Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

904 results found
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Roberts sign (fetal demise)

Roberts sign refers to the presence of a gas shadow within the heart or the greater vessels, in cases of fetal death in utero. It is a rare sign caused by postmortem blood degeneration, usually seen 1-2 days after death; and may be seen as early as 12 hours. History and etymology First describ...
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Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberance projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair, and/or sebaceous components 1. This region has the highest propensity to undergo malignant transformatio...
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Rolling stone sign

The rolling stone sign refers to the presence of gallstones within the gallbladder that are mobile when the patient moves. Small gallstones can sometimes be difficult to diagnose due to the absence of posterior shadow artefact but the presence of a rolling stone sign increases the confidence of...
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Romana sign (Chagas disease)

Romana sign, also known as chagoma, refers to periorbital swelling, palpebral edema and conjunctivitis seen 1-2 weeks following infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (causative agent in Chagas disease).  Romana sign is associated with ipsilateral regional lymphadenopathy.  History and etymology It...
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Romanus lesion (vertebral bodies)

The Romanus lesion represents an early finding in inflammatory spondyloarthropathies, such as ankylosing spondylitis and enteropathic arthritis, and appears as irregularity and erosion involving the anterior and posterior edges of the vertebral endplates 1. Healing response to these inflammatory...
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Rosary sign (gallbladder)

The rosary sign is a CT finding in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder. It is formed by the enhanced proliferative mucosal epithelium, with the intramural diverticula surrounded by the unenhanced hypertrophied muscle coat of the gallbladder. The rosary sign is similar to the pearl necklace sign.
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Rose-thorn ulcers (terminal ilium)

Rose-thorn ulcers or rose-thorn appearance refers to deep penetrating linear ulcers or fissuring typically seen within stenosed terminal ileum with a thickened wall. They appear as thorn-like extraluminal projections on barium studies and this appearance is one of the typical signs of Crohn dise...
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Round belly sign (abdominal compartment syndrome)

Round belly sign is a sign of increased abdominal pressure in abdominal compartment syndrome where the abdomen has a rounded appearance of transverse section on CT, rather than its typical oval shape. The sign is positive when the AP to transverse diameter of the abdomen (abdominal ratio) is > ...
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Rugger jersey spine (hyperparathyroidism)

Rugger jersey spine describes the prominent endplate densities at multiple contiguous vertebral levels to produce an alternating sclerotic-lucent-sclerotic appearance. This mimics the horizontal stripes of a rugby jersey. This term and pattern are distinctive for hyperparathyroidism. Pathology ...
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Saber-sheath trachea

Saber-sheath trachea refers to diffuse coronal narrowing of the intrathoracic portion of the trachea with the concomitant widening of the sagittal diameter. It is not uncommon and is pathognomonic for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 1.  The sagittal:coronal diameter is over 2:1 2 a...
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Saber sign (pneumobilia)

The saber sign refers to a pattern of gas distribution seen in supine abdominal radiographs of patients with pneumobilia.  A sword-shaped lucency is apparent in the right paraspinal region of the upper abdomen representing arching gas extending from the common bile duct into the left hepatic duc...
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Sack of marbles sign (dermoid cyst)

The sack of marbles sign, also known as the marbles in a bag sign, refers to aggregations of multiple small globules of fat within a cyst mimicking marble spheres within a sack. They appear hyperechoic on ultrasound, fat attenuation on CT, and high signal on T1WI and T2WI on MRI. It is considere...
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Saddle pulmonary embolism

Saddle pulmonary embolism commonly refers to a large pulmonary embolism that straddles the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, extending into the left and right pulmonary arteries. If large enough, it can completely obstruct both left and right pulmonary arteries resulting in right heart failur...
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Sagging rope sign (Perthes disease)

The sagging rope sign is a thin sclerotic line that crosses the femoral neck and resembles a hanging or sagging rope that is suspended on both ends. This sign is seen in late stage of Perthes disease on plain radiographs of the hip or pelvis. This sign is thought to indicate damage to the growt...
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Sail sign (elbow)

The sail sign on an elbow radiograph describes the elevation of the anterior fat pad to create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat. It indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion. The anterior fat pad is usually concealed within the coronoid fossa or seen parall...
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Sail signs

There are numerous sails signs in radiology, where a normal structure is displaced or a pathology creates the appearance of a sail: elbow sail sign: the raised anterior fat pad on an elbow radiograph thymic sail sign: normal thymus on a pediatric chest radiograph spinnaker-sail sign (angel wi...
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Salad oil sign

Salad oil sign, also referred to as the droplet sign, is characterized by small rounded high T2 signal foci within a breast implant on MRI studies and represents water droplets or small amounts of gas within the silicone. It also can be characterized as hypointense foci on the water-suppressed s...
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Salt and pepper sign

The salt and pepper sign is used to refer to a speckled appearance of tissue. It is used in many instances, but most commonly on MRI. Please note that pathologists also use the term. Differential diagnosis Vascular tumors Used to describe some highly vascular tumors which contain foci of hemo...
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Salt and pepper sign (skull)

Salt and pepper sign or pepper pot skull refers to multiple tiny well-defined lucencies in the calvaria caused by resorption of trabecular bone in hyperparathyroidism. There is a loss of definition between the inner and outer tables of the skull and a ground-glass appearance as well as spotty de...
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Salted pretzel sign (CT head)

The salted pretzel sign is an uncommon sign of the presence of numerous small (<3 mm) calcific foci in the distal branches of a cerebral artery on non-contrast CT head that represent a shower of calcified cerebral emboli 1. Cerebral calcified emboli may be the initial manifestation of significan...
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Sandwich sign (Marchiafava-Bignami disease)

Sandwich sign of Marchiafava-Bignami disease is described as the appearance due to the involvement of central layers of the corpus callosum. T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities are seen in the central region of body and splenium of corpus callosum with sparing of peripheral dorsal and ventral layers ...
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Sandwich sign (mesentery)

A sandwich sign, sometimes known as a hamburger sign, refers to a mesenteric nodal mass, either para-aortic or not, giving an appearance of a hamburger. Confluent lymphadenopathy on both sides of the mesenteric vessels gives rise to an appearance described as the sandwich sign 2. The sign is sp...
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Sandwich vertebral body

Sandwich vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the endplates are densely sclerotic, giving the appearance of a sandwich. This term and pattern are distinctive for benign adult autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. Differential diagnosis rugger jersey spine: sandwich vertebrae appears ...
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Scalpel sign (spinal cord)

The scalpel sign has been recently described in dorsal thoracic arachnoid web on sagittal MRI spine studies. It relates to focal distortion of the thoracic cord, appearing anteriorly displaced. The enlarged dorsal CSF space mimics the profile of a surgical scalpel. It is helpful in distinguishi...
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Scaphoid fat pad sign

The scaphoid fat pad or stripe sign is defined as obliteration or lateral displacement of the normal scaphoid fat pad. A positive sign usually indicates a scaphoid fracture, although it may also be associated with a radial styloid or proximal first metacarpal fracture. Is it best visualized on p...
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Schwartze sign

Schwartze sign also known as Flemingo's flush sign or Rising sun sign is a characteristic reddish discolouration of the promontory seen during an otoscopic examination. It is seen in cases with otospongiosis in the active phase of the disease. History and Etymology Named after German otologist...
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Scimitar (disambiguation)

The term scimitar, referring to the characteristic shape of the Middle Eastern sword, may refer to the following: scimitar syndrome (lungs) scimitar sign (cystic adventitial disease) scimitar sacrum (bones)
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Scimitar sign (cystic adventitial disease)

Scimitar sign traditionally referred to a catheter angiographic appearance, although it can also be seen on MRA and CTA. It denotes lateral displacement and stenosis of the popliteal artery in patients with cystic adventitial disease. 
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Scottie dog sign (spine)

The Scottie dog sign refers to the normal appearance of the lumbar spine when seen on oblique radiographic projection. On oblique views, the posterior elements of the vertebra form the figure of a Scottie dog with: the transverse process being the nose the pedicle forming the eye the inferior...
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Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of bruising/abrasions in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) across the abdomen, chest and sometimes neck.  A positive seatbelt sign, in combination with abdominal pain or tenderne...
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Segond fracture

Segond fracture is an avulsion fracture of the knee that involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). On the frontal knee radiograph, it may be referred to as the lateral capsular sign...
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Sentinel clot sign

The sentinel clot sign is a useful CT finding for the evaluation of probable anatomic sites of hemorrhage. On CT, acute clotted hemorrhage typically has high attenuation (45 to 80 HU), whereas surrounding areas of acute non-clotted hemorrhage or more chronic hemorrhage have either lower attenua...
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Sentinel loop

A sentinel loop is a short segment of adynamic ileus close to an intra-abdominal inflammatory process. The sentinel loop sign may aid in localizing the source of inflammation. For example, a sentinel loop in the upper abdomen may indicate pancreatitis, while one in the right lower quadrant may ...
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Septal bounce

Septal bounce is a sign of ventricular interdependence on echocardiography, cardiac CT, and cardiac MRI, manifested by paradoxical interventricular septal movement during early diastole (i.e. initial septal movement towards and then away from the left ventricle) seen mainly in constrictive peric...
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Septal flash

Septal flash, also known as septal beaking, is a sign of interventricular dyssynchrony seen on echocardiography or cinematographic cardiac CT/MRI. It represents an abnormal rapid movement pattern of the interventricular septum during pre-ejection systole (i.e. isovolumic contraction): septal mo...
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Septal lines in lung

Septal lines, also known as Kerley lines, are seen when the interlobular septa in the pulmonary interstitium become prominent. This may be because of lymphatic engorgement or edema of the connective tissues of the interlobular septa. They usually occur when pulmonary capillary wedge pressure rea...
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Sergeant stripes sign (cerebellum)

The sergeant stripes sign refers to the oblique direction of the cerebellar tonsillar folia a feature sometimes visible in cases of Chiari I malformation on sagittal imaging. It is unclear which insignia this is meant to represent as the direction of the chevrons depends on nationality. For exam...
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Serpent sign

The serpent sign, or snake sign, is described in hydatid disease. The WHO classification (2001) or Gharbi classification (1985) of the hydatid disease describe several stages on ultrasound 1. During the active stage, the cyst is composed of three layers: the outer (pericyst), the middle (ectocys...
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Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. Pathology Several mechanisms are thought to to attribute to this appearance which include sinusoidal s...
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Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumors (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood-containing lesions (e.g. hemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of 9...
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Shagreen patch

A shagreen patch is a subepidermal collagenous connective tissue nevus, also known as a collagenoma, associated with tuberous sclerosis. The overlying skin may be discoloured with obvious pours, giving the appearance of orange peel. These lesions are most commonly found in the lumbosacral region...
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Shepherd crook deformity

A shepherd crook deformity refers to a coxa varus angulation of the proximal femur, classically seen in femoral involvement by fibrous dysplasia, although may be seen in other disorders such as Paget disease of bone and osteogenesis imperfecta. History and etymology The shape of the proximal f...
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Shifting granuloma sign

Shifting granuloma sign refers to a shift in the location of a parenchymal lesion visible on prior films that may be seen in the presence of atelectasis. For example, this occurs when a calcified granuloma is present in a lung and a significant parenchymal collapse "shifts" it from one location...
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Shiny corner sign (ankylosing spondylitis)

The shiny corner sign is a spinal finding in ankylosing spondylitis, representing reactive sclerosis secondary to inflammatory erosions at the superior and inferior endplates (corners on lateral radiograph) of the vertebral bodies which are known as Romanus lesions. Eventually, the vertebral bod...
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Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain AP chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which first appeared in 1948. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enlar...
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Shortening of the cervical canal

Shortening of the uterine cervical canal as the name implies refers to an abnormal shortening of the uterine cervical length. It is considered a sign of cervical incompetence during pregnancy and can lead to premature delivery. Pathology Etiology primary (i.e. congenital/idiopathic) secondar...
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Shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis

The shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis is seen during barium examination and refers to the bulging of the hypertrophied pyloric muscle into the lumen of the antrum. It is closely related to the cervix sign of pyloric stenosis.  See also cervix sign of pyloric stenosis target sign of pyloric s...
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Shred sign (lungs)

Shred sign is a static sonographic sign observed in lung consolidation. The deeper border of consolidated lung tissue that makes contact with the aerated lung is shredded and irregular. This sign is not seen in massive translobar consolidation in which it is more difficult to appreciate the deep...
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Sigmoid kidney

A sigmoid kidney is an uncommon variant of the horseshoe kidney. Whereas the typical horseshoe kidney is fused only at the lower poles, in a sigmoid kidney both the upper and the lower poles are fused 1.
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Signal flare phenomenon

The signal flare phenomenon is a useful sign to identify active bleeding in a liquefied hematoma with hematocrit effect on dynamic CT scan images. When active arterial hemorrhage is present in a liquefied hematoma that has a hematocrit effect, a signal flare phenomenon may be seen as a linear, ...
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Signet ring sign

The signet ring sign is seen in bronchiectasis when the dilated bronchus and accompanying pulmonary artery branch are seen in cross-section. The bronchus and artery should be the same size, whereas in bronchiectasis, the bronchus is markedly dilated. The signet ring analogy has also been applie...
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Signs article structure

Signs are numerous in radiology and typically relate to a specific appearance or feature that is reminiscent of an object. The aim of a named sign is to help recognize or understand a specific imaging appearance (e.g. racing car sign of corpus callosal dysgenesis). The most important signs are t...
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Signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography

There are several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography which are suggestive of this diagnosis. None are pathognomonic and need to be interpreted with caution with close regard to the clinical presentation. Chang sign Fleischner sign Hampton hump (strictly a sign of pulmon...
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Silhouette sign (x-rays)

Silhouette sign is somewhat of a misnomer and in the true sense actually denotes the loss of a silhouette, thus, it is sometimes also known as loss of silhouette sign or loss of outline sign 4.  The differential attenuation of x-ray photons by two adjacent structures defines the silhouette, e.g...
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Sinusoid sign (ultrasound)

The sinusoid sign is a dynamic sonographic sign, present when respiratory variation decreases the distance between the parietal and visceral pleura, when separated by a pleural effusion. Classically demonstrated in M-mode, the appearance of which the moniker is derived, it is specific for the id...
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Sitting duck appearance (jugular foramen)

The sitting duck appearance denotes the normal anatomical configuration of the jugular foramen: the head of the duck (pointing backwards on the right side) represents the anteromedial pars nervosa the body of the duck representing the pars vascularis
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Skeletal muscle edema on MRI (differential)

The presence of intramuscular edema (increased high T2/STIR signal) on MRI carries an extremely broad differential. They include: trauma effects of direct injury or tear denervation injury: denervation changes in muscles early myositis ossificans inflammatory myopathies dermatomyositis po...
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Sliding sign

The loss of the normal sliding sign is a dynamic sonographic sign performed during transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) of women with suspected pelvic peritoneal endometriosis. It indicates pouch of Douglas (POD) involvement and obliteration and is suggestive of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). ...
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Sliver sign (patella)

The sliver sign refers to a curvilinear intra-articular osteochondral fragment in the knee joint on conventional knee radiographs. In the context of acute knee trauma and in association with joint effusion this sign is highly predictive of a recent transient lateral patellar dislocation 1. Path...
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Small bowel feces sign

The small bowel feces sign can be observed on abdominal CT scans. The sign has been described as a finding specific for small bowel obstruction or another severe small bowel abnormality (e.g. metabolic or infectious disease). While the reported prevalence of the sign in small bowel obstruction i...
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Small heart sign

The small heart sign represents a rarely encountered but critical sign on chest caused by a sudden reduction of heart size caused by cardiac tamponade due to either tension pneumopericardium or pneumomediastinum.  A sudden, >2cm reduction in the transverse cardiac diameter is considered highly ...
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Snake eyes (facial nerve)

Snake eyes, also known as snail eyes, is a term used to refer to the appearance of the facial nerve on coronal CT within its canal in the petrous temporal bone as the tympanic segment doubles back next to the labyrinthine segment. Anteriorly, these two segments converge at the geniculate ganglio...
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Snowcap sign (avascular necrosis)

Snowcap sign or snowcapping is defined as the appearance of dense sclerosis over the head of humerus or femur in cases of avascular necrosis as seen on plain radiographs, which resembles a snowcapped mountain.
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Snowman sign (disambiguation)

Snowman sign, also sometimes referred to as a figure of 8 sign or dumbell sign, is a radiologic sign related to conditions that have a shape which resembles a snowman. This include:  snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return) 1 snowman sign (pituitary macroadenoma) 2,3
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Snowman sign (pituitary macroadenoma)

Snowman sign in neuroimaging refers to the configuration of many pituitary macroadenomas. As they are soft tumors they are indented by the diaphragma sellae giving them a snowman configuration (or "figure 8" or "dumbbell" configuration). This feature helps in differentiating these tumors from me...
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Snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return)

Snowman sign refers to the configuration of the heart and the superior mediastinal borders resembling a snowman. This is seen in total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) type I (supracardiac type). It is also referred to as the figure of 8 sign. It is an abnormality of the fetal circulat...
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Snowstorm sign (complete hydatiform mole)

Snowstorm sign in obstetric imaging is classically seen in complete hydatiform mole. It is characterized by the presence of many hydropic villi which gives the ultrasonographic appearance of a central heterogeneous mass having a solid, hyperechoic area and interspersed with a multitude of cystic...
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Snowstorm sign (disambiguation)

Snowstorm sign may refer to: snowstorm sign: complete hydatiform mole (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: extracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: thyroid pulmonary metastases (chest radiograph)
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Snowstorm sign (extracapsular breast implant rupture)

Snowstorm sign on breast ultrasound imaging represents the presence of free silicone droplets mixed with breast tissue giving a characteristic heterogeneous echogenic appearance with dispersion of the ultrasound beam. It is considered the most reliable sign of extracapsular breast implant ruptur...
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Soft tissue rim sign

The soft-tissue rim sign is used to distinguish a ureteric calculus from a phlebolith. The former appears as a calcific density with a surrounding rim of soft tissue which represents the edematous ureteric wall. Phleboliths on the other hand usually have imperceptible walls (although up to 8% ma...
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Sonographic halo sign

Sonographic halo sign is used in a number of situations. They include: hypoechoic halo sign (also known as target or bull's eye sign) in liver metastases: used in hepatobiliary imaging, is a concerning feature for malignant lesion if the lesion is a hyperechoic liver lesion 1,2 ultrasound halo...
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Sonographic Mulder sign

The sonographic Mulder sign is used during sonography of the forefoot to investigate causes of metatarsalgia associated with Morton neuroma 1. The intermetatarsal space is predominantly composed of fat inferiorly and also contains the neurovascular bundle, not easily seen on sonography 2. Compre...
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Sonographic Murphy sign

Sonographic Murphy sign is defined as maximal abdominal tenderness from pressure of the ultrasound probe over the visualized gallbladder 1,2. It is a sign of local inflammation around the gallbladder along with right upper quadrant pain, tenderness and/or a mass 2. It is one of the most importa...
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Spade phalanx sign (acromegaly)

Spade phalanx sign refers to a characteristic distal phalangeal shape in acromegaly. Radiographic features Plain radiographs The terminal phalangeal tufts become hypertrophied and have a "spade appearance". Other findings on hand radiography of acromegaly include joint spaces may be minimal...
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Spaghetti sign (bladder)

The spaghetti sign may be seen in upper urinary tract bleeding. It refers to the presence of a linear worm- or spaghetti-like filling defect within a contrast-opacified bladder 1,2. This linear filling defect represents blood clot extruded from the ureter and thereby molded into a tubular shape...
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Spalding sign (fetal demise)

The Spalding sign refers to the overlapping of the fetal skull bones caused by collapse of the fetal brain. It appears usually a week or more after fetal death in utero.  This finding was originally described by Alfred Baker Spalding (1874-1942), an American obstetrician 2, on abdominal radiogr...
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Spectral broadening (ultrasound)

Spectral broadening is an important artifact in pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound imaging, due to its clinical relevance as a sign of vessel stenosis.  Physics Spectral broadening is caused by turbulence in blood flow as the normally homogeneous velocity of reflective red blood cells becomes more...
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Spider web appearance

Spider web appearance is a classic appearance seen on venography in a patient with hepatic venous outflow obstruction. It refers to the dense network of hepatic venous collaterals seen. 
Article

Spilled teacup sign (wrist)

The spilled teacup sign describes abnormal volar displacement and tilt of a dislocated lunate on lateral radiographs of the wrist 1,2. The convexity of the lunate is no longer in articulation with the distal radius while the concavity is no longer in articulation with the capitate. It is an impo...
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Spinnaker sign (mediastinum)

The spinnaker sign (also known as the angel wing sign) is a sign of pneumomediastinum seen on neonatal chest radiographs. It refers to the thymus being outlined by air with each lobe displaced laterally and appearing like spinnaker sails. This is distinct from the sail sign appearance of the nor...
Article

Split hand sign

The split hand sign is a clinical sign classically seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and refers to loss of pincer grasp due to preferential wasting of the thenar eminence (abductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscle) with relative preservation of the hypothenar eminen...
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Split pleura sign (empyema)

The split pleura sign is seen with pleural empyemas and is considered the most reliable CT sign helping to distinguish an empyema from a peripheral pulmonary abscess (see empyema vs pulmonary abscess) 1,2.  The sign results from fibrin coating both the parietal and visceral surfaces of the pleu...
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Spoke wheel sign (meningioma)

The spoke wheel sign refers to the pattern of vessels coursing through meningiomas, when seen in cross-section.  It is the result of the same phenomenon which results in the sunburst pattern (vessels seen from the side rather than in cross-section). Terminology A similar appearance also referr...
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Stack of coins sign (bowel)

Stack of coins sign refers to the appearance of small bowel folds that are smoothly and uniformly thickened 1. The margins between the folds are sharply delineated and the arrangement of clearly demarcated parallel folds is likened to a stack of coins or a picket fence. This sign is distinct fro...
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Staghorn calculus (kidney)

Staghorn calculi, also sometimes called coral calculi, are renal calculi that obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calyces, thus resembling the horns of a stag. For a general discussion of renal calculi please refer to nephrolithiasis. Epidemiology Stagh...
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Stag's antler sign (lungs)

The stag's antler sign refers to upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion (cephalisation) in pulmonary venous hypertension or pulmonary edema as seen on frontal chest radiograph. The prominence of upper lobe pulmonary veins resemble a stag's antlers. It is the earliest sign of pulmonary venous hyp...
Article

Starfield pattern (fat embolism)

A starfield pattern has been described as being typical of DWI imaging of patients with cerebral fat embolism 1,2. Although the term is closely linked to the diagnosis of fat embolism, it should be noted that such an appearance is merely the result of very numerous microemboli. As such a similar...
Article

Starry sky appearance (disambiguation)

Starry sky appearance is a radiological sign used to describe the appearance of the liver on two different imaging modalities: starry sky appearance (ultrasound) Starry sky appearance (MRI)
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Starry sky appearance (MRI)

Starry sky appearance on MRI refers to the appearance of small innumerable T2 hyperintense multiple bile duct hamartomas and biliary microhamartomas, scattered throughout the T2 hypointense hepatic parenchyma, which resembles a “starry sky”. The high T2 lesions are representing Von Meyenburg com...
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Starry sky appearance (ultrasound)

A starry sky appearance refers to a sonographic appearance of the liver parenchyma in which there are bright echogenic dots throughout a background of decreased liver parenchymal echogenicity. Although usually associated with acute hepatitis, this sign has been found to have poor sensitivity and...
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Steeple sign (trachea)

The steeple sign, also called the wine bottle sign, refers to the tapering of the upper trachea on a frontal chest radiograph reminiscent of a church steeple. The appearance is suggestive of croup, which should be obvious clinically. A corresponding lateral x-ray would show narrowing of the subg...
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Steinberg sign (Marfan disease)

The Steinberg sign, also known as the thumb sign, is one of the clinical examination tests for Marfan disease in the hands. It is a clinical test in which the tip of the thumb is visible medial to the little finger when it is clasped in the clenched hand.  See also thumb sign (disambiguation)
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Steinstrasse

Steinstrasse [stīn′shtra-se] is the German word for "stone street", describing a possible complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary tract calculi, wherein a column of stone fragments forms that blocks the ureter. Incidence Steinstrasse usually develops 1 day to 3...

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