Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

28 results found
Article

Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease or Marie Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. Epidemiology Traditional...
Article

Cervical gravity line

The cervical gravity line is a measurement made on spinal / chiropractic imaging. It is usually drawn on an erect weight bearing radiograph as plumb line drawn downwards on a sagittal image from the dens. See also lumbar gravity line
Article

Cervical spine alignment

When assessing cervical spine alignment, look for four parallel lines connecting structures in the cervical spine: anterior vertebral line: anterior margin of the vertebral bodies posterior vertebral line: posterior margin of the vertebral bodies (also known as George's line) spinolaminar lin...
Article

Cervical spine (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, odontoid and lateral images in the cervical spine series and are always done bilaterally for comparison purposes. However, the PA oblique projection is preferred as it reduces radiation dose to the thyroid 1 co...
Article

Cervical spine (AP view)

The anteroposterior (AP) cervical spine projection is part of the cervical spine series. Indications This projection helps to visualize pathology relating to C3-C7 in the anatomical position, demonstrating any compression fractures, clay-shoveler fractures and herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) ...
Article

Cervical spine (flexion and extension views)

The cervical spine flexion and extension views demonstrate the seven vertebrae of the cervical spine when the patient is in a lateral position. Indications These views are specialized projections often requested to assess for spinal stability. Note, such functional views should not be perform...
Article

Cervical spine (lateral view)

Cervical spine lateral view is a lateral projection of the cervical spine.  As technology advances, computed tomography (CT) has replaced this projection, yet there remain many institutions (especially in rural areas) where CT is not readily available. Indications This projection helps to vis...
Article

Cervical spine (odontoid view)

The odontoid or 'peg' projection, also known as the open mouth AP projection (or radiograph), is an AP projection of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) with the patient's mouth open. Indications This view focuses primarily on the odontoid process of C2, and is useful in visualizing odontoid and Jefferso...
Article

Cervical spine (PA oblique view)

The PA oblique cervical spine projections are supplementary views to the standard AP, odontoid and lateral images in the cervical spine series and are always done bilaterally for comparison purposes. The PA oblique projection is preferred as it reduces radiation dose to the thyroid 1, compared t...
Article

Cervical spine series

The cervical spine series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate the bony structures of the cervical spine, albeit commonly replaced by the CT, the cervical spine series is an essential trauma radiograph for all radiographers to understand. Indications Cervical spine radiographs are indi...
Article

Cervical spine (swimmer's lateral view)

Cervical spine swimmer's lateral view is a modified lateral projection of the cervical spine to visualize the C7/T1 junction.  As technology advances, computed tomography has replaced this projection, yet there remain many institutions (especially in rural areas) where computed tomography is no...
Article

Lipiodol

Lipiodol® (also known as ethiodized oil) is an oil-based iodinated contrast medium that was historically used for myelography and hysterosalpingography 1. It was later superseded by newer, less hazardous, agents, and now is used primarily as a therapeutic agent. Guerbet is now the sole manufactu...
Article

Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine anteroposterior or posteroanterior view images the lumbar spine in its anatomical position. The lumbar spine generally consists of five vertebrae (see: lumbosacral transitional vertebra). Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postop...
Article

Lumbar spine (flexion and extension views)

The lumbar spine flexion and extension views images the lumbar spine which consists of five vertebrae. Indications These views are specialized projections to provide functional tests 1 of lumbar spine instability, often in the context of spondylolisthesis. Patient position the patient is pos...
Article

Lumbar spine (lateral view)

The lumbar spine lateral view images the lumbar spine which generally consists of five vertebrae (see: lumbosacral transitional vertebra). Indications This projection shows an orthogonal view of the AP/PA view and is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for ...
Article

Lumbar spine series

The lumbar spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilized in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions such as ankylosing spondylosis. Lumbar spine r...
Article

Normal spine imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the spine and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Cervical spine plain films example 1: AP, lat, obliques only example 2: PEG view example 3: flexion and extension views only example 4: pediatric - 12 years old example 5...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (AP sacrum view)

The AP sacrum projection is part of the sacroiliac series that includes an oblique projection (PA/AP) of the joint on both sides. Although usually taken as an AP projection it can also be taken PA with a reverse caudal central ray angulation of 30° to 35° when patients cannot assume supine posit...
Article

Sacroiliac joint (PA oblique view)

The posteroanterior (PA) oblique sacroiliac joint view demonstrates the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in an open profile. It is commonly used in conjunction with the sacroiliac AP view.  Indications This projection examines both left and right sacroiliac joints for comparison purposes in the evalua...
Article

Sacrum and coccyx (lateral view)

The sacrum and coccyx lateral view is utilized to demonstrate the most distal region of the spine in a lateral position. Indications This projection is commonly used in conjunction with the AP projection or can be used as a sole projection, depending on department protocols. It helps to visual...
Article

Sacrum (AP view)

The sacrum anteroposterior (AP) view is used to demonstrate the sacrum and its articulations. The efficacy of this radiographic projection is debatable, with radiographers encouraged to follow department protocol when imaging this region 1.  Indications This view can be utilized in the event o...
Article

Scoliosis (erect lateral view)

The scoliosis erect lateral view is performed to visualize the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of interest in profile. Indications This projection is done in cases of scoliosis and often done upon first presentation as a useful examination in identifying spondylolisthesis and the degree of kyph...
Article

Scoliosis (lateral bending view)

Scoliosis lateral bending views are additional scoliosis projections accompanying the standard PA/AP and lateral views. Indications The aim of this view is to assess patients' lateral range of spinal motion 1 in the vertebral column as part of a scoliosis series. Patient position patient er...
Article

Scoliosis (PA/AP view)

The scoliosis posteroanterior/anteroposterior (PA/AP) view allows for the visualization of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies of interest. Indications This projection is used in determining scoliosis in patients and allows for the severity of lateral spinal curvature to be assessed 1. P...
Article

Scoliosis radiography

Scoliosis radiography is useful in identifying the degree of the scoliosis curvature (major/minor or primary/compensatory curves), as well as observe its progression to determine the best method of treatment 1.   Indications Scoliosis radiographs are performed specifically when the disease is...
Article

Thoracic spine (AP view)

The thoracic spine anteroposterior (AP) view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It can help to visualize any compression fractures, sublux...
Article

Thoracic spine (lateral view)

The thoracic spine lateral view images the thoracic spine, which consists of twelve vertebrae. Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postoperatively, and for chronic conditions. It can help to visualize any compression fractures, subluxation or kyph...
Article

Thoracic spine series

The thoracic spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilized in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions. Radiographs of the thoracic spine are consi...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.