Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

975 results found
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Empty cyst sign

The empty cyst sign is described in hydatid disease. After rupture of the cyst and complete evacuation of its content, the pericyst becomes empty as an air-filled cyst on x-ray or CT 1,2. With superadded infection, an air-fluid level may appear within the cyst, mimicking a lung abscess 2.
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Empty delta sign (dural venous sinus thrombosis)

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect, which represents thrombus. It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI. An equivalent appearance can be note...
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Empty light bulb sign (brain death)

In brain death, on Tc-99m HMPAO imaging there is absent or reduced flow in the internal carotid arteries and increased flow within the external carotid arteries. This leads to absent uptake in the brain with subsequent increased perfusion in the nasal region. This appearance has been called the ...
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Empty notch sign (anterior cruciate ligament tear)

Empty notch sign is a direct sign of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear/avulsion at its femoral attachment. It denotes a fluid signal at the expected ACL attachment site at the intercondylar notch (fossa) on axial and coronal fluid-sensitive MR images. The proximal ACL is the second most com...
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Empty thecal sac sign

The empty thecal sac sign or empty sac sign is when the thecal sac appears empty on MRI of the lumbar spine, best seen on T2-weighted images. If the empty thecal sac sign is present, a diagnosis of adhesive arachnoiditis can be made.​ Radiographic features MRI There is usually no gadolinium c...
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Empty vertebral body sign

The empty vertebral body sign is referred to as a radiolucency on a vertebral body seen on the  AP radiograph in patients with a flexion-distraction injury mechanism 1 caused by the absent superposition of the posterior spine elements onto the vertebral body. In other words, the sign results fr...
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Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to ben...
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Ependymal dot-dash sign

The ependymal dot-dash sign has been described as an early MRI imaging feature of multiple sclerosis before other more florid white matter changes (e.g. Dawson's fingers) become evident 1. It has also been suggested as a feature that can be used to distinguish multiple sclerosis from neuromyelit...
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Erased charcoal sign (prostate cancer)

The erased charcoal sign describes the typical appearance of focal prostate cancer in the transition zone characterized as homogeneous hypointensity on T2WI with ill-defined borders, akin to a charcoal pencil drawing smudged with an eraser, often with a lenticular or waterdrop-like shape.
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (EFD), also known as metaphyseal flaring, refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relatively reduced constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis as a result of undertubulation.  The name refers to the resembl...
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État criblé

État criblé, also known as status cribrosum, is a term that describes the diffusely widened perivascular spaces (Virchow-Robin spaces) in the basal ganglia, especially in the corpus striatum on MRI. It is usually symmetrical, with the perivascular spaces showing CSF signal and without diffusion ...
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État lacunaire

État lacunaire is a term describing the presence of multiple lacunar infarcts, which are ischemic strokes due to occlusion of penetrating cerebral arterioles, especially in the basal ganglia. The term has been strongly described as a pathological substrate for a multi-infarct vascular dementia 4...
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Exclamation mark sign (limy bile)

The exclamation mark sign is a pathognomonic imaging sign of the rare diagnosis of limy bile on plain abdominal radiography. It occurs when there is both limy bile and a gallstone in the common bile duct. The linear vertical radiopaque bile forms the line of the exclamation mark (i.e. !), whilst...
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Expanded amnion sign

The expanded amnion sign has been described as a poor prognostic sign in early pregnancy, suspicious though not diagnostic of failed early pregnancy. Any visible embryo that is surrounded by an amnion (visible on transvaginal ultrasound) should also have a heartbeat, regardless of crown-rump len...
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Extracranial brain herniation

Extracranial or transcalvarial brain herniation refers to herniation of brain tissue external to the calvaria through a skull bone defect, which may be post-traumatic or post-surgical. Unlike encephaloceles, brain herniation is not surrounded by the meninges.  Craniectomy may be performed to de...
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Extrapleural air sign (pneumomediastinum)

The extrapleural air sign is one of the many signs of pneumomediastinum, and was first described by Lillard and Allen in 1965. It is defined as the presence of gas between the parietal pleura and the diaphragm. On a lateral projection, the gas forms a radiolucent pocket of gas posterior to the d...
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Extrapleural fat sign

The extrapleural fat sign is an imaging feature which can be seen on CT under certain circumstances. It occurs from the inward displacement of extrapleural fat by an extrapleural fluid collection, extrapleural hematoma or extrapleural mass. The presence of the extrapleural fat sign is indicative...
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Extrapleural sign

The extrapleural sign, described by Ben Felson in 1973 1, refers to the appearance of a pulmonary opacity with oblique margins that taper slowly to the chest wall when the lesion is viewed tangentially to the x-ray beam. This appearance suggests that the lesion is pleural or extrapleural in natu...
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Eye of the tiger sign (globus pallidus)

The eye of the tiger sign refers to abnormal low T2 signal on MRI (due to abnormal accumulation of iron) in the globus pallidus with a longitudinal stripe of high signal (due to gliosis and spongiosis).  The eye of the tiger sign is most classically associated with pantothenate kinase-associate...
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FABER test

The FABER test (abbreviated for Flexion, ABduction and External Rotation test) and also some called the Patrick test) is a clinical test done to assess for pathology in the pathology of the hip joint or the sacroiliac joint It is done by having the leg flexed and thigh abducted and externally r...
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Faceless kidney

A faceless kidney refers to one in which the normal appearance of the renal sinus on cross-sectional imaging is absent. It was initially described as a sign of duplication of the collecting system 1 (a slice obtained between the two collecting systems will not demonstrate the normal components o...
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Face of the giant panda sign (midbrain)

The face of the giant panda sign in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of the midbrain, when the red nucleus and substantia nigra are surrounded by high T2 signal in the tegmentum. It is classically seen in Wilson disease, although whenever the white matter is diffusely abnormal in the regio...
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Falciform ligament sign

The falciform ligament sign, also called the Silver sign, is characterized by the falciform ligament being outlined with free abdominal gas in cases of pneumoperitoneum of a large amount.  It is almost never seen in isolation as, if there is enough free gas to outline the falciform ligament, th...
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Fallen contrast sign

The fallen contrast sign refers to a trace of concentrated contrast material layering along the dependent left atrial wall during contrast-enhanced cardiac CT, suggestive of a right-to-left shunt. The finding has primarily been described as an indirect sign in sinus venosus atrial septal defect ...
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Fallen fragment sign

The fallen fragment sign refers to the presence of a bone fracture fragment resting dependently in a cystic bone lesion. This finding is said to be pathognomonic for a simple (unicameral) bone cyst following a pathological fracture. Although it has occasionally been reported with other cystic le...
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Fallen lung sign

The fallen lung sign (also known as CT fallen lung sign) describes the appearance of collapsed lung away from the mediastinum encountered with tracheobronchial injury (in particular those >2 cm away from the carina). It is helpful to look for this rare but specific sign, in cases of unexplained ...
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Falling snow sign (spermatocele)

The falling snow sign describes the appearance of movement of internal echoes in spermatoceles away from the transducer, resulting in an appearance similar to falling snow when color Doppler is applied. The sign can be used to aid in the diagnosis of a spermatocele.
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Fascial tail sign

The fascial tail sign refers to the linear/tapered extension of soft tissue tumors along the fascia. The sign has been classically described in benign fibrous proliferations 1-4: desmoid tumor plantar fibromatosis nodular fasciitis However, the same sign has also been described as the tail ...
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Fascicular sign

Fascicular sign is a finding on T2-weighted MRI images that suggests a lesion of neurogenic origin. It is characterized by multiple small ring-like structures with peripheral hyperintensity representing the fascicular bundles within the nerves. It is found in various neurogenic tumors, includin...
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Fat halo sign (inflammatory bowel disease)

The fat halo sign (in colonic imaging) refers to a feature seen on CT abdominal scans, and represents infiltration of the submucosa with fat, between the muscularis propria and the mucosa. It is characterized by an inner (mucosa) and outer (muscularis propria and serosa) ring of enhancing bowel ...
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Fat ring sign (mesenteric panniculitis)

The fat ring sign (also known as a fat halo sign) describes preservation of fat around the mesenteric vessels and around soft tissue nodules on a background of diffuse fat stranding in patients with mesenteric panniculitis or mesenteric lipomas.  This finding may help distinguish mesenteric pan...
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Fat stranding (CT)

Fat stranding is a common sign seen on CT wherever fat can be found. It is most commonly seen in abdomen/pelvis, but can also be seen in retroperitoneum, thorax, neck and subcutaneous tissues. It can be helpful in localizing both acute and chronic pathology. Radiographic features CT Fat stran...
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Fat stranding (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Fat stranding is a sign that is seen on CT. It describes the change in attenuation of fat around an inflamed structure and is a very helpful signpost for intra-abdominal pathology. Reference article This is a summary arti...
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FBI sign (lipohemarthrosis)

The FBI sign is an acronym referring to the components that form a lipohemarthrosis. It stands for: fat blood interface
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Feeding vessel sign

Feeding vessel sign consists of a distinct vessel leading directly to a nodule or a mass. This sign indicates either that the lesion has a hematogenous origin or that the disease process occurs near small pulmonary vessels.  A number of vessel-related non-neoplastic disorders of the lung produc...
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Female prostate sign

Female prostate sign is a characteristic imaging sign seen in patients with a large urethral diverticulum.  A large urethral diverticulum in females surrounds the urethra, and elevates the base of the bladder, mimicking the typical appearance of enlarged prostate in males.
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Festooned dura (CSF leak)

The festooned appearance of the spinal dural sac has been described in cases of CSF leak resulting in the combination of epidural fluid and craniospinal hypotension/hypovolemia. The theca collapses down upon the cord but kept attached at multiple points by the epidural ligaments 1. 
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Fetal cardiothoracic circumference ratio

Fetal cardiothoracic (C/T) circumference ratio is a parameter than can be used in assessment of fetal cardiac and thoracic/chest wall anomalies. It is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference and may be easily measured on fetal ultrasound/echocardiography.  Radiograp...
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Fetal maceration

Fetal maceration is one of the signs of fetal death. It is a destructive aseptic process that appears between 12 to 24 hours after fetal death. It may not be seen in a pregnancy earlier than 6 months. In this a separation of the skin from head and trunk occurs giving a bubble-like appearance.
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Figure 3 sign (aortic coarctation)

The figure 3 sign is seen in aortic coarctation and is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the aortic arch and left subclavian artery, indentation at the coarctation site (also known as the "tuck"), and post-stenotic dilatation of the descending aorta. On barium studies of the esophagus in pati...
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Figure of eight appearance

The following lesions may resemble a figure of eight (sometimes referred to as snowman shaped): supracardiac variety of total anomalous pulmonary venous return 1 pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar extension 2 intraspinal neurofibroma with extraspinal extension through neural foramina di...
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Finger clubbing

Finger clubbing, also called "drumstick fingers", is a common clinical sign in patients with heart or lung disease. The term is used to describe an enlargement of the distal phalanges of the fingers, giving them a drumstick or club-like appearance.  Clinical Presentation Finger clubbing presen...
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Finger in glove sign (lung)

The finger in glove sign can be seen on either a chest radiograph or CT chest and refers to the characteristic sign of a bronchocoele. The same appearance has also been referred to as: rabbit ear appearance mickey mouse appearance toothpaste-shaped opacities Y-shaped opacities V-shaped opac...
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Fishhook ureters

Fishhook ureters, also known as J-shaped ureters or hockey stick ureters describe the appearance of the distal ureter in patients with significant benign prostatic hypertrophy. It has also been used to describe the appearance of a retrocaval ureter  in type 1 or low loop variety. As the right ur...
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Fishtail pancreas

Fishtail pancreas (also known as pancreas bifidum or bifid tail of the pancreas) is a rare anatomical variant of the pancreas produced by a branching anomaly during its development. It is named as such due to the fishtail-like appearance of the pancreas. Epidemiology It is a rare anatomical an...
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Fissure for ligamentum teres sign

The fissure for ligamentum teres sign or extrahepatic ligamentum teres sign is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum. It represents the outline of the ligamentum teres (remnant of an obliterated left umbilical vein) with free abdominal gas in a supine patient, as seen on a plain abdominal radi...
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Fistula test

The fistula test is used when examining a patient with recurrent vertigo. A finger is abruptly applied to the external meatus which causes a pulse of air-transmitted pressure. If nystagmus is induced in association with vertigo, it indicates bony destruction within the inner ear e.g. cholesteat...
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Flame sign (spinal cord metastasis)

The flame sign has been described as a helpful MRI sign of spinal cord metastases, enabling them to be distinguished from other enhancing spinal cord lesions (e.g. ependymoma, astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma) 1.  Radiographic features MRI The flame sign is seen on sagittal post contrast T1 w...
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Flat floor of fourth ventricle sign

The flat floor of fourth ventricle sign is useful in detecting a pontine mass and is a sign of mass effect. The normal floor of the fourth ventricle (remember that the floor is anterior) normally slopes upwards towards the midline, with the facial colliculi visible on either side.  It is a non-...
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Flat waist sign

The flat waist sign refers to flattening of the left heart border, specifically the contours of the aortic arch and adjacent pulmonary trunk. It is seen in severe left lower lobe collapse and is caused by leftward displacement and rotation of the heart. It is different to the straight left hear...
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Fleck sign (disambiguation)

The radiographic fleck sign refers to an avulsion fracture in the lower limb at either of two sites: fleck sign (ankle) due to superior peroneal retinaculum injury fleck sign (foot) due to Lisfranc injury
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Fleck sign (foot)

The fleck sign in the foot is a small bony fragment seen in the Lisfranc space (between the base of the 1st and 2nd metatarsal) associated with avulsion of the Lisfranc ligament (at the base of the 2nd metatarsal). It is a very subtle, but important finding, since it predisposes to Lisfranc inju...
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Fleischner sign (disambiguation)

Fleischner sign can refer to two distinctly separate signs: Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery) Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)
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Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery)

The Fleischner sign refers to a prominent central pulmonary artery that can be commonly caused either by pulmonary hypertension or by distension of the vessel by a large pulmonary embolus. It can be seen on chest radiographs, CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), and MR pulmonary angiography (MRPA). ...
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)

The Fleischner sign (also known as the inverted umbrella sign), refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign not to be con...
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Flip-flop effect

The so-called flip-flop effect refers to a confusing MRI appearance of the skeletal system and subcutaneous tissues. It is seen in a variety of severe fat depletion conditions responsible for diffuse bone marrow serous atrophy and modification or loss of the subcutaneous fat. Not to be confused...
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Floating aorta sign

The floating aorta sign refers to the displacement of the abdominal aorta away from the vertebral column. It is a radiographic sign of retroperitoneal masses. Radiographic findings On lateral lumbar spine radiographs, the expected location of the posterior aortic wall is expected to be ≤10 mm...
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Floating balls sign

The floating balls sign refers to the appearance of multiple mobile globules/spherules of solid, usually fatty, tissue within an adnexal cyst. It is pathognomonic for ovarian mature cystic teratoma 1,2.  Terminology Alternative names include the meatballs 3 or truffle sign 4. When a single la...
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Floating head appearance

A floating head appearance refers to imaging features observed typically on antenatal ultrasound with certain skeletal dysplasias such as achondrogenesis.   Against the background of a poorly-mineralized spine, a normally ossified skull is seen giving an impression of a floating head.
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Floating viscera sign

The floating viscera sign is an angiographic sign that occurs when there is visualization of branches of the abdominal aorta (e.g. celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries) during aortography with little or no visualization of the aortic lumen. The floating viscera sign indic...
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Fluid bronchogram sign

The fluid bronchogram sign can be seen on chest CT or ultrasound as the presence of fluid attenuation material within respiratory bronchioles with surrounding collapsed or consolidated lung. The presence of this sign suggests endobronchial obstruction as a precipitating cause for consolidation/...
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Fluid color sign

The fluid color sign is a diagnostic sign to differentiate a pleural effusion from pleural thickening by means of color Doppler ultrasound. In the case of pleural effusion a color signal is seen in the pleural fluid during respiratory and cardiac movement, whereas this color signal is not seen i...
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Fluid sign (vertebral collapse)

The fluid sign is one of the radiological features of osteoporotic fractures, and can be helpful in distinguishing them from metastatic vertebral fractures, as it is seen more often in osteoporotic fractures and is rarely seen in metastatic fractures 1. It is not as helpful as identifying a para...
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Foamy esophagus sign

Foamy esophagus is an appearance seen on a single contrast barium study in Candida esophagitis with associated scleroderma/achalasia (stasis). Pathology Pathophysiologic basis of the foamy esophagus is uncertain. Stasis is a predisposing factor. Foam is produced directly by the fungal organism...
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Focal hepatic hot spot sign

The focal hepatic hot spot sign can be seen on technetium 99m sulfur colloid scans of the liver and spleen, as well as CT studies. Radiographic features It occurs as a focal area of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the medial segment of the left hepatic lobe (segment IV) due to superior...
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Fogging phenomenon (cerebral infarct)

The fogging phenomenon is seen on non-contrast CT of the brain and represents a transient phase of the evolution of cerebral infarct where the region of cortical infarction regains a near-normal appearance.  During the first week following a cortical infarct, hypoattenuation and swelling become...
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Follicular ring sign

The follicular ring sign is considered as a characteristic sonographic sign for early diagnosis of ovarian torsion 1. It is defined as prominent (1-2 mm thick) hyperechoic margin seen concentrically around the antral follicles of the torsed ovary, which are usually small (3‐ to 7‐mm) and periphe...
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Food inspired signs

There are many food-inspired signs in radiology: Cheerio sign (disambiguation) Cheerio sign (pulmonary nodule) Cheerio sign (shoulder) double Oreo cookie (glenoid labrum) hamburger sign (spine) head cheese sign (lungs) honeycombing (lungs) licked candy stick appearance (bones) linguine ...
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Football sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The football sign is seen in cases of massive pneumoperitoneum, where the abdominal cavity is outlined by gas from a perforated viscus. The median umbilical ligament and falciform ligament are sometimes included in the description of this sign, as representing the sutures. Which football is use...
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Fountain sign (acute idiopathic scrotal edema)

The fountain sign is a sonographic sign described in acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE). It refers to the appearance of the pattern of vascularity seen during transverse color Doppler sonography of the scrotum with both testes together 1. In this transverse view, in patients with AISE, marke...
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Fovea alta

Fovea alta is a radiographic sign that refers to as an abnormally superior position of the fovea capitis femoris in relation to the acetabular socket. Usage Fovea alta is significantly associated with acetabular dysplasia and can be used as an indicator or diagnostic marker for the condition 1...
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Fragment-in-notch sign (knee)

The fragment-in-notch sign is closely related to, can be thought of as a failed, double PCL sign, in so far as it represents a meniscal fragment lying in the intercondylar notch, but not paralleling the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).  Although both signs are most frequently seen in the sett...
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Frimann-Dahl sign

The Frimann-Dahl sign is a diagnostic sign demonstrated when three dense lines, representing the sigmoid walls, are seen converging to the site of obstruction in sigmoid volvulus and associated with empty rectal gas 1. History and etymology Johan Frimann-Dahl (1902-82) was a Norwegian Professo...
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Frostberg inverted 3 sign

Frostberg inverted 3 sign is a radiological sign seen on a barium examination where there is effacement and distortion of the mucosal pattern on the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum due to focal mass and local edema. It is most commonly associated with carcinoma of the head of the ...
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Fruit-inspired signs

There are many fruit-inspired signs in radiology: apple core sign (disambiguation) apple core sign (colon) apple core sign (femur) apple-peel intestinal atresia banana sign banana fracture berry aneurysm bowl of grapes sign bunch of grapes sign (disambiguation) bunch of grapes sign (hy...
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Funneling of the internal cervical os

Cervical funnelling is a sign of cervical incompetence and represents the dilatation of the internal part of the cervical canal and reduction of the cervical length. Greater than 50% funnelling before 25 weeks is associated with ~80% risk of preterm delivery. Radiographic features Good scanni...
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Funnel trachea

Funnel trachea is a colloquialism for a congenital long-segment intrathoracic tracheal stenosis.  The diameter of the trachea immediately below the cricoid is normal, and becomes progressively more stenotic caudally. The posterior, membranous portion of the trachea may be partially or completel...
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Gage sign

The Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign calcification latera...
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Galaxy sign (lungs)

The so-called galaxy sign, initially described as the sarcoid galaxy, represents a coalescent granuloma seen in a minority of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis 1. The same appearance can be seen in tuberculosis 2,3. In other words, it represents a mass-like region composed of numerous smaller ...
Article

Gallbladder ghost triad

Gallbladder ghost triad is a term used on ultrasound studies when there is a combination of three gallbladder features on biliary atresia: atretic gallbladder, length less than 19 mm irregular or lobular contour  lack of smooth/complete echogenic mucosal lining with an indistinct wall The te...
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Garland triad

Garland triad, also known as the 1-2-3 sign or pawnbroker's sign, is a lymph node enlargement pattern on chest radiographs which has been described in sarcoidosis: right paratracheal nodes right hilar nodes left hilar nodes Hilar lymphadenopathy is symmetrical and usually massive. These so-c...
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Garrington sign (teeth)

Garrington sign is thickening of the periodontal ligament/membrane space of involved teeth in the setting of gnathic osteosarcoma. Symmetrical widening of the space can be seen early in the disease process due to infiltration of tumor cells. 
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Genu recurvatum

Genu recurvatum describes the malalignment or deformity of the knee joint with extension beyond neutral (i.e. hyperextension).  Pathology Genu recurvatum can be associated with subluxation or dislocation of the knee joint.  Etiology congenital arthrogryposis multiplex congenita congenital ...
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Geographic skull

A geographic skull is a radiographic appearance which is seen in eosinophilic granuloma (EG) and characterized by destructive lytic bone lesions, the edges of which may be bevelled, scalloped or confluent. See also geographic appearance
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Geyser sign (shoulder)

The geyser sign is the flow of arthrographic contrast or joint fluid from the glenohumeral joint across the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) to form a supraclavicular collection. It is seen in some cases of long-standing rotator cuff tear and advanced degenerative change of the shoulder.  Clinical...
Article

Ghon lesion

A Ghon lesion, sometimes called a Ghon focus, represents a tuberculous caseating granuloma (tuberculoma) and represents a sequela of primary pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Terminology Radiologically, this term is used quite loosely to refer to a calcified granuloma; technically, the Ghon le...
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Ghost meniscus

A ghost meniscus, also known as the empty meniscus sign, refers to either a complete radial tear that has transected the meniscus, a displaced root avulsion or, alternatively, be evident in from a previous meniscectomy. Terminology Defined by the presence of a meniscus which disappears then re...
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Ghost sign (cervical spine)

The ghost sign is a feature that has been described in a clay shoveler fracture as seen on the AP projection of a cervical spine radiograph. It is caused by the appearance of a "double spinous process" on C6 or C7 resulting from caudal displacement of the avulsed spinous process fragment, giving...
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Ghost sign (Charcot joint)

The ghost sign is seen when a Charcot joint is complicated by an osteomyelitis. It is most commonly seen in the setting of a diabetic foot.  It refers to the poor definition of the margins of a bone on a T1 weighted image, which reappears after contrast injection 1.
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Ghost vertebra

Ghost vertebra is a sign, that is generally used synonymously with bone-within-a-bone vertebra, and as such, the causes form a subset of those causing bone within a bone appearance 2: Thorotrast administration: bone within a bone appearance due to temporary growth arrest 1 stress line rickets...
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Ginkgo leaf sign (disambiguation)

The ginkgo leaf sign can refer to: ginkgo leaf sign (chest) of chest wall surgical emphysema ginkgo leaf sign (spine) of spinal meningioma
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Ginkgo leaf sign (subcutaneous emphysema)

The ginkgo leaf sign of the chest, also referred as the ginkgo leaf sign of subcutaneous emphysema, is a radiographic appearance seen with extensive subcutaneous emphysema of the chest wall. Gas outlines the fibers of the pectoralis major muscle and creates a branching pattern that resembles the...
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Giraffe pattern

Giraffe pattern (also known as the pseudonodular appearance) is a distinctive ultrasound appearance characteristic of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Bonavita originally described a thyroid gland with multiple echogenic nodules, separated from one another by bands of hypoechogenicity, reminiscent of a gi...

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