Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

975 results found
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Septal flash

Septal flash, also known as septal beaking, is a sign of interventricular dyssynchrony seen on echocardiography or cinematographic cardiac CT/MRI. It represents an abnormal rapid movement pattern of the interventricular septum during pre-ejection systole (i.e. isovolumic contraction): septal mo...
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Septal lines in lung

Septal lines, also known as Kerley lines, are seen when the interlobular septa in the pulmonary interstitium become prominent. This may be because of lymphatic engorgement or edema of the connective tissues of the interlobular septa. They usually occur when pulmonary capillary wedge pressure rea...
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Sergeant stripes sign (cerebellum)

The sergeant stripes sign refers to the oblique direction of the cerebellar tonsillar folia a feature sometimes visible in cases of Chiari I malformation on sagittal imaging. It is unclear which insignia this is meant to represent as the direction of the chevrons depends on nationality. For exam...
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Serpent sign

The serpent sign, or snake sign, is described in hydatid disease. The WHO classification (2001) or Gharbi classification (1985) of the hydatid disease describe several stages on ultrasound 1. During the active stage, the cyst is composed of three layers: the outer (pericyst), the middle (ectocys...
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Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. Pathology Several mechanisms are thought to to attribute to this appearance which include sinusoidal s...
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Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumors (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary). It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood-containing lesions (e.g. hemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of ...
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Shagreen patch

A shagreen patch is a subepidermal collagenous connective tissue nevus, also known as a collagenoma, associated with tuberous sclerosis. The overlying skin may be discoloured with obvious pours, giving the appearance of orange peel. These lesions are most commonly found in the lumbosacral region...
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Shepherd crook deformity

A shepherd crook deformity refers to a coxa varus angulation of the proximal femur, classically seen in femoral involvement by fibrous dysplasia, although may be seen in other disorders such as Paget disease of bone and osteogenesis imperfecta. History and etymology The shape of the proximal f...
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Shifting granuloma sign

Shifting granuloma sign refers to a shift in the location of a parenchymal lesion visible on prior films that may be seen in the presence of atelectasis. For example, this occurs when a calcified granuloma is present in a lung and a significant parenchymal collapse "shifts" it from one location...
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Shiny corner sign (ankylosing spondylitis)

The shiny corner sign is a spinal finding in ankylosing spondylitis, representing reactive sclerosis secondary to inflammatory erosions at the superior and inferior endplates (corners on lateral radiograph) of the vertebral bodies which are known as Romanus lesions. Eventually, the vertebral bod...
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Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain PA chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which first appeared in 1948 5. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enl...
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Shortening of the cervical canal

Shortening of the uterine cervical canal as the name implies refers to an abnormal shortening of the uterine cervical length. It is considered a sign of cervical incompetence during pregnancy and can lead to premature delivery. Pathology Etiology primary (i.e. congenital/idiopathic) secondar...
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Shoulder sign (pyloric stenosis)

The shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis is seen during barium examination and refers to the bulging of the hypertrophied pyloric muscle into the lumen of the antrum. It is closely related to the cervix sign (pyloric stenosis).  See also cervix sign (pyloric stenosis) target sign (pyloric steno...
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Shred sign (lungs)

The shred sign, also known as the fractal sign, is a static sonographic sign of lung consolidation. Consolidated lung tissue appears as a subpleural hypoechoic region that has an irregular (shredded) deep border (fractal line) abutting normally aerated lung, which has echogenic artifacts. This ...
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Sigmoid kidney

A sigmoid kidney is an uncommon variant of the horseshoe kidney. Whereas the typical horseshoe kidney is fused only at the lower poles, in a sigmoid kidney both the upper and the lower poles are fused 1.
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Signal flare phenomenon

The signal flare phenomenon is a useful sign to identify active bleeding in a liquefied hematoma with hematocrit effect on dynamic CT scan images. When active arterial hemorrhage is present in a liquefied hematoma that has a hematocrit effect, a signal flare phenomenon may be seen as a linear, ...
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Signet ring sign

The signet ring sign is seen in bronchiectasis when the dilated bronchus and accompanying pulmonary artery branch are seen in cross-section. The bronchus and artery should be the same size, whereas in bronchiectasis, the bronchus is markedly dilated. The signet ring analogy has also been applie...
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Signs article structure

Articles on signs are in general short articles, and do not usually require subheadings. ======================================================================= Signs are numerous in radiology and typically relate to a specific appearance or feature that is reminiscent of an object. The aim of...
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Signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography

There are several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography which are suggestive of this diagnosis. None are pathognomonic and need to be interpreted with caution with close regard to the clinical presentation. Chang sign Fleischner sign Hampton hump (strictly a sign of pulmon...
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Silhouette sign (x-rays)

Silhouette sign is somewhat of a misnomer and in the true sense actually denotes the loss of a silhouette, thus, it is sometimes also known as loss of silhouette sign or loss of outline sign 4.  The differential attenuation of x-ray photons by two adjacent structures defines the silhouette, e.g...
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Sinusoid sign (ultrasound)

The sinusoid sign is a dynamic sonographic sign, present when respiratory variation decreases the distance between the parietal and visceral pleura, when separated by a pleural effusion. Classically demonstrated in M-mode, the appearance of which the moniker is derived, it is specific for the id...
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Sitting duck appearance (jugular foramen)

The sitting duck appearance denotes the normal anatomical configuration of the jugular foramen: the head of the duck (pointing backwards on the right side) represents the anteromedial pars nervosa the body of the duck representing the pars vascularis
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Skeletal muscle edema on MRI (differential)

The presence of intramuscular edema (increased high T2/STIR signal) on MRI carries an extremely broad differential. They include: trauma effects of direct injury or tear denervation injury: denervation changes in muscles early myositis ossificans inflammatory myopathies dermatomyositis po...
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Sliding sign

The loss of the normal sliding sign is a dynamic sonographic sign performed during transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) of women with suspected pelvic peritoneal endometriosis. It indicates pouch of Douglas (POD) involvement and obliteration and is suggestive of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). ...
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Sliver sign (patella)

The sliver sign refers to a curvilinear intra-articular osteochondral fragment in the knee joint on conventional knee radiographs. In the context of acute knee trauma and in association with joint effusion this sign is highly predictive of a recent transient lateral patellar dislocation 1. Path...
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Small bowel feces sign

The small bowel feces sign can be observed on abdominal CT scans. The sign has been described as a finding specific for small bowel obstruction or another severe small bowel abnormality (e.g. metabolic or infectious disease). While the reported prevalence of the sign in small bowel obstruction i...
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Small heart sign

The small heart sign represents a rarely encountered but critical sign on chest caused by a sudden reduction of heart size caused by cardiac tamponade due to either tension pneumopericardium or pneumomediastinum.  A sudden, >2 cm reduction in the transverse cardiac diameter is considered highly...
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Snake eyes (facial nerve)

Snake eyes, also known as snail eyes, is a term used to refer to the appearance of the facial nerve on coronal CT within its canal in the petrous temporal bone as the tympanic segment doubles back next to the labyrinthine segment. Anteriorly, these two segments converge at the geniculate ganglio...
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Snoopy sign

The Snoopy sign is a chest radiographic appearance in pericardial agenesis. It is due to combination of cardiac levoposition (heart shifted to the left), lengthening and flattening of the border of the left ventricle, radiolucency separating the left ventricle and left hemidiaphragm, radiolucenc...
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Snowcap sign (avascular necrosis)

Snowcap sign or snowcapping is defined as the appearance of dense sclerosis over the head of humerus or femur in cases of avascular necrosis as seen on plain radiographs, which resembles a snowcapped mountain.
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Snowman sign (disambiguation)

Snowman sign, also sometimes referred to as a figure of 8 sign or dumbell sign, is a radiologic sign related to conditions that have a shape which resembles a snowman. This include:  snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return) 1 snowman sign (pituitary macroadenoma) 2,3
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Snowman sign (pituitary macroadenoma)

Snowman sign in neuroimaging refers to the configuration of many pituitary macroadenomas. As they are soft tumors they are indented by the diaphragma sellae giving them a snowman configuration (or "figure 8" or "dumbbell" configuration). This feature helps in differentiating these tumors from me...
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Snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return)

Snowman sign refers to the configuration of the heart and the superior mediastinal borders resembling a snowman. This is seen in total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) type I (supracardiac type). It is also referred to as the figure of 8 sign. It is an abnormality of the fetal circulat...
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Snowstorm sign (complete hydatiform mole)

Snowstorm sign in obstetric imaging is classically seen in complete hydatiform mole. It is characterized by the presence of many hydropic villi which gives the ultrasonographic appearance of a central heterogeneous mass having a solid, hyperechoic area and interspersed with a multitude of cystic...
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Snowstorm sign (disambiguation)

Snowstorm sign may refer to: snowstorm sign: complete hydatiform mole (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: extracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: thyroid pulmonary metastases (chest radiograph)
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Snowstorm sign (extracapsular breast implant rupture)

Snowstorm sign on breast ultrasound imaging represents the presence of free silicone droplets mixed with breast tissue giving a characteristic heterogeneous echogenic appearance with dispersion of the ultrasound beam. It is considered the most reliable sign of extracapsular breast implant ruptur...
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Soft tissue rim sign (ureteric calculus)

The soft-tissue rim sign is used to distinguish a ureteric calculus from a phlebolith. The former appears as a calcific density with a surrounding rim of soft tissue which represents the edematous ureteric wall. Phleboliths on the other hand usually have imperceptible walls (although up to 8% ma...
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Sonographic halo sign

Sonographic halo sign is used in a number of situations. They include: hypoechoic halo sign (also known as target or bull's eye sign) in liver metastases: used in hepatobiliary imaging, is a concerning feature for malignant lesion if the lesion is a hyperechoic liver lesion 1,2 ultrasound halo...
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Sonographic Mulder sign

The sonographic Mulder sign is the ultrasound correlate of the clinical Mulder sign during examination of the forefoot to investigate causes of metatarsalgia associated with Morton neuroma 1. The intermetatarsal space is predominantly composed of fat inferiorly and also contains the neurovascula...
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Sonographic Murphy sign

Sonographic Murphy sign is defined as maximal abdominal tenderness from pressure of the ultrasound probe over the visualized gallbladder 1,2. It is a sign of local inflammation around the gallbladder along with right upper quadrant pain, tenderness, and/or a mass 2. It is one of the most import...
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Spade phalanx sign (acromegaly)

Spade phalanx sign refers to a characteristic distal phalangeal shape in acromegaly. Radiographic features Plain radiographs The terminal phalangeal tufts become hypertrophied and have a "spade appearance". Other findings on hand radiography of acromegaly include joint spaces may be minimal...
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Spaghetti sign (bladder)

The spaghetti sign may be seen in upper urinary tract bleeding. It refers to the presence of a linear worm- or spaghetti-like filling defect within a contrast-opacified bladder 1,2. This linear filling defect represents blood clot extruded from the ureter and thereby molded into a tubular shape...
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Spalding sign (fetal demise)

The Spalding sign refers to the overlapping of the fetal skull bones caused by collapse of the fetal brain. It appears usually a week or more after fetal death in utero.  This finding was originally described by Alfred Baker Spalding (1874-1942), an American obstetrician 2, on abdominal radiogr...
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Spectral broadening (ultrasound)

Spectral broadening is an important artifact in pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound imaging, due to its clinical relevance as a sign of vessel stenosis.  Physics Spectral broadening is caused by turbulence in blood flow as the normally homogeneous velocity of reflective red blood cells becomes more...
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Spider web appearance

Spider web appearance is a classic appearance seen on venography in a patient with hepatic venous outflow obstruction. It refers to the dense network of hepatic venous collaterals seen. 
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Spilled teacup sign (wrist)

The spilled teacup sign describes abnormal volar displacement and tilt of a dislocated lunate on lateral radiographs of the wrist 1,2. The convexity of the lunate is no longer in articulation with the distal radius while the concavity is no longer in articulation with the capitate. It is an impo...
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Spinnaker sign (mediastinum)

The spinnaker sign (also known as the angel wing sign) is a sign of pneumomediastinum seen on neonatal chest radiographs. It refers to the thymus being outlined by air with each lobe displaced laterally and appearing like spinnaker sails. This is distinct from the sail sign appearance of the nor...
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Split hand sign

The split hand sign is a clinical sign classically seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and refers to loss of pincer grasp due to preferential wasting of the thenar eminence (abductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscle) with relative preservation of the hypothenar eminen...
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Split pleura sign (empyema)

The split pleura sign is seen with pleural empyemas and is considered the most reliable CT sign helping to distinguish an empyema from a peripheral pulmonary abscess (see empyema vs pulmonary abscess) 1,2.  The sign results from fibrin coating both the parietal and visceral surfaces of the pleu...
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Split scar sign (rectal cancer response assessment)

The split scar sign has been described as a feature on rectal cancer MRI studies acquired following chemoradiotherapy and having a high specificity and positive predictive value for a complete response 1. It is identified on high resolution T2 weighted imaging and refers to the presence of low ...
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Spoke wheel sign (meningioma)

The spoke wheel sign refers to the pattern of vessels coursing through meningiomas, when seen in cross-section.  It is the result of the same phenomenon which results in the sunburst pattern (vessels seen from the side rather than in cross-section). Terminology A similar appearance also referr...
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Stack of coins sign (bowel)

Stack of coins sign refers to the appearance of small bowel folds that are smoothly and uniformly thickened 1. The margins between the folds are sharply delineated and the arrangement of clearly demarcated parallel folds is likened to a stack of coins or a picket fence. This sign is distinct fro...
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Staghorn calculus (kidney)

Staghorn calculi, also sometimes called coral calculi, are renal calculi that obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calyces, thus resembling the horns of a stag. They refers to struvite calculus involving the renal pelvis and extending into atleast two calyc...
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Staghorn pattern of vascularity

The staghorn pattern of vascularity is a pathological term describing a pattern of vascularity seen on low-power light microscopy. It is defined by multiple thin-walled, sharply-branched and jagged vessels having an "antler-like" or "staghorn-like" appearance 1. It is classically described with...
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Stag's antler sign (lungs)

The stag's antler sign, also known as the hands-up or inverted moustache sign, refers to upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion in pulmonary venous hypertension or pulmonary edema as seen on an erect frontal chest radiograph. The prominence of upper lobe pulmonary veins resembles a stag's antler...
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Starfield pattern (fat embolism)

A starfield pattern has been described as being typical of DWI of patients with cerebral fat embolism 1,2. Although the term is closely linked to the diagnosis of fat embolism, it should be noted that such an appearance is merely the result of very numerous microemboli. As such, a similar patter...
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Starry sky appearance (disambiguation)

Starry sky appearance is a radiological sign used to describe the appearance of the liver on two different imaging modalities: starry sky appearance (ultrasound) starry sky appearance (MRI) starry sky artifact (MRI)
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Starry sky appearance (MRI)

Starry sky appearance on MRI refers to the appearance of small innumerable T2 hyperintense bile duct hamartomas and biliary microhamartomas, scattered throughout the T2 hypointense hepatic parenchyma, which resembles a “starry sky”. The high T2 signal lesions represent Von Meyenburg complexes se...
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Starry sky appearance (ultrasound)

A starry sky appearance refers to a sonographic appearance of the liver parenchyma in which there are bright echogenic dots throughout a background of decreased liver parenchymal echogenicity. Although usually associated with acute hepatitis, this sign has been found to have poor sensitivity and...
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Steeple sign (trachea)

The steeple sign, also called the wine bottle sign, refers to the tapering of the upper trachea on a frontal chest radiograph reminiscent of a church steeple. The appearance is suggestive of croup, which should be obvious clinically. A corresponding lateral x-ray would show narrowing of the subg...
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Steinberg sign (Marfan disease)

The Steinberg sign, also known as the thumb sign, is one of the clinical examination tests for Marfan disease in the hands. It is a clinical test in which the tip of the thumb is visible medial to the little finger when it is clasped in the clenched hand.  See also thumb sign (disambiguation)
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Steinstrasse

Steinstrasse [stīn′shtra-se] is the German word for "stone street", describing a possible complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary tract calculi, wherein a column of stone fragments forms that blocks the ureter. Incidence Steinstrasse usually develops 1 day to 3...
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Stener lesion

Stener lesions are seen in the context of a torn ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb's metacarpophalangeal joint (gamekeeper's thumb).  Pathology Normally, the ulnar collateral ligament lies deep to the adductor pollicis tendon. A Stener lesion is characterized by slippage of the torn end o...
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Stepladder sign (disambiguation)

Stepladder sign may refer to: intracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) gas-fluid levels in obstructed small bowel (erect abdominal radiograph)
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Stepladder sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

The stepladder sign is a sonographic sign indicating an intracapsular breast implant rupture. It is considered the most reliable ultrasonographic finding in silicone gel breast implant intracapsular rupture. It is identified as multiple, discontinuous, parallel, linear echoes in the lumen, and i...
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Stepladder sign (small bowel obstruction)

Stepladder sign represents the appearance of gas-fluid distended small bowel loops that appear to be stacked on top of each other, typically observed on erect abdominal radiographs in the setting of small bowel obstruction. 
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Step-off sign

The step-off sign is the radiographic appearance of Lisfranc injury on lateral projections of the foot when there is a dorsal displacement of the second metatarsal base. At the tarsometatarsal joint level, this displacement interrupts an imaginary line drawn on the dorsal surface of the foot 1-6...
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Stierlin sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)

The Stierlin sign refers to repeated emptying of the cecum, seen radiographically as barium remaining in the terminal part of the ileum and in the transverse colon. This occurs due to irritation of the cecum caused by M. tuberculosis. It is not specific for tuberculosis and can also be seen in C...
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Stipple sign (transitional cell carcinoma)

The stipple sign refers to the pointillistic end-on appearance on intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography of contrast material tracking into the interstices of a papillary lesion. Because the majority of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) have a papillary configuration, the presence of...
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Straight left heart border sign

Straight left heart border sign is a recently described finding on chest radiograph. It is a fairly specific (84%) sign of hemopericardium after a penetrating chest trauma, although sensitivity at 40% is relatively poor. Positive predictive value (PPV) was found to be 89% 1. It is different to ...
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Strawberry gallbladder

Strawberry gallbladder refers to the surface appearance (not shape) of the mucosa of the gallbladder due to multiple small collections of triglycerides and cholesterol esters within the lamina propria of the gallbladder wall (gallbladder wall cholesterolosis).  Strawberry gallbladder represents...
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Strawberry skull

Strawberry skull refers to the shape of the head on an antenatal ultrasound. Epidemiology Associations In general, strawberry skull is considered one of the non-specific 'soft markers' for abnormal fetal development. It is considered more closely associated with trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome). ...
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Striated nephrogram

Striated nephrogram is a descriptive term indicating an appearance of alternating linear bands of high and low attenuation in a radial pattern extending through the corticomedullary layers of the kidney on iodine-based intravenous contrast enhanced imaging. It is important to know that a simila...
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String of beads sign (renal artery)

The string of beads sign is the description typically given to the appearance of the renal artery in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) but may also be used to describe the appearance of splanchnic arteries in segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). It refers to the appearance arising from the stenoses ...
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String of pearls sign (disambiguation)

String of pearls sign can refer to: string of pearls sign on an abdominal radiograph of fluid-filled dilated small bowel loops string of pearls sign on ultrasound in polycystic ovarian syndrome string of pearls sign for angiographic appearances in fibromuscular dysplasia string of pearls sig...
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String of pearls sign (gastrointestinal)

The string of pearls (or beads) sign can be seen on upright or decubitus abdominal radiographs as well as on CT in patients with small bowel obstruction, increased intraluminal fluid, and slow resorption of intraluminal gas. It consists of an obliquely or horizontally oriented row of small gas ...
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String of pearls sign (ovary)

The string of pearls (or beads) sign in the ovary is the ultrasound sign of multiple small (<5 mm) follicles peripherally located in the gonad. It is typically seen in polycystic ovaries, and is thought to represent abnormal accumulation of immature follicles. This morphologic appearance howeve...
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String sign (artery)

The angiographic string sign, also known as the carotid string sign or slim sign, refers to the thin string of intravascular contrast material distal to a stenotic focus in the internal carotid artery (ICA).  Pathology A thin stripe of flow is caused by decreased pressure and flow distal to th...
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String sign (bones)

The string sign of parosteal osteosarcoma refers to the plain radiographic/CT appearance of a radiolucent cleavage plane between portions of the tumor and cortex of the affected bone. The tumor stalk becomes more broad-based with time, obliterating the string sign in later stages. The string si...
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String sign (bowel)

The gastrointestinal string sign (also known as the string sign of Kantor) refers to the string-like appearance of a contrast-filled bowel loop caused by its severe narrowing. Originally used to describe the reversible narrowing caused by spasms in Crohn disease, it is now used for any severe n...
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String sign (disambiguation)

The string sign may refer to: angiographic string sign gastrointestinal string sign string sign of parosteal osteosarcoma myositis ossificans string sign
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Stuck temporomandibular joint disc

A stuck disc, also called anchored disc phenomenon, refers to a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc which does not translate anteriorly out of the mandibular fossa onto the articular eminence but rather remains (thus "stuck") in the fossa. It is a form of TMJ dysfunction. Clinical presentation ...
Article

Subcapsular line sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

The subcapsular line sign is a small localized leak from a silicone implant that leads to the formation of a thin layer of silicone between the implant shell and the fibrous capsule. It represents a minimally collapsed intracapsular breast implant rupture. It is best appreciated by MRI.
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Subcoracoid triangle sign

The subcoracoid triangle sign refers to the obliteration of the fat triangle between the coracohumeral ligament (superiorly), coracoid process / coracobrachialis (anterosuperiorly) and glenohumeral joint capsule (posteroinferiorly). It is considered a specific but not sensitive sign for adhesive...
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Subpleural line

Subpleural lines (also known as pleural lines) refers to thin curvilinear opacities, 1-3 mm in thickness, lying less than 1 cm from and parallel to the pleural surface. Etiology dependent atelectasis of normal lung if seen in the dependent posteroinferior portion of the lung of a patient in th...
Article

Sugar coating

So-called "sugar coating" or zuckerguss (German for sugar icing) refers to the appearance of diffuse linear/sheetlike leptomeningeal contrast enhancement in the brain or spinal cord due to drop metastases or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. It is seen both as a result of CNS involvement from dista...
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Sulcal effacement

Sulcal effacement is a local secondary sign of mass effect in the cranium. Any lesion exerting mass effect on brain parenchyma can push adjacent gyri together, thereby displacing the CSF from the sulci. It is greatest at the site where the cause of the mass effect is located (e.g. tumor, hemorr...
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Sunburst appearance (bone)

Sunburst or sunray appearance describes two separate findings in the bone: a periosteal reaction and a trabeculation pattern. It should not be confused with the sunburst sign of meningioma vascularity.  Sunburst periosteal reaction reflects aggressive periostitis. The sunburst appearance occurs...
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Sunburst sign (disambiguation)

The evocative appearance of a sunburst has inspired several signs: sunburst appearance (bone) sunburst sign (meningioma) sunburst sign (renal angiomyolipoma)
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Sunburst sign (meningioma)

The sunburst sign refers to the characteristic vascular supply seen in some meningiomas when seen from the side (tangential to the dural attachment). It is the result of the same phenomenon which results in the spoke wheel pattern of vessels (viewed in cross-section, parallel to dural attachment...
Article

Sunset eye sign

The sunset eye sign (also known as the setting sun phenomenon) is a clinical phenomenon encountered in infants and young children with raised intracranial pressure (seen in up to 40% of children with obstructive hydrocephalus and 13% of children with shunt dysfunction 1).  It consists of an up-...
Article

Suspected physical abuse

Suspected physical abuse (SPA), also known as non-accidental injury (NAI) or inflicted injury, in infants and young children represents both ethical and legal challenges to treating physicians. Radiologists may be the first clinical staff to suspect non-accidental injuries when confronted with ...
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Swallow tail sign (substantia nigra)

The swallow tail sign describes the normal axial imaging appearance of nigrosome-1 within the substantia nigra on high-resolution T2*/SWI weighted MRI. Terminology Yes, this is one of those annoying signs where its presence is normal. A normal-appearing substantia nigra is reminiscent of a swa...

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