  Indications In constipation, it ca...
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Computed bone maturity (bone age) measurement

Computed bone age measurement refers to the automatic computer analysis of a left hand radiograph in order to estimate accurately bone age in cases of suspected growth delay.  Function Advanced digital processing of data from automatic computer analysis of the phalangeal/carpal bones and/or ep...
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Elbow series (pediatrics)

The elbow series for pediatrics is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an anteroposterior and lateral projection in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indicati...
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Finger series (pediatric)

The f​inger series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indication, an additional oblique view may also be done. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected...
Article

Foot (weightbearing lateral view)

The weightbearing lateral foot radiograph is important in the assessment of foot alignment and the diagnosis of abnormalities that cause malalignment and foot pain. Nonweightbearing views (e.g. lateral foot) would be inadequate for the assessment of alignment as the bones of the feet are not in ...
Article

Forearm series (pediatrics)

The forearm series for pediatrics comprises an anteroposterior and lateral projection. These projections examine the entire radius and ulna including the distal and proximal articulations. Indications Forearm x-rays are indicated for a variety of settings including: trauma bony tenderness s...
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Foreign body ingestion series (pediatric)

The suspected foreign body ingestion series is a set of radiographs utilized to detect and identify foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. It involves an AP and lateral radiograph of the neck, chest, and abdomen ensuring adequate coverage of the entire gastrointestinal tract 1. Patient p...
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Foreign body inhalation series (pediatric)

The suspected foreign body inhalation series although not a primary port of investigation aims to detect and identify both foreign bodies or the secondary signs of inhaled foreign bodies 1. It involves a frontal chest radiograph in both the inspiration and expiratory phases and, in some cases, b...
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Hand series (pediatric)

The hand series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indication, an additional oblique view may also be done. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected di...
Article

Hip series

The hip series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiograph of the hip joint. The series is requested for a myriad of reasons from trauma to atraumatic hip pain. Indications Hip radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including 1-3:  trauma hip pain abnormal...
Article

Hip (Von Rosen view)

The Von Rosen view also known as the abduction-internal rotation view (AIR view) is a radiographic projection of the hip that demonstrates the relationship between the femoral head and the acetabulum. Indications The von Rosen view is used in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip...
Article

Lateral finger (pediatric)

The lateral finger view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest. The patient position can vary depending on which finger is being imaged.  Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing f...
Article

Neonatal abdominal radiograph (supine view)

AP supine radiograph for neonates is a mobile examination performed on the neonatal unit. It can be taken as a standalone projection or as part of a series including a left lateral decubitus x-ray in cases of suspected perforation.  Patient position the patient is supine, lying on their back i...
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Neonate chest (supine view)

The supine chest view of the neonatal patient is a common radiographic examination when examining preterm patients 1. Although not overall technically demanding, the radiographer should allocate time to ensure little to no repeats are required. Research surrounding the technical evaluation and ...
Article

Oblique finger (pediatric)

The oblique finger view for pediatrics is an additional view examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest.  Indications To minimize radiation dose, only the PA and lateral finger views are typically performed for pediatrics. However, the obli...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (AP supine view)

The AP supine abdominal radiograph is a routine view when imaging the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the PA erect and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocols may only perform one view (either t...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (invertogram view)

The invertogram view is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen and is often used exclusively in characterizing anal atresia. However, as this view may be less comfortable for the patient and result in a more technically challenging examination, a more ideal alternative tec...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus radiograph is an additional projection for assessing the pediatric abdomen. This view is ideal for displaying free air in the abdomen and/or if the patient is unable to lie supine 1. As radiation dose is an important consideration for pediatric imaging, the lateral decubitu...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (PA erect view)

The PA erect abdominal radiograph is the standard view for assessing air-fluid levels and free air in the pediatric abdomen. This view may be taken alongside the AP supine and lateral decubitus views. As radiation protection is an essential consideration in pediatrics, some departmental protocol...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (prone cross-table lateral view)

The prone cross-table lateral view is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen and is a more ideal alternative to the invertogram, which may be less comfortable for the patient. This discomfort may result in a continuously crying baby, causing the puborectalis sling to contr...
Article

Pediatric abdomen (supine cross-table lateral view)

The supine cross-table lateral view is an additional projection to demonstrate the pediatric abdomen. As radiation dose is an important consideration for pediatric imaging, the horizontal beam lateral view is not often performed; although this will vary based on the department. Indications Thi...
Article

Pediatric chest (AP erect view)

The anteroposterior erect chest view is ideal in younger cooperative pediatric patients (approximately 3-7 years old; this age range is only a guide). This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. Indications  The AP erect view is often chosen over th...
Article

Pediatric chest (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam (cross-table) pediatric lateral chest view is a modified lateral projection often utilized in populations under the age of 6 months old due to the inability of that patient to independently hold up their head. Indications A lateral radiograph helps confirm the presence of a...
Article

Pediatric chest (lateral view)

The pediatric lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. T Indications The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly u...
Article

Pediatric chest (supine view)

In pediatric imaging, the anteroposterior supine chest x-ray is beneficial for imaging unconscious or uncooperative patients. Indications This view is preferred in infant and neonate imaging, whilst AP erect and PA erect views are ideal for children able to cooperate in sitting or standing 1. ...
Article

Pediatric elbow (AP view)

The anteroposterior elbow view for pediatrics is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  Indications The projection demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the articula...
Article

Pediatric elbow (horizontal beam AP view)

The horizontal beam anteroposterior elbow view for pediatrics is an alternative projection to the anteroposterior view in the elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard ...
Article

Pediatric elbow (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral elbow view for pediatrics is an alternative projection to the lateral view in the elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna.  Indications This view demonstrates an orthogonal view of the AP elbow and is ideal for patients who are unable to...
Article

Pediatric elbow (lateral view)

The lateral elbow view for pediatrics is part of a two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. Indications The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna-trochlear joint, coronoid process, and the olecranon process....
Article

Pediatric forearm (AP view)

The anteroposterior forearm view for pediatrics is one of two standard projections in the forearm series to assess the radius and ulna. Indications This view demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for assessment of suspected dislocations or fractures and local...
Article

Pediatric forearm (horizontal beam lateral view)

The horizontal beam lateral forearm view for pediatrics is one of two modified trauma projections in the forearm series, examining the radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard forearm positioning technique but require as...
Article

Pediatric forearm (lateral view)

The lateral forearm view for pediatrics is one of two standard projections in the forearm series to assess the radius and ulna. Indications This view allows for the assessment of suspected dislocations or fractures and localizing foreign bodies within the forearm. However, this view should no...
Article

Pediatric forearm (PA view)

The posteroanterior forearm view for pediatrics is one of two modified trauma projections in the forearm series, examining the radius and ulna.  Indications This view is ideal for patients who are unable to move their arm as per the standard forearm positioning technique but require assessment...
Article

Pediatric hand (lateral view)

The lateral hand view for pediatrics is an orthogonal view taken along with the PA view of the hand. The lateral view is used to primarily assess for foreign bodies and/or displacement of fractures/dislocations. Indications This view is useful in assessing suspected dislocations, fractures or ...
Article

Pediatric hand (oblique view)

The oblique hand view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the phalanges, metacarpals, carpal bones and distal radioulnar joint. Indications This view is useful in assessing suspected dislocations or fractures, localizing foreign bodies or evaluating juvenile idiopathic/rheuma...
Article

Pediatric hand (PA view)

The posteroanterior hand view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the phalanges, metacarpals, carpal bones and distal radioulnar joint.  Indications This view is useful in assessing suspected dislocations or fractures, localizing foreign bodies or evaluating juvenile idiopath...
Article

Pediatric hip (frog leg lateral view)

The frog leg lateral view is a special radiograph of the pelvis to evaluate the hip. Some departments will perform this routinely instead of the AP pelvis view to reduce exposure and maintain high diagnostic accuracy 1.  Indications Bilateral examination allows for better visualization of the ...
Article

Pediatric immobilization

Pediatric immobilization relates to techniques used to keep children still for medical imaging examinations. Since radiation dose can affect children up to ten times more than adults 1, it is important to keep the radiation dose to a minimum. One method of achieving this is by avoiding repeat im...
Article

Pediatric pelvis (AP view)

The AP pelvis view is a routine view for pediatric patients to examine the hip joints, proximal femora, iliac crests and pelvic ring. The complications of pelvic pathology in pediatrics can significantly affect the child's future, highlighting the importance of proper patient positioning 1. Ind...
Article

Pediatric radiography

Pediatric radiography is a subset within general radiography specializing in the radiographic imaging of the pediatric population. The general principles of radiography remain the same. However, additional consideration needs to be taken into account when determining patient-specific exposure f...
Article

Pediatric wrist (lateral view)

The lateral wrist view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the carpal bones, distal radioulnar joint and metacarpals. Indications This projection is an orthogonal view of the PA wrist and is used to diagnose fractures and localize foreign bodies in pediatric patients. It a...
Article

Pediatric wrist (oblique view)

The oblique wrist view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the carpal bones, distal radioulnar joint and metacarpals.  Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing subtle wrist fractures and the location of the fracture; particularly in adults. However, the oblique...
Article

Pediatric wrist (PA view)

The posteroanterior wrist view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the carpal bones, distal radioulnar joint and metacarpals.  Indications This projection demonstrates the wrist joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for evaluation of the distal radius, ulna and...
Article

PA finger (pediatric)

The posteroanterior finger view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the finger of interest.  Indications This projection demonstrates the metacarpal and interphalangeal joint spaces in their natural anatomic posi...
Article

Pediatric chest (PA erect view)

The posteroanterior erect chest view is often performed in older pediatric patients; when the patient is able to cooperate with sitting or standing erect. This chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. Indications The PA erect view is often chosen over...
Article

Pelvis (hip surveillance)

Hip surveillance radiographs are part of a concerted effort to monitor and enable early detection of hip displacement in patients with cerebral palsy or neuromuscular disorders. The radiographs consist of a modified AP pelvis in which the patient's legs are in a neutral position, with the patell...
Article

Pelvis radiograph (pediatric)

The radiography of the pelvis in the pediatric patient varies greatly from the adult examination; particularly as specialized techniques are often required to immobilize the patient. To avoid future mobility and pain complications, it is essential to treat fractures and correct developmental pat...
Article

Thumb series (pediatric)

The thumb series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indication, an additional oblique view may also be done. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected d...
Article

Upper limb radiography (pediatric)

Upper limb radiography involves plain film imaging of the shoulder, humerus, ulna, radius, metacarpals and carpal bones in pediatric patients. Depending on the patients' age, the difficulty of the examination will vary, often requiring a specialist trained radiographer familiar with a variety of...
Article

Wrist series (pediatric)

The wrist series for pediatrics often consist of a posteroanterior and lateral view only in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on departmental protocols, the oblique view may also be included as a standard view.  Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected dis...

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