Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

737 results found
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Veiled right kidney sign

The veiled right kidney sign is a sonographic sign described in pneumoretroperitoneum, most commonly due to duodenal perforation. It refers to the appearance of the right kidney on transabdominal ultrasound 1-4. On ultrasound, there is difficulty in obtaining images of the right kidney due to i...
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Y sign (epidural lipomatosis)

The Y sign refers to a common appearance in lumbar epidural lipomatosis where excess fat in the extradural space compresses the dural sac into the shape of the letter "Y". 
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Tram-track sign (brain)

Tram-track sign in the brain refers to the parallel calcification of the cortex in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome 1.  It should not be confused with other tram-track signs elsewhere in the body. 
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Tau sign

The tau sign represents the appearance of a persistent trigeminal artery on the sagittal plane of an angiogram or on sagittal MRI images. It resembles the greek letter 'tau'. Persistent trigeminal artery arising from the junction between the petrous and cavernous ICA and runs posterolaterally al...
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Ivy sign (brain)

The ivy sign refers to the MRI appearance of patients with moya moya disease or moya moya syndrome. Prominent leptomeningeal collaterals result in vivid contrast enhancement and high signal on FLAIR due to slow flow. The appearance is reminiscent of the brain having been covered with ivy. Diffe...
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Signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography

There are several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography which are suggestive of this diagnosis. None are pathognomonic and need to be interpreted with caution with close regard to the clinical presentation. Chang sign Fleischner sign Hampton hump (strictly a sign of pulmon...
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Polo mint sign (venous thrombosis)

The Polo Mint sign is a description given to a venous thrombosis on contrast enhanced CT imaging.  When viewed in the axial plane, a thin rim of contrast persists around a central filling defect due to thrombus. This gives an appearance like that of the popular mint sweet, the Polo, also referre...
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Palla sign

Palla sign is a sign seen on chest radiographs suggestive of pulmonary embolism, usually seen in the acute setting. Although uncommon, it can be seen along with several other described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography. Pathology Palla sign describes an enlarged right descending...
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Hampton hump

Hampton hump refers to a dome-shaped, pleural-based opacification in the lung most commonly due to pulmonary embolism and lung infarction (it can also result from other causes of pulmonary infarction (e.g. vascular occlusion due to angioinvasive aspergillosis). While a pulmonary embolism is expe...
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Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery)

The Fleischner sign refers to a prominent central pulmonary artery that can be commonly caused either by pulmonary hypertension or by distension of the vessel by a large pulmonary embolus. It can be seen on chest radiographs, CT pulmonary angiography, and MR pulmonary angiography. It is seen mo...
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Knuckle sign (pulmonary embolism)

Knuckle sign refers to the abrupt tapering or cutoff of a pulmonary artery secondary to embolus. It is better visualised on CT pulmonary angiography scan than chest x-ray. This is an important ancillary finding in pulmonary embolism (PE), and often associated with the Fleischner sign of dilated ...
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Chang sign (pulmonary embolism)

The Chang sign refers to the dilatation and abrupt change in calibre of the main pulmonary artery due to pulmonary embolism 1. It is one of several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiographs. History and etymology It is named after C. H. Joseph Chang, (July 7 1929 - November 15 ...
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Westermark sign

Westermark sign is a sign of pulmonary embolus (PE) seen on chest radiographs. It is one of several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiographs. Pathology In one study (PIOPED) this sign was present on ~10% of chest x-rays of patients with confirmed PE 2.  The theory behind the...
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Fleischner sign (disambiguation)

Fleischner sign can refer to two distinctly separate signs: Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery) Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)

The Fleischner sign refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocaecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocaecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign not to be confused with the Fleischner sign (enlarged p...
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Ghost vertebra

Ghost vertebra is a sign, that is generally used synonymously with bone-within-a-bone vertebra, and as such, the causes form a subset of those causing bone within a bone appearance 2: Thorotrast administration: bone within a bone appearance due to temporary growth arrest 1 stress line rickets...
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Infundibulum sign (pituitary)

The infundibulum sign is helpful in distinguishing an empty pituitary sella from a cystic lesion of the pituitary region 1.  In the former, although the sella is enlarged, there is no mass as such and the pituitary infundibulum traverses the enlarged sella to its floor where residual pituitary ...
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Coxa magna

Coxa magna is the asymmetrical, circumferential enlargement and deformation of the femoral head and neck. Definitions in the literature vary but enlargement with asymmetry >10% in size is a reasonable cut-off for diagnosis 1.  Pathology Aetiology Legg-Calve-Perthes disease transient synoviti...
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Small bowel faeces sign

The small bowel faeces sign can be observed on abdominal CT scans. The sign has been described as a finding specific for small bowel obstruction or another severe small bowel abnormality (e.g. metabolic or infectious disease). While the reported prevalence of the sign in small bowel obstruction ...
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Mount Fuji sign

Mount Fuji sign is seen on cross sectional imaging and is indicative of a tension pneumocephalus.  The sign refers to the presence of air (pneumocephalus) between the tips of the frontal lobes giving the appearance of Mount Fuji 1-3. It suggests that the pressure of the air is at least greater ...
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Ribbon ribs deformity

Ribbon ribs deformity refers to the presence of thinned ribs on image studies. Such findings could be present in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 due the presence of multiple neurofibromas of intercostal nerves.  This deformity is also described in osteogenesis imperfecta 1 Edwards synd...
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Salt and pepper sign (skull)

Salt and pepper sign or pepperpot skull of the calvarium refers to multiple tiny well-defined lucencies in the skull vault caused by resorption of trabecular bone in hyperparathyroidism. There is a loss of definition between the inner and outer tables of the skull and a ground-glass appearance ...
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Geyser sign (shoulder)

The geyser sign may occur in some cases of long-standing rotator cuff tear and advanced degenerative change of the shoulder.  Clinical presentation It may present as a pseudotumour above the AC joint. Pathology Chronic rotator cuff degenerative change and full-thickness tearing leads to inst...
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Empty delta sign

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect (thrombus). It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI. Pathology The exact mechanism for this appearance i...
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Cotton wool appearance (bone)

The cotton wool appearance is a plain film sign of Paget disease and results from thickened, disorganized trabeculae which lead to areas of sclerosis in a previously lucent area of bone, typically the skull. These sclerotic patches are poorly defined and fluffy. See also Other Paget disease re...
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Ghost sign (Charcot joint)

The ghost sign is seen when a Charcot joint is complicated by an osteomyelitis. It is most commonly seen in the setting of a diabetic foot.  It refers to the poor definition of the margins of a bone on a T1 weighted image, which reappears after contrast injection 1.
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Lhermitte sign (spinal cord)

Lhermitte sign or the barber chair phenomenon is an electrical shock sensation running down the spine and into the limb on neck flexion. It suggests compression of the upper cervical spinal cord and/or brainstem. Pathology It is typically seen with multiple sclerosis but is also associated wit...
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Rugger-jersey spine

Rugger-jersey spine describes the prominent subendplate densities at multiple contiguous levels to produce an alternating sclerotic-lucent-sclerotic appearance. This simulates the transverse bands of a rugby jersey. This term and pattern are distinctive for hyperparathyroidism. Pathology In r...
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Wall-echo-shadow sign (ultrasound)

The wall-echo-shadow sign (also known as WES sign) is an ultrasonographic finding within the gallbladder fossa referring to the appearance of a "wall-echo-shadow": a curvilinear hyperechogenic line representing the gallbladder wall a thin hypoechoic space representing a small amount of bile a...
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Mondor sign (foot)

Mondor sign is a sign seen clinically and on CT, and refers to a haematoma that is formed and extends distally along the sole of the foot 1. Its presence is considered pathognomonic for a calcaneal fracture 1. History and etymology It was named after Henri Mondor (1885-1962), a French surgeon,...
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Monod sign (lungs)

Monod sign (often misspelt Monad sign) simply describes gas that surrounds a mycetoma (most commonly an aspergilloma) in a pre-existing pulmonary cavity 1-3. It should not be confused with the air crescent sign which is seen in recovering angioinvasive aspergillosis 4. The air crescent sign her...
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Spalding sign (fetal demise)

The Spalding sign refers to the overlapping of the fetal skull bones caused by collapse of the fetal brain.  It appears usually a week or more after fetal death in utero.  This finding was originally described by Alfred Baker Spalding (1874-1942), an American obstetrician 2, on abdominal radiog...
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Adie pupil

Adie pupil (also known as tonic pupil) is caused by idiopathic degeneration of the ciliary ganglion, which sometimes occurs following a viral or bacterial illness. It is usually unilateral and typically affects young females 1. Adie pupil represents a large dilated "tonic pupil", which does not...
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Cyclops lesion (knee)

The cyclops lesion, also known as localised anterior arthrofibrosis, is a painful anterior knee mass that arises as a complication of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Epidemiology Cyclops lesions occur with an estimated frequency of ~5% (range 1-9.8%) of patients following ACL ...
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Flip-flop effect

The so-called flip-flop effect refers to a confusing MRI appearance of the skeletal system and subcutaneous tissues. It is seen in a variety of severe fat depletion conditions responsible for diffuse bone marrow serous atrophy and modification or loss of the subcutaneous fat. Not to be confused...
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Striated nephrogram

Striated nephrogram, originally described on plain film urography, but just as easily seen on CT urography represents linear bands of contrast extending from the medulla of the kidney towards the cortex. Pathology Striations result from stasis and concentration of contrast material in oedemato...
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Meth mouth

Meth mouth is the name given to the overt dental disease that is one of the signs of methamphetamine use. Clinical presentation Clinical examination often reveals blackened, stained, rotting or crumbling teeth. Serial studies only a few years apart may show a striking deterioration in the pati...
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Water bottle sign (heart)

The water bottle sign or configuration refers to the shape of the cardiac silhouette on erect frontal chest x-rays in patients who have a very large pericardial effusion. Typically the effusion has accumulated over many weeks to months (e.g. in patients with malignancy) and the pericardium has g...
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Transmantle sign (brain)

The transmantle sign is an MRI feature of focal cortical dysplasia, almost exclusively seen in type II focal cortical dysplasia (Taylor dysplasia - also known as transmantle cortical dysplasia for this reason). However, it is not always present, seen in ~45% (range 21-72%) of patients with type ...
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Reversed halo sign (lungs)

Reversed halo sign, also known as the atoll sign, is defined as central ground-glass opacity surrounded by denser consolidation of crescentic (forming more than three-fourths of a circle) or ring (forming a complete circle) shape of at least 2 mm in thickness. It was initially described on high-...
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Leopard skin sign (white matter)

The leopard skin sign (also known as tigroid pattern or stripe sign) results from dark-spots or stripes (spared perivascular white matter) within bright demyelinated periventricular white matter on T2W images. It is characteristically seen in : metachromatic leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher...
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Marcus Gunn pupil

Marcus Gunn pupil, also known as afferent pupillary defect, is a non-specific finding that indicates partial optic nerve dysfunction. It is mainly due to unilateral optic neuropathy, or rarely optic chiasm or optic tract lesions. In response to light input to the affected eye, both eyes do not ...
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Figure 3 sign

The figure 3 sign is seen in aortic coarctation and is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the aortic arch and left subclavian artery, indentation at the coarctation site (also known as the "tuck"), and post-stenotic dilatation of the descending aorta. On barium studies of the oesophagus in pat...
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Reverse figure 3 sign

The reverse figure 3 sign (also known as the E sign) is seen on barium swallows in patients with a coarctation of the aorta and is the medial equivalent of the figure 3 sign seen on plain chest radiographs. It is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta, indentation of the coarcta...
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Fountain sign

The fountain sign is sonographic sign described in acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE). It refers to the appearance of the pattern of vascularity seen during transverse colour Doppler sonography of the scrotum with both testes together1. In these transverse views in patients with AISE, marked...
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Ice cream cone sign (disambiguation)

The ice cream cone sign may refer to: the appearance of the head of malleus and the body and short process of the incus on axial CT scan: failure of this normal configuration suggests incudomalleolar dysarticulation the ball of the ice cream is formed by the head of the malleus and cone is for...
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Mallory-Weiss tear

Mallory-Weiss tears occur due to violent projection of gastric contents against the lower oesophagus, which results in mucosal and submucosal tear with involvement of the venous plexus.  Clinical presentation Patients present with massive painless haematemesis. Pathology Tears most commonly ...
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Maiden waist deformity

Maiden waist deformity is the appearance of the deviation of bilateral ureters. This typically occurs in retroperitoneal fibrosis. In this condition, there is medial indrawing of the ureters due to deposition of fibrous tissue in the lumbosacral junction. Due to involvement of both ureters, the ...
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Panzerherz (heart)

Panzerherz (or armoured heart) is a term used to describe the appearance of the heart in calcified constrictive pericarditis. The pericardium becomes circumferentially thickened with calcification, limiting the ability of the heart to contract. The rim of dense calcification describes how the h...
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Light bulb sign (phaeochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal phaeochromocytoma is MRI feature of this tumour. This refers to marked hyperintensity seen on T2 weighted sequences however this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and phaeochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal int...
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Lentiform fork sign (basal ganglia)

The lentiform fork sign has been described on MRI and is seen as bilateral symmetrical hyperintensities in the basal ganglia surrounded by a hyperintense rim delineating the lentiform nucleus. It has been postulated to result from metabolic acidosis due to any cause 1, e.g. end stage renal dise...
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Lead pipe sign (colon)

The lead pipe appearance of colon is the classical barium enema finding in chronic ulcerative colitis. There is complete loss of haustral markings in the diseased section of colon, and the organ appears smooth-walled and cylindrical. 
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Lateral femoral notch sign (knee)

The (deep) lateral femoral notch sign describes a depression on the lateral femoral condyle at the terminal sulcus, a junction between the weight-bearing tibial articular surface and the patellar articular surface of the femoral condyle. Pathology The likely mechanism is a hyperextension or im...
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Lucent liver sign

The lucent liver sign is represented by a reduction of hepatic radiodensity on supine radiograph when there is a collection of free intraperitoneal gas located anterior to the liver.
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation lymphadenopathy high attenuation lymphadenopathy
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Lateral crescent sign (inguinal hernia)

The lateral crescent sign is a useful diagnostic sign of a direct inguinal hernia on CT scan, the hernia causing compression and lateral displacement of the inguinal canal contents (ductus deferens, testicular vessels, fat, etc.) to form a semicircle of tissue that resembles a moon crescent seen...
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Twin-peak sign (twin pregnancy)

The twin peak sign (also known as the lambda (λ) sign) is a triangular appearance of the chorion insinuating between the layers of the inter twin membrane and strongly suggests a dichorionic twin pregnancy. It is best seen in the first trimester (between 10-14 weeks) 5. While the presence of a t...
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Lambda sign (sarcoidosis)

The lambda sign is seen on gallium-67 scans in the setting of thoracic sarcoidosis. Bilateral hilar and right paratracheal lymph nodes are typically involved which can resemble the Greek letter lambda (λ). See also lambda sign of twin pregnancy
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Kissing carotids

The term kissing carotids refers to tortuous and elongated vessels which touch in the midline. They can be be found in:  retropharynx 2 intrasphenoid 1 within the pituitary fossa within sphenoid sinuses within sphenoid bones The significance of kissing carotids is two-fold: may mimic intr...
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Morning glory sign (midbrain)

Morning glory sign of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multisystem atrophy, not to be confused with morning glory syndrome, refers to the appearance of the midbrain on axial imaging 1. Graphically this is identified on a axial image at the level of the midbrain by drawing 1:   a horizo...
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Intradecidual sac sign

Intradecidual sac sign (IDSS) is a useful feature in identifying an early intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) as early as 25 days of gestation 1. The threshold level (earliest one can see the sign) is 24 days of gestation and the discriminatory level (one should always see the sac) is 47 days. As per t...
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Kirner deformity

Kirner deformity is characterised by a curvature of the distal phalynx of the 5th digit in both a palmar and radial direction. Epidemiology The deformity typically presents in late childhood to early adolescence, although a mild deformity may be present at birth. Both sexes are affected, altho...
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Holman-Miller sign (maxillary sinus)

The Holman-Miller sign (also called the antral sign) is seen in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma; it refers to the anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum as seen on a lateral skull radiograph or cross-sectional imaging 1,2. This is a non-specific sign that can be prod...
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Putty kidney

A putty kidney refers to a pattern of renal calcification associated with renal tuberculosis conventionally described on plain radiography. Calcification characteristically is very homogeneous and ground glass-like, representing calcified caseous tissue 3-4. Premkumar et al. labelled calcificati...
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Scalpel sign (spinal cord)

The scalpel sign has been recently described in dorsal thoracic arachnoid web on sagittal MRI studies. It relates to focal distortion of the thoracic cord, appearing anteriorly displaced. The enlarged dorsal CSF space mimics the profile of a surgical scalpel. It is helpful in distinguishing cas...
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Porcelain left atrium

Porcelain left atrium, also known as coconut left atrium, is a term used when a large part of or the entire left atrial wall becomes calcified. It can occur as a rare consequence of endocarditis (with underlying rheumatic heart disease). It has also been described in the setting of end-stage ren...
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Costal hook sign (flail chest)

The costal hook sign is a chest x-ray features seen in some cases of flail chest. It represents the rotation of a fractured rib along its long axis, something that is only possible if a second fracture is present along its length, even if the second fracture is not visible 1. 
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Kirklin complex

The Kirklin complex is a combination of the Carman meniscus sign associated with a radiolucent semicircular zone surrounding the elevated ridge of the ulcer. This complex is seen in cases of gastric adenocarcinoma on barium studies. History and etymology Byrl Raymond Kirklin, (1888-1957 2) an ...
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Kidney sweat sign

The kidney sweat sign refers to the presence of thin, hypoechoic, extracapsular fluid collections around kidneys in renal failure patients. This fluid is thought to represent perirenal oedema. It can be appreciated on ultrasound, CT and MRI.  Differential diagnosis perirenal haematoma periren...
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Keyhole sign (posterior urethral valves)

The keyhole sign is an ultrasonographic sign seen in boys with posterior urethral valves. It refers to the appearance of the proximal urethra (which is dilated) and an associated thick-walled distended bladder which on ultrasound may resemble a keyhole.
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Inverted "V" sign (spinal cord)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the inverted rabbit ears sign, is a radiological sign described in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord​. It refers to the appearance of the spinal cord on axial MRI slices 1-3. On these slices in a patient with subacute combined degeneration of...
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Kirklin sign

The Kirklin sign refers to a deformity of the normal gastric air bubble on an upright chest radiograph due to a mass lesion of the gastric cardia or fundus. The differential for a Kirklin sign includes gastric tumour gastric carcinoma oesophageal carcinoma gastrointestinal stromal tumour (G...
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Inverted "V" sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the lateral umbilical ligament sign, is a sign of pneumoperitoneum manifested by the visualization of an inverted "V"  shape in the pelvis on supine view of abdominal radiographs. It represent free gas outlining the lateral umbilical ligaments. In infants, th...
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Kerr kink

Kerr kink a sign of renal tuberculosis. Scarring leads to a sharp kink at the pelvi-ureteric junction. History and etymology William "Bill" K Kerr, a Canadian urologist, described his eponymous sign in 1967 3.
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Kernohan phenomenon

Kernohan notch phenomenon is an imaging finding resulting from extensive midline shift due to mass effect, resulting in indentation in the contralateral cerebral crus by the tentorium cerebelli. This has also been referred to as Kernohan-Woltman notch phenomenon and false localising sign. Clini...
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J sign (shoulder)

The J sign refers to the appearance of the inferior glenohumeral ligament in the presence of a humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL lesion). The normal U-shaped inferior glenohumeral recess is retracted away from the humerus, appearing as a J (right shoulder).
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J-shaped sella

A J-shaped sella is a variant morphology of the sella turcica, whereby the tuberculum sellae is flattened, thus forming the straight edge of the "J". The dorsum sellae remains rounded and forms the loop of the "J". Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis for a J-shaped sella includes 1,2...
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Jack and Jill lesion

The Jack and Jill lesion refers to simultaneous bucket handle tears of the medial and lateral menisci with intercondylar notch displacement of the fragments which appear as the quadruple sign on coronal MRI images.
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Hyperdense MCA sign (brain)

The hyperdense MCA sign refers to focal increased density of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on CT and is direct visualisation of thromboembolic material within the lumen. It is thus the earliest visible sign of MCA infarction seen immediately at the time of embolism.  It is the longitudinal eq...
Article

Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst

Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst is a common complication associated with hepatic hydatid cysts. It is important to appreciate the direct and indirect signs of this condition. Radiographic features The radiological features of intrabiliary rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst can be c...
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Incomplete border sign

The incomplete border sign is useful to depict an extrapulmonary mass on chest radiograph. An extrapulmonary mass will often have a inner well-defined border and an ill-defined outer margin 1-3. This can be attributed to the inner margin being tangential to the x-ray beam and has good inherent ...
Article

Hypercontracting (nutcracker) oesophagus

Hypercontracting (nutcracker) oesophagus is a motility disorder of the oesophagus. This condition is primarily diagnosed with manometry with high intra-oesophageal pressure and normal peristalsis. Most patients will have a normal barium swallow.  Hypercontracting oesophagus ("nutcracker oesopha...
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Hyperattenuating ring sign in epiploic appandagitis

The hyperattenuating ring sign is a sign that has been described with epiploic appendagitis and refers to a hyperattenuating ring of visceral peritoneum surrounding an inflamed epiploic appendage 1. On CT it can be seen as a ring of soft tissue surrounding a region of fat attenuation adjacent to...
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Hyoid elevation

Hyoid elevation on a modified barium swallow study indicates that the pharyngeal muscles are contracting appropriately. Radiographic features Modified barium swallow With real time fluoroscopy (or videofluoroscopy) during the act of swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward when there i...
Article

H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebrae, also known as Lincoln log vertebrae, are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1) 3. It may occasionall...
Article

Onion peel sign

The onion peel sign (also called the Cumbo sign or double arch sign) is a feature seen with complicated pulmonary hydatid cyst in which the gas lining between the endocyst and pericyst has the appearance of an onion peel. It is pathognomonic for a ruptured hydatid cyst. History and etymology I...
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Hutchinson sign (disambiguation)

The Hutchinson sign can refer to two signs.  Hutchinson sign (ophthalmology) Relates to involvement of the tip of the nose from facial herpes zoster. It implies involvement of the external nasal branch of the nasociliary nerve (branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve) and thu...
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Hydatid cyst signs

There are several signs in hydatid cyst seen associated with hydatid disease: cumbo sign: air is seen between the pericyst and the laminated membrane of the cyst  serpent sign: internal rupture of the cyst with collapse of membranes of the parasite into the cyst spin sign / whirl sign: detach...
Article

Hutchinson teeth

Hutchinson teeth are smaller and more widely spaced than normal and are notched on their biting surfaces. It is a sign of congenital syphilis and should not be confused with: Hutchinson triad Hutchinson pupil Hutchinson freckle Hutchinson sign Hutchinson syndrome History and etymology Na...
Article

Hutchinson triad

Hutchinson triad of congenital syphilis consists of: dental abnormalities interstitial keratosis deafness History and etymology Named after Sir Johnathan Hutchinson, English surgeon, ophthalmologist and pathologist (1828 - 1913). Hutchinson triad should not be confused with: Hutchinson pu...
Article

Hutchinson pupil

Hutchinson pupil is a fixed and dilated pupil caused by compression of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) as a result of uncal herniation. It should not be confused with any of the following: Hutchinson triad Hutchinson freckle Hutchinson teeth Hutchinson sign Hutchinson syndrome History and e...
Article

Steinstrasse

Steinstrasse [stīn′shtra-se] is the German word for "stone street", describing a possible complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary tract calculi, wherein a column of stone fragments forms that blocks the ureter. Incidence Steinstrasse usually develops 1 day to 3...
Article

Howship-Romberg sign

Howship-Romberg sign refers to obturator nerve neuropathy due to compression of the obturator nerve by an obturator hernia. Patients present with pain and paraesthesia along the inner aspect of the thigh, down to the knee. History and etymology Named after Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795-1873) 3...

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