Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

828 results found
Article

Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst

Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst is a common complication associated with hepatic hydatid cysts. It is important to appreciate the direct and indirect signs of this condition. Radiographic features The radiological features of intrabiliary rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst can be c...
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Intracranial arterial beading

Intracranial arterial beading represents alternating areas of constriction in the intracranial arteries that gives the appearance of beads strung together. Differential diagnosis The various conditions where this is seen are: cerebral vasculitis radiation therapy cerebral vasospasm post sub...
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Intradecidual sac sign

Intradecidual sac sign (IDSS) is a useful feature in identifying an early intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) as early as 25 days of gestation 1. The threshold level (earliest one can see the sign) is 24 days of gestation and the discriminatory level (one should always see the sac) is 47 days. As per t...
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Intrahepatic arterioportal shunt

Intrahepatic arterioportal shunts represent abnormal flow between the portal venous system and a hepatic arterial system within the liver. They can be a reversible cause of portal hypertension. Clinical presentation Clinical features will depend on size and other underlying pathology. Small sh...
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Intramural bowel gas

Intramural bowel gas, also known as pneumatosis intestinalis, refers to the clinical or radiological finding of gas within the wall of the bowel. Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoid...
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Intramural fat of the urinary bladder

Intramural fat of the urinary bladder is an occasional benign finding on CT/MRI.  Epidemiology Incidence of this finding on histopathological studies is up to 4%. Published radiological and pathological cohorts both report a male predominance. Clinical presentation Incidental asymptomatic fi...
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Inverted Mercedes-Benz sign

The inverted Mercedes-Benz sign refers to the shape taken on by a spinal subdural hematoma on axial imaging at the level of the denticulate ligaments, best visualized on MRI. A pair of denticulate ligaments and the dorsal septum constitute the three radiating spikes of the sign, while blood expa...
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Inverted Napoleon hat sign

The inverted Napoleon hat sign is a radiologic sign seen on the frontal pelvic or lumbar radiograph at the level of the 5th lumbar vertebra and the sacrum. It is seen when there is bilateral spondylolysis with marked anterolisthesis of L5 on S1 or marked exaggeration of the normal lordosis at t...
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Inverted "V" sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the lateral umbilical ligament sign, is a sign of pneumoperitoneum manifested by the visualization of an inverted "V"  shape in the pelvis on supine view of abdominal radiographs. It represent free gas outlining the lateral umbilical ligaments. In infants, th...
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Inverted "V" sign (spinal cord)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the inverted rabbit ears sign, is a radiological sign described in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord​. It refers to the appearance of the spinal cord on axial MRI slices 1-3. On these slices in a patient with subacute combined degeneration of...
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Ivory phalanx

Ivory phalanx is a finding of increased radiodensity of an entire phalanx as a result of periosteal and endosteal bone formation. This sign is a unique and specific radiographic manifestation of psoriatic arthritis, yet it is uncommon and thus of low sensitivity. Nevertheless, it is of particul...
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Ivory vertebra sign

The ivory vertebra sign refers to diffuse and homogeneous increase in opacity of a vertebral body that otherwise retains its size and contours, and with no change in the opacity and size of adjacent intervertebral discs. Pathology Etiology The cause for an ivory vertebra depends on the age of...
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Ivy sign (brain)

The ivy sign refers to the MRI appearance of patients with moya moya disease or moya moya syndrome. Prominent leptomeningeal collaterals result in vivid contrast enhancement and high signal on FLAIR due to slow flow. The appearance is reminiscent of the brain having been covered with ivy. Diffe...
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Jack and Jill lesion

The Jack and Jill lesion refers to simultaneous bucket handle tears of the medial and lateral menisci with intercondylar notch displacement of the fragments which appear as the quadruple sign on coronal MRI images.
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Jejunoileal fold pattern reversal

Jejunoileal fold pattern reversal (a.k.a. jejunisation of the ileum) is one of the signs of celiac disease, and is seen on small bowel follow-through studies as well as CT. The pattern is one of increased number of ileal folds and reduced number of jejunal folds 1,2, and is considered positive w...
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J-shaped sella

A J-shaped sella is a variant morphology of the sella turcica, whereby the tuberculum sellae is flattened, thus forming the straight edge of the "J". The dorsum sellae remains rounded and forms the loop of the "J". Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis for a J-shaped sella includes 1,2...
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J sign (shoulder)

The J sign refers to the appearance of the inferior glenohumeral ligament in the presence of a humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL lesion). The normal U-shaped inferior glenohumeral recess is retracted away from the humerus, appearing in the shape of "J" in right shoulder, or rev...
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Juxtaphrenic peak sign

The juxtaphrenic peak sign, also known as diaphragmatic tenting or Kattan sign, refers to the peaked or tented appearance of a hemidiaphragm which can occur in the setting of lobar collapse. It is caused by retraction of the lower end of diaphragm at an inferior accessory fissure (most common 1)...
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Kayser-Fleischer rings

Kayser-Fleischer rings, sometimes shortened to K-F rings, are caused by copper deposition in the cornea and are a specific, clinical sign of Wilson disease. Clinical presentation They are usually brown or dark reddish in color. Early on they may need a slit lamp to be visible before they becom...
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Kernohan phenomenon

Kernohan notch phenomenon is an imaging finding resulting from extensive midline shift due to mass effect, resulting in indentation in the contralateral cerebral crus by the tentorium cerebelli. This has also been referred to as Kernohan-Woltman notch phenomenon and false localising sign. Clini...
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Kerr kink

Kerr kink a sign of renal tuberculosis. Scarring leads to a sharp kink at the pelvi-ureteric junction. History and etymology William "Bill" K Kerr, a Canadian urologist, described his eponymous sign in 1967 3.
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Keyhole sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

The keyhole or noose sign indicates an uncollapsed intracapsular breast implant rupture seen as the focal invagination of the implant shell caused by a small concealed leak of silicone outside shell where the two membranes do not contact each other. It is best appreciated by MRI. Differential d...
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Keyhole sign (posterior urethral valves)

The keyhole sign is an ultrasonographic sign seen in boys with posterior urethral valves. It refers to the appearance of the proximal urethra (which is dilated) and an associated thick-walled distended bladder which on ultrasound may resemble a keyhole.
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Kidney sweat sign

The kidney sweat sign refers to the presence of thin, hypoechoic, extracapsular fluid collections around kidneys in renal failure patients. This fluid is thought to represent perirenal edema. It can be appreciated on ultrasound, CT and MRI.  Differential diagnosis perirenal hematoma perirenal...
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Kirklin complex

The Kirklin complex is a combination of the Carman meniscus sign associated with a radiolucent semicircular zone surrounding the elevated ridge of the ulcer. This complex is seen in cases of gastric adenocarcinoma on barium studies. History and etymology Byrl Raymond Kirklin, (1888-1957 2) an ...
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Kirklin sign

The Kirklin sign refers to a deformity of the normal gastric bubble on an upright chest radiograph due to a mass lesion of the gastric cardia or fundus. The differential for a Kirklin sign includes: gastric tumor gastric carcinoma esophageal carcinoma gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) ...
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Kirner deformity

Kirner deformity is characterized by a curvature of the distal phalynx of the 5th digit in both a palmar and radial direction. Epidemiology The deformity typically presents in late childhood to early adolescence, although a mild deformity may be present at birth. Both sexes are affected, altho...
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Kissing carotids

The term kissing carotids refers to tortuous and elongated vessels which touch in the midline. They can be be found in:  retropharynx 2 intrasphenoid 1 within the pituitary fossa within sphenoid sinuses within sphenoid bones The significance of kissing carotids is two-fold: may mimic intr...
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Kissing ovaries sign

Kissing ovaries sign means both ovaries are located in close proximity or are touching each other in the pouch of Douglas, usually due to pelvic adhesions, and is usually seen on ultrasound or MRI. This sign is usually associated with pelvic endometriosis due to repeated bleeding causes adhesio...
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Knuckle sign (pulmonary embolism)

Knuckle sign refers to the abrupt tapering or cutoff of a pulmonary artery secondary to embolus. It is better visualized on CT pulmonary angiography scan than chest x-ray. This is an important ancillary finding in pulmonary embolism (PE), and often associated with the Fleischner sign of dilated ...
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Lambda sign

There are a number of lambda signs: lambda sign of twin pregnancy lambda sign of sarcoidosis
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Lambda sign (sarcoidosis)

The lambda sign is seen on gallium-67 scans in the setting of thoracic sarcoidosis. Bilateral hilar and right paratracheal lymph nodes are typically involved which can resemble the Greek letter lambda (λ). See also lambda sign of twin pregnancy
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Lateral crescent sign (inguinal hernia)

The lateral crescent sign is a useful diagnostic sign of a direct inguinal hernia on CT scan, the hernia causing compression and lateral displacement of the inguinal canal contents (ductus deferens, testicular vessels, fat, etc.) to form a semicircle of tissue that resembles a moon crescent seen...
Article

Lateral femoral notch sign (knee)

The (deep) lateral femoral notch sign describes a depression on the lateral femoral condyle at the terminal sulcus, a junction between the weight-bearing tibial articular surface and the patellar articular surface of the femoral condyle. It is occasionally referred to as a deep sulcus sign, not ...
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Lead pipe sign (colon)

The lead pipe appearance of colon is the classical barium enema finding in chronic ulcerative colitis. There is complete loss of haustral markings in the diseased section of colon, and the organ appears smooth-walled and cylindrical. 
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Lemon sign

The lemon sign, noted on antenatal imaging, is one of the many notable fruit-inspired signs. It is a feature when there appears to be an indentation of the frontal bone (depicting that of a lemon). It is classically seen as a sign of a Chiari II malformation and also seen in the majority (90-98%...
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Lentiform fork sign (basal ganglia)

The lentiform fork sign has been described on MRI and is seen as bilateral symmetrical hyperintensities in the basal ganglia surrounded by a hyperintense rim delineating the lentiform nucleus. It has been postulated to result from metabolic acidosis due to any cause 1, e.g. end stage renal dise...
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Leopard skin sign (white matter)

The leopard skin sign (also known as tigroid pattern or stripe sign) results from dark-spots or stripes (spared perivascular white matter) within bright demyelinated periventricular white matter on T2W images. It is characteristically seen in: metachromatic leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher ...
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Lhermitte sign (spinal cord)

Lhermitte sign or the barber chair phenomenon is an electrical shock sensation running down the spine and into the limb on neck flexion. It suggests compression of the upper cervical spinal cord and/or brainstem. Pathology It is typically seen with multiple sclerosis but is also associated wit...
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Licked candy stick appearance (bones)

The term licked candy stick appearance refers to tapering of the tips of the metacarpal bones, metatarsal bones, phalanges or clavicles and is usually associated with: psoriatic arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis leprosy neuropathic joint
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Light bulb sign (hepatic hemangioma)

The light bulb sign of a hepatic hemangioma is a feature than can be seen on MRI imaging with a classic hepatic hemangioma. This refers to marked hyperintensity seen on heavily T2 weighted sequences that has been likened to a glowing light bulb. See also light bulb sign - shoulder light bulb ...
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Light bulb sign (phaeochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal phaeochromocytoma is an MRI feature of this tumor. It refers to marked hyperintensity on T2 weighted sequences, however, this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and phaeochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal intens...
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Lightbulb sign (shoulder dislocation)

The lightbulb sign refers to the abnormal AP radiograph appearance of the humeral head in posterior shoulder dislocation. When the humerus dislocates it also internally rotates such that the head contour projects like a lightbulb when viewed from the front 1. See also light bulb sign (hepatic...
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Lincoln sign on bone scintigraphy

Lincoln sign on bone scintigraphy (also known as black beard sign) is one of the signs of Paget disease on the radionuclide bone scan when the disease involves the mandible. The sign might be seen when the extensive mandibular involvement with Paget disease results in the uptake of the radiotrac...
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Linguine sign (breast)

Linguine sign is one of the imaging signs of intracapsular rupture of a breast implant. After implantation of a silicone or saline breast implant, a fibrous capsule (scar) forms around the implant shell. In an intracapsular rupture, the contents of the implant are contained by the fibrous scar,...
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Lipohemarthrosis

Lipohemarthrosis results from an intra-articular fracture with escape of fat and blood from the bone marrow into the joint, and is most frequently seen in the knee, associated with a tibial plateau fracture or distal femoral fracture; rarely a patellar fracture. They have also been described in ...
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Liver overlap sign

The liver overlap sign can be seen in sigmoid volvulus wherein the sigmoid loop is seen, usually on an abdominal radiograph, ascending to the right upper quadrant and projecting over the liver shadow. In one study of 21 patients with confirmed sigmoid volvulus, the sign was present in 9 patient...
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Locked facet joint

Locked facet joint is a type of facet joint dislocation that results from jumping of the inferior articular process over the superior articular process of the vertebra below and becomes locked in the position. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The tip ...
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Lollipop sign

The lollipop sign is seen in hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE). It represents hepatic/portal vein and/or their tributaries/branches tapering and terminating at or just within the edge of a well defined peripherally enhancing (or non-enhancing) lesion with an avascular core on CT or...
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Loss of normal half-moon overlap sign

Loss of half-moon overlap sign, which does not really roll off the tongue, is a sign of posterior shoulder dislocation on AP radiographs.  On a normal true anteroposterior image, there is a half-moon overlap between the humeral head and the glenoid. In a posteriorly dislocated shoulder, there i...
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Loss of the insular ribbon sign

The loss of the insular ribbon sign refers to a loss of definition of the gray-white interface in the lateral margin of the insular cortex ("insular ribbon") and is considered an early CT sign of MCA infarction. The insular cortex is more susceptible to ischemia following MCA occlusion than oth...
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease celiac sprue inflammatory necrotic disorders (e.g. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) extra adrenal myelolipoma See also lymphaden...
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Lower T sign

The lower T sign is one of the features useful in identifying the central sulcus on cross-sectional imaging.  It relies on identifying the inferior frontal sulcus which intersects the precentral sulcus in a "T" junction, thus defining the precentral gyrus. The central sulcus is the next posteri...
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L sign (brain)

The L sign is one of the features useful in identifying the central sulcus on cross-sectional imaging. On axial images, the superior frontal gyrus at its posterior aspect meets the precentral gyrus in an "L" configuration (forwards on the left, backwards on the right). The central sulcus is the...
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Lucent liver sign

The lucent liver sign is represented by a reduction of hepatic radiodensity on supine radiograph when there is a collection of free intraperitoneal gas located anterior to the liver.
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Luftsichel sign (lungs)

The luftsichel sign is seen in some cases of left upper lobe collapse and refers to the frontal chest radiographic appearance due to hyperinflation of the superior segment of the left lower lobe interposing itself between the mediastinum and the collapsed left upper lobe.   Radiographic feature...
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Lung point sign

The lung point sign is a highly specific ultrasound sign of pneumothorax. It involves visualizing the point where the visceral pleura (lung) begins to separate from the parietal pleural (chest wall) at the margin of a pneumothorax.  In the absence of pneumothorax, the two pleural layers slide a...
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Lyre sign (carotid artery)

The lyre sign refers to the splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumor. Classically described on angiography it is also visible on CT angiography.
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Macaroni sign (arteries)

Macaroni sign is a sign seen in Takayasu arteritis on ultrasound. It represents smooth, homogeneous and moderately echogenic circumferential thickening of the arterial wall that occurs in Takayasu arteritis. The sign is highly specific for Takayasu arteritis, more commonly noted in the common ca...
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Maiden waist deformity

Maiden waist deformity is the appearance of the deviation of bilateral ureters. This typically occurs in retroperitoneal fibrosis. In this condition, there is medial indrawing of the ureters due to deposition of fibrous tissue in the lumbosacral junction. Due to involvement of both ureters, the ...
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Mamillopontine distance

Mamillopontine distance is defined as the distance between the inferior aspect of the mammillary bodies to the superior aspect of the pons. In normal subjects, it should be greater than 5.5 mm 1. It is decreased in conditions that either depress the floor of the third ventricle or change the po...
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Manta ray sign (bladder)

The manta ray sign is a radiographic appearance in bladder exstrophy. It describes wide midline separation of the pubic bones simulating the appearance of a manta ray swimming towards you 1. Differential diagnosis On a plain radiograph consider: open book pelvic injuries: the smooth arc of th...
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Marcus Gunn pupil

Marcus Gunn pupil, also known as a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), is a non-specific sign on physical examination that indicates partial optic nerve dysfunction. It is mainly due to unilateral optic neuropathy (e.g. optic neuritis), or rarely optic chiasm or optic tract lesions. This...
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Martini glass sign

The Martini glass sign describes the appearance of the globe in persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV). On MRI the retrolenticular tissue characteristic of this condition has a triangular shape, like that of a martini glass appearing as low T2 signal against the normal high T2 signal o...
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Matterhorn sign

The Matterhorn sign is a descriptive sign for a calcified disk herniation that impales the dural sac and sometimes the cord, typically located in the thoracic spine. History and etymology The Matterhorn sign is named after one of the most iconic mountains in the Alps: the Matterhorn.
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MCA dot sign (brain)

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) dot sign, also known as the Sylvian fissure sign, is seen on CT of the head and represents the cross-sectional M2 equivalent of the hyperdense MCA sign. Rather than imaging a length of middle cerebral artery (typically the M1 segment), the dot sign represents a t...
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McConnell's sign (echocardiography)

The McConnell's sign describes a regional pattern of acute right ventricular dysfunction on transthoracic echocardiography first observed in a cohort of patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism. In contrast to the global wall motion abnormalities observed in chronic right ventricular dysfun...
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Medial stripe sign

Medial stripe sign refers to an area of increased lucency at the interface of the medial lung and the mediastinum in case of medial pneumothorax. A small volume of pneumothorax generally accumulates anteriorly or medially which can be difficult to detect hence this sign holds a certain significa...
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Melting ice cube sign (lungs)

The melting ice cube sign describes the resolution of pulmonary hemorrhage following pulmonary embolism (PE).  When there is pulmonary hemorrhage without infarction following PE, the typical wedge-shaped, pleural-based opacification (Hampton's hump) resolves within a week while preserving its t...
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Mercedes-Benz sign (aorta)

The Mercedes-Benz sign can be seen in the aorta in the context of aortic dissection on CT 1.  It is seen at three distinct intimal flaps that have a triradiate configuration similar to the Mercedes-Benz logo (Figure 1). Two of the three lumens outline by these intimal flaps belong to the false ...
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Mercedes-Benz sign (gallbladder)

In the gallbladder, the Mercedes-Benz sign describes a star-shaped pattern of gas-fissuring within gallstones initially described on an abdominal radiograph 2. Fissures, usually fluid-filled, are present in close to 50% of gallstones. Less than half of these fissured gallstones contain some amo...
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Mickey Mouse appearance

In medical imaging literature, a Mickey Mouse appearance has been given to imaging features that depict that of Mickey Mouse when viewed from the front. It has been described in the following: anencephaly 2 progressive supranuclear palsy 1 synonymously with a finger in glove sign the flared ...
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Mickey Mouse sign (ultrasound)

The Mickey Mouse sign is said to represent the normal anatomy of the common femoral artery, common femoral vein and great saphenous vein on ultrasound at the level just inferior the inguinal crease.  See also Mickey Mouse appearance
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Middle cerebellar peduncle sign

The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) sign is a feature of a number of conditions, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, and most commonly associated with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) although many other conditions are recognised.  It represents high T2 signal in the mi...
Article

Moguls of the heart

The 'moguls of the heart' refer to the bulges of the cardiomediastinal contour on frontal chest radiographs. The cardiomediastinal bulges are likened to skiing moguls (bumps of packed snow on a mountainside sculptured by turning skis). Awareness of their usual locations and etiologies is helpful...
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Molar tooth sign (abdomen)

Abdominal molar tooth sign refers to the appearance of contrast media spilled out of the urinary bladder on CT cystography after extraperitoneal bladder rupture. Contrast flows out of the ruptured bladder, occupying preperitoneal cavum Retzii and surrounds the bladder in the shape of a molar to...
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Molar tooth sign (CNS)

The molar tooth sign refers to the appearance of the midbrain in an axial section in which the elongated superior cerebellar peduncles give the midbrain an appearance reminiscent of a molar or wisdom tooth. It was initially described in Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) 2 but is now...
Article

Mondor sign (foot)

Mondor sign is a sign seen clinically and on CT, and refers to a hematoma that is formed and extends distally along the sole of the foot 1. Its presence is considered pathognomonic for a calcaneal fracture 1. History and etymology It was named after Henri Mondor (1885-1962), a French surgeon, ...
Article

Monod sign (lungs)

Monod sign (often misspelt Monad sign) simply describes gas that surrounds a mycetoma (most commonly an aspergilloma) in a pre-existing pulmonary cavity 1-3. It should not be confused with the air crescent sign which is seen in recovering angioinvasive aspergillosis 4. The air crescent sign her...
Article

Moose head appearance

The moose head appearance refers to the lateral ventricles in coronal projection in patients with dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. The cingulate gyrus is everted into narrowed and elongated frontal horns. An alternative name is the viking helmet sign.
Article

More black sign

The more black sign is a normal finding in lateral chest x-ray, and refers to the gradual increased apparent radiolucency (blackness) of the vertebral bodies, when proceeding from upper to lower chest. This is due to the increased proportion of the chest comprised of air containing lungs over di...
Article

Morning glory sign (midbrain)

Morning glory sign of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multisystem atrophy, not to be confused with morning glory syndrome, refers to the appearance of the midbrain on axial imaging 1. Graphically this is identified on a axial image at the level of the midbrain by drawing 1:   a horizo...
Article

Morning glory syndrome (eye)

Morning glory disk anomaly (MGDA),also known as morning glory syndrome, is a rare congenital malformation of the optic nerve which is frequently associated with midline abnormalities of the brain and skull 1. Epidemiology Morning glory disk anomaly is rare and is more commonly found in females...
Article

Mosaic attenuation pattern in lung

Mosaic attenuation is a descriptive term used in describing a patchwork of regions of differing pulmonary attenuation on CT imaging.  It is a non-specific finding, although is associated with the following: obstructive small airways disease: low attenuation regions are abnormal and reflect decr...
Article

Mosaic pattern of bone

The mosaic bone pattern, also referred to as the jigsaw pattern of bone is seen in Paget disease, where thickened, disorganised trabeculae lead to areas of sclerosis are interspersed with lucent and more normal bone. See also Other Paget disease related signs: blade of grass sign tam o' shan...
Article

Mother in law sign

The mother in law sign is perhaps uncharitably (depends on the mother in law I suppose) used to describe lesions that enhance early during the arterial phase and remain opacified well after the venous phase. The joke is that a mother in law comes early and stays late.  It is most frequently equ...
Article

Motor band sign

The motor band sign is a radiological sign described in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It refers to the appearance of the cortex on axial GRE and SWI MRI in patients with ALS 1,2. On these sequences, and in the axial plane, curvilinear bands of low signal may be appreciated within the cor...
Article

Moulage sign (bowel)

The moulage sign is related to sprue, in particular celiac disease. It occurs where there is a dilated jejunal loop with complete loss of jejunal folds 1. It is said to appear like a tube into which wax has been poured. History and etymology Moulage (French: casting/moulding) is the art of app...
Article

Mount Fuji sign

Mount Fuji sign is seen on cross-sectional imaging and is indicative of a tension pneumocephalus.  The sign refers to the presence of gas (pneumocephalus) between the tips of the frontal lobes with a heaped-up appearance giving the silhouette-like appearance of Mount Fuji 1-3. It suggests that ...
Article

M sign (inferior frontal gyrus)

The M sign refers to the characteristic "M" configuration of the inferior frontal gyrus, as it forms (from front to back) the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and, pars opercularis.
Article

Mushroom cap sign

Mushroom cap sign is one of the important signs of deep rectosigmoid endometriosis seen on T2 weighted MRI sequence. It indicates the submucosal involvement in rectosigmoid region. Radiographic appearance MRI Hypertrophic muscularis propria appears as heterogeneous low signal intensity surrou...
Article

Mushroom sign (pyloric stenosis)

The mushroom sign (also called umbrella sign) is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis on barium examination. This sign refers to the impression made by the hypertrophic pylorus on the duodenal cap. See also shoulder sign cervix sign of pyloric stenosis target sign of pyloric st...
Article

Naclerio V sign

The Naclerio V sign is a sign described on the plain film in patients with a pneumomediastinum occurring often secondary to an esophageal rupture.  It is seen as a V-shaped air collection. One limb of the V is produced by mediastinal gas outlining the left lower lateral mediastinal border. The ...

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