Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

765 results found
Article

Double Oreo cookie sign (glenoid labrum)

The double Oreo cookie sign refers to the presence of two hyperintense lines in the superior glenoid labrum, one of which represents a superior labral tear and the other a physiological sublabral recess 1, 2. This pattern is likened to an Oreo cookie with two layers of (white) cream and three l...
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Double panda sign

The double panda sign refers to the combination of the face of the giant panda and face of the miniature panda (cub of the giant panda) seen on T2 weighted images of midbrain and pons respectively in Wilson disease. The midbrain face of the giant panda sign consists of normal intensity of red n...
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Double PCL sign

The double PCL sign appears on sagittal MRI images of the knee when a bucket-handle meniscal tear (medial meniscus in 80% of cases) flips towards the centre of the joint so that it comes to lie anteroinferior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) mimicking a second smaller PCL. A double PCL ...
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Double target sign (hepatic abscess)

The double target sign is a characteristic imaging feature of liver abscess demonstrated on contrast enhanced CT scans, in which a central, fluid-filled low attenuation lesion is surrounded by a high attenuation inner rim and a low attenuation outer ring 1,2. The inner ring (abscess membrane) d...
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Double track sign (pyloric stenosis)

The double track sign is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis on various imaging modalities.  Barium study Double streaks of barium passing through the narrow pylorus 1. Ultrasound On fluid aided real-time examination, the pyloric fluid is compressed into smaller tracks as it is...
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Double wall sign

The double wall sign is another name for the Rigler sign. It is a sign of pneumoperitoneum with gas outlining both sides of the bowel wall. It is seen when large amounts of free gas, >1000 mL, are present. It should be distinguished from the false double wall sign which refers to two dilated lo...
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Doughnut sign on bone scan

The doughnut sign refers to the bone scan pattern whereby there is increased uptake peripherally with a photopenic centre. This appearance may be seen in a number of cystic lesions including: aneurysmal bone cyst giant cell tumour simple bone cyst The doughnut sign is a non-specific sign, an...
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Draped aorta sign

The draped aorta sign is an important imaging feature that can be seen in contained rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. It is highly indicative of aortic wall deficiency.  This sign is considered present when the posterior wall of an aortic aneurysm drapes or moulds to the anterior surface...
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Dripping candle wax sign

Dripping candle wax sign, also known as flowing candle wax appearance, describes the appearance of sclerotic cortical thickening in melorheostosis. The irregular cortical hyperostosis typically occurs on one side of the involved bone and undulates along much like melted wax down a candle. Patho...
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Drooping lily sign (ureter)

The drooping lily sign is a urographic sign in some patients with a duplicated collecting system. It refers to the inferolateral displacement of the opacified lower pole moiety due to an obstructed (and unopacified) upper pole moiety. The similarity to a lily is further strengthened by the smal...
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Drowning (postmortem findings)

Drowning is one of the most prevalent causes of non-natural death. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), an estimated 360,000 annual deaths occur due to drowning. This article concerns itself with postmortem appearances in fatalities from drowning. For non-fatal pulmonary changes pl...
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Dual rim sign

The dual or double rim sign is seen on MRI in approximately 75% of cerebral abscesses and is helpful in distinguishing an abscess from a glioblastoma (GBM).  On both susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and T2WI it consists of two concentric rims surrounding the abscess cavity, outer one of wh...
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Duct penetrating sign

The duct penetrating sign is a radiographic sign which can be useful in differentiating between focal pancreatitis (inflammatory pancreatic mass) from pancreatic carcinoma. A positive sign is when a mass is penetrated by an unobstructed pancreatic duct; this makes focal pancreatitis the most li...
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Dumbbell appearance of spinal tumours

The dumbbell appearance of spinal tumours refers to a tumour which has both a component within the canal and a component in the paravertebral space contiguous with each other via a thinner tumour component traversing the neural exit foramen. The appearance can be seen in: spinal nerve sheath t...
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Dural tail sign

The dural tail sign occurs as a result of thickening and enhancement of the dura and is most often seen adjacent to a meningioma. Initially, the sign was felt to be pathognomonic of meningiomas, however as experience grew, it has become increasingly noted to be present in many other conditions,...
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Earth-heart sign

The earth-heart sign is a newly recognised sign of cardiac compromise that may be seen on chest radiographs of patients with tension pneumomediastinum. The substantial pressure exerted on the heart by the gas trapped in the mediastinum with subsequent impairment of central venous return and obs...
Article

Eccentric target sign (cerebral toxoplasmosis)

The eccentric target sign is considered pathognomonic for cerebral toxoplasmosis. It is seen on postcontrast MRI/CT as a ring enhancing lesion with an eccentrically located enhancing mural nodule. It is believed that this mural nodule is an extension from the abscess wall itself with inflamed ve...
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Echogenic fetal bowel

Echogenic fetal bowel is an observation in antenatal ultrasound imaging, in which fetal bowel appears to be brighter than it is supposed to be. It is a soft marker for trisomy 21 and has several other associations. When observed, it needs to be interpreted in the context of other associated abno...
Article

Egg-on-a-string sign (heart)

Egg-on-a-string sign, also referred to as egg on its side, refers to the cardiomediastinal silhouette seen in transposition of the great arteries (TGA). The heart appears globular due to an abnormal convexity of the right atrial border and left atrial enlargement and therefore appears like an ...
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Eggshell calcification (breast)

Eggshell calcifications in the breast are benign peripheral rim like calcifications Pathology They are typically secondary to fat necrosis or calcification of oil cysts. Radiographic features thin rim-like calcification (<1 mm in thickness) lucent centres small to several centimetres in di...
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Eggshell calcification (lymph nodes)

Eggshell calcification refers to fine calcification seen at the periphery of a mass and usually relates to lymph node calcification. For similar appearance in the breast see eggshell calcification (breast). In 1967 Jacobsen and Felson published criteria to help "avoid over-reading of the incide...
Article

Elbow joint effusion

An elbow joint effusion is a key finding to recognise on an elbow radiograph and should be used as a trigger to search for a fracture.  Finding an effusion  Recognising an elbow joint effusion on lateral radiographs is an essential radiology skill. While the fluid itself is not discretely seen...
Article

Empty amnion sign

The empty amnion sign is a sonographic observation where there is the visualization of an amniotic sac without concomitant visualization of an embryo. It is an indicator of pregnancy failure regardless of the mean sac diameter and is considered to have a sufficiently high positive predictive val...
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Empty delta sign

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect (thrombus). It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI. An equivalent appearance can be noted in the transve...
Article

Empty light bulb sign in brain death

In brain death, on HMPAO-Tc99m imaging there is absent or reduced flow in the internal carotid arteries and increased flow within the external carotid arteries. This leads to absent uptake in the brain with subsequent increased perfusion in the nasal region. This appearance has been called the e...
Article

Empty notch sign

Empty notch sign is a direct sign of avulsion of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear at its femoral attachment. It denotes a fluid signal at the expected ACL attachment site at the intercondylar notch (fossa) on axial and coronal fluid-sensitive MR images. The proximal ACL is the second m...
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Empty thecal sac sign

The empty thecal sac sign or empty sac sign is when the thecal sac appears empty on MRI of the lumbar spine, best seen on T2-weighted images. If the empty thecal sac sign is present, a diagnosis of adhesive arachnoiditis can be made.​ Radiographic features MRI There is usually no gadolinium c...
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Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to ben...
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Erased charcoal sign (prostate cancer)

The erased charcoal sign usually describes the typical lenticular or water drop lesion of a homogeneous low T2WI focal prostate cancer with an ill-defined border within the transition zone.
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (EFD) (also known as metaphyseal flaring) refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relative constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis. It has been classically used with reference to the distal ends of the fe...
Article

État criblé

État criblé, also known as status cribrosum, is a term that describes the diffusely widened perivascular spaces (Virchow-Robin spaces) in the basal ganglia, especially in the corpus striatum on MRI. It is usually symmetrical, with the perivascular spaces showing CSF signal and without diffusion ...
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État lacunaire

État lacunaire is a term describing the presence of multiple lacunar infarcts, which are ischemic strokes due to occlusion of penetrating cerebral arterioles, especially in the basal ganglia. The term has been strongly described as a pathological substrate for a multi-infarct vascular dementia 4...
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Expanded amnion sign

The expanded amnion sign has been described as a poor prognostic sign in early pregnancy, suspicious though not diagnostic of failed early pregnancy. Any visible embryo that is surrounded by an amnion (visible on transvaginal ultrasound) should also have a heartbeat, regardless of crown-rump len...
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Extracranial brain herniation

Extracranial brain herniation refers to herniation of brain tissue external to the calvaria through a skull bone defect, which may be post-traumatic or post-surgical. Unlike encephaloceles, brain herniation is not surrounded by the meninges.  The herniated brain tissue requires surgical reducti...
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Extrapleural air sign

The extrapleural air sign is one of the many signs of pneumomediastinum, and was first described by Lillard and Allen in 1965. It is defined as the presence of gas between the parietal pleura and the diaphragm. On a lateral projection the gas forms a radiolucent pocket of gas posterior to the do...
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Extrapleural fat sign

The extrapleural fat sign is an imaging feature which can be seen on CT under certain circumstances. It occurs from the inward displacement of extrapleural fat by an extrapleural fluid collection, extrapleural haematoma or extrapleural mass. The presence of the extrapleural fat sign is indicativ...
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Extrapleural sign

The extrapleural sign, described by Ben Felson in 1973 1, refers to the appearance of a pulmonary opacity with oblique margins that taper slowly to the chest wall when the lesion is viewed tangentially to the x-ray beam. This appearance suggests that the lesion is pleural or extrapleural in natu...
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Eye of the tiger sign (globus pallidus)

The eye of the tiger sign refers to abnormal low T2 signal on MRI (due to abnormal accumulation of iron) in the globus pallidus with a longitudinal stripe of high signal (due to gliosis and spongiosis).  The eye of the tiger sign is most classically associated with pantothenate kinase-associate...
Article

Faceless kidney

A faceless kidney refers to one in which the normal appearance of the renal sinus on cross-sectional imaging is absent. It was initially described as a sign of duplication of the collecting system 1 (a slice obtained between the two collecting systems will not demonstrate the normal components o...
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Falciform ligament sign

The falciform ligament sign, also called the Silver sign, is characterised by the falciform ligament being outlined with free abdominal gas in cases of pneumoperitoneum of a large amount.  It is almost never seen in isolation as, if there is enough free gas to outline the falciform ligament, th...
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Fallen fragment sign

The fallen fragment sign refers to the presence of a bone fracture fragment resting dependently in a cystic bone lesion. This finding is said to be pathognomonic for a simple (unicameral) bone cyst following a pathological fracture. Although it has occasionally been reported with other cystic le...
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Fallen lung sign

The fallen lung sign (also known as CT fallen lung sign) describes the appearance of collapsed lung away from the mediastinum encountered with tracheobronchial injury (in particular those >2 cm away from the carina). It is helpful to look for this rare but specific sign, in cases of unexplained ...
Article

Fascial tail sign

The fascial tail sign is the linear extension along the fascia/muscular aponeurosis from a deeper tumour. Radiographic features It appears as a tail and is best appreciated on MRI, classically seen in desmoid tumours as T2 hypointense bands that progressively enhance particularly on delayed ph...
Article

Fascicular sign

Fascicular sign is a finding on T2-weighted MRI images that suggests a lesion of neurogenic origin. It is characterised by multiple small ring-like structures with peripheral hyperintensity representing the fascicular bundles within the nerves. It is found in various neurogenic tumours, includi...
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Fat halo sign (inflammatory bowel disease)

The fat halo sign refers to a feature seen on CT examination of the abdomen, and represents infiltration of the submucosa with fat, between the muscularis propria and the mucosa. It is characterised by an inner (mucosa) and outer (muscularis propria and serosa) ring of enhancing bowel wall along...
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Fat ring sign

The fat ring sign (also known as a fat halo sign) describes preservation of fat around the mesenteric vessels and around soft tissue nodules on a background of diffuse fat stranding in patients with mesenteric panniculitis or mesenteric lipomas.  This finding may help distinguish mesenteric pan...
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Fat stranding on CT

Fat stranding is a common sign on CT seen anywhere fat can be found but is most commonly seen in the abdomen/pelvis, but also in the retroperitoneum, thorax and subcutaneous tissues. It can be helpful in localising both acute and chronic pathology. Radiographic features CT Fat stranding can a...
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Fat stranding (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Fat stranding is a sign that is seen on CT. It describes the change in attenuation of fat around an inflamed structure and is a very helpful signpost for intra-abdominal pathology. Reference article This is a summary arti...
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FBI sign

The FBI sign is an acronym referring to the components that form a lipohaemarthrosis. It stands for: fat blood interface
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Feeding vessel sign

Feeding vessel sign consists of a distinct vessel leading directly to a nodule or a mass. This sign indicates either that the lesion has a haematogenous origin or that the disease process occurs near small pulmonary vessels.  A number of vessel-related non-neoplastic disorders of the lung produ...
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Female prostate sign

Female prostate sign is a characteristic imaging sign seen in patients with a large urethral diverticulum.  A large urethral diverticulum in females surrounds the urethra, and elevates the base of the bladder, mimicking the typical appearance of enlarged prostate in males.
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Fetal cardiothoracic circumference ratio

Fetal cardiothoracic (C/T) circumference ratio is a parameter than can be used in assessment of fetal cardiac and thoracic/chest wall anomalies. It is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference and may be easily measured on fetal ultrasound/echocardiography.  Radiograp...
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Fetal maceration

Fetal maceration is one of the signs of fetal death. It is a destructive aseptic process that appears between 12 to 24 hours after fetal death. It may not be seen in a pregnancy earlier than 6 months. In this a separation of the skin from head and trunk occurs giving a bubble-like appearance.
Article

Figure 3 sign

The figure 3 sign is seen in aortic coarctation and is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the aortic arch and left subclavian artery, indentation at the coarctation site (also known as the "tuck"), and post-stenotic dilatation of the descending aorta. On barium studies of the oesophagus in pat...
Article

Figure of eight appearance

The following lesions may resemble a figure of eight (sometimes referred to as snowman shaped): supracardiac variety of total anomalous pulmonary venous return 1 pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar extension 2 intraspinal neurofibroma with extraspinal extension through neural foramina di...
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Finger clubbing

Finger clubbing, also called "drumstick fingers", is a common clinical sign in patients with heart or lung disease. The term is used to describe an enlargement of the distal phalanges of the fingers, giving them a drumstick or club-like appearance.  Pathology The underlying pathogenesis of fin...
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Finger in glove sign (lung)

The finger in glove sign can be seen on either a chest radiograph or CT chest and refers to the characteristic sign of a bronchocoele. The same appearance has also been referred to as: rabbit ear appearance mickey mouse appearance toothpaste-shaped opacities Y-shaped opacities V-shaped opac...
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Fishhook ureters

Fishhook ureters, also known as J-shaped ureters or hockey stick ureters describe the appearance of the distal ureter in patients with significant benign prostatic hypertrophy. It has also been used to describe the appearance of a retrocaval ureter further up, as the right ureter hooks behind th...
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Fissure for ligamentum teres sign

The fissure for ligamentum teres sign or extrahepatic ligamentum teres sign is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum. It represents the outline of the ligamentum teres (remnant of an obliterated left umbilical vein) with free abdominal gas in a supine patient, as seen on a plain abdominal radi...
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Fistula test

The fistula test is used when examining a patient with recurrent vertigo. A finger is abruptly applied to the external meatus which causes a pulse of air-transmitted pressure. If nystagmus is induced in association with vertigo, it indicates bony destruction within the inner ear e.g. cholesteat...
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Flat floor of fourth ventricle sign

The flat floor of fourth ventricle sign is useful in detecting a pontine mass and is a sign of mass effect. The normal floor of the fourth ventricle (remember that the floor is anterior) normally slopes upwards towards the midline, with the facial colliculi visible on either side.  It is a non-...
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Flat waist sign

The flat waist sign refers to flattening of the contours of the aortic arch and adjacent pulmonary trunk. It is seen in severe left lower lobe collapse and is caused by leftward displacement and rotation of the heart.
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Fleck sign (foot)

The fleck sign is a small bony fragment seen in the Lisfranc space (between the base of the 1st and 2nd metatarsal) associated with avulsion of the Lisfranc ligament (at the base of the 2nd metatarsal). It is a very subtle, but important finding, since it predisposes to Lisfranc injury.
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Fleischner sign (disambiguation)

Fleischner sign can refer to two distinctly separate signs: Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery) Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)
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Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery)

The Fleischner sign refers to a prominent central pulmonary artery that can be commonly caused either by pulmonary hypertension or by distension of the vessel by a large pulmonary embolus. It can be seen on chest radiographs, CT pulmonary angiography, and MR pulmonary angiography. It is seen mo...
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)

The Fleischner sign refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocaecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocaecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign not to be confused with the Fleischner sign (enlarged p...
Article

Flip-flop effect

The so-called flip-flop effect refers to a confusing MRI appearance of the skeletal system and subcutaneous tissues. It is seen in a variety of severe fat depletion conditions responsible for diffuse bone marrow serous atrophy and modification or loss of the subcutaneous fat. Not to be confused...
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Floating aorta sign

The floating aorta sign refers to displacement of the abdominal aorta away from the vertebral column. It is a radiographic/CT sign of retroperitoneal masses. Radiographic findings On lateral lumbar spine radiographs, the expected location of the posterior aortic wall is expected to be ≤10 mm ...
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Floating head appearance

A floating head appearance refers to imaging features observed typically on antenatal ultrasound with certain skeletal dysplasias such as achondrogenesis.   Against the background of a poorly-mineralized spine, a normally ossified skull is seen giving an impression of a floating head.
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Floating viscera sign

The floating viscera sign is an angiographic sign that occurs when there is visualisation of branches of the abdominal aorta (e.g. coeliac axis, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries) during aortography with little or no visualisation of the aortic lumen. it indicates the presence of a...
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Fluid bronchogram sign

The fluid bronchogram sign can be seen on chest CT or ultrasound as the presence of fluid attenuation material within respiratory bronchioles with surrounding collapsed or consolidated lung. The presence of this sign suggests endobronchial obstruction as a precipitating cause for consolidation/...
Article

Fluid colour sign

The fluid colour sign is a diagnostic sign to differentiate a pleural effusion from pleural thickening by means of colour Doppler ultrasound. In the case of pleural effusion a colour signal is seen in the pleural fluid during respiratory and cardiac movement, whereas this colour signal is not se...
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Fluid sign (vertebral collapse)

The fluid sign is one of the radiological features of osteoporotic fractures, and can be helpful in distinguishing them from metastatic vertebral fractures, as it is seen more often in osteoporotic fractures and is rarely seen in metastatic fractures 1. It is not as helpful as identifying a para...
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Foamy oesophagus sign

Foamy oesophagus is an appearance seen on a single contrast barium study in Candida oesophagitis with associated scleroderma/achalasia (stasis). Pathology Pathophysiologic basis of the foamy oesophagus is uncertain. Stasis is a predisposing factor. Foam is produced directly by the fungal organ...
Article

Focal hepatic hot spot sign

The focal hepatic hot spot sign can be seen on technetium 99m sulfur colloid scans of the liver and spleen. Radiographic features It occurs as a focal area of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the medial segment of the left hepatic lobe (segment IV) due to superior vena cava obstruction ...
Article

Fogging phenomenon

The fogging phenomenon is seen on non-contrast CT of the brain and represents a transient phase of the evolution of cerebral infarct where the region of cortical infarction regains a near-normal appearance.  {{youtube:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LuX3VV__2w0}} During the first week following...
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Football sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The football sign is seen in cases of massive pneumoperitoneum, where the abdominal cavity is outlined by gas from a perforated viscus. The median umbilical ligament and falciform ligament are sometimes included in the description of this sign, as representing the sutures. Which football is use...
Article

Fountain sign

The fountain sign is sonographic sign described in acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE). It refers to the appearance of the pattern of vascularity seen during transverse colour Doppler sonography of the scrotum with both testes together1. In these transverse views in patients with AISE, marked...
Article

Fragment-in-notch sign (knee)

The fragment-in-notch sign is closely related to, can be thought of as a failed, double PCL sign, in so far as it represents a meniscal fragment lying in the intercondylar notch, but not paralleling the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).  Although both signs are most frequently seen in the sett...
Article

Frimann-Dahl sign

The Frimann-Dahl sign is a diagnostic sign demonstrated when three dense lines, representing the sigmoid walls, are seen converging to the site of obstruction in sigmoid volvulus and associated with empty rectal gas 1. History and etymology Johan Frimann-Dahl (1902-82) was a Norwegian Professo...
Article

Frostberg inverted 3 sign

Frostberg inverted 3 sign is a radiological sign seen on a barium examination where there is effacement and distortion of the mucosal pattern on the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum due to focal mass and local oedema. It is most commonly associated with carcinoma of the head of the...
Article

Fruit-inspired signs

There are many fruit-inspired signs in radiology: apple core sign (colon) apple core sign (femur) apple-peel intestinal atresia banana sign banana fracture berry aneurysm bunch of grapes sign lemon sign pear-shaped bladder strawberry gallbladder strawberry skull
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Funneling of the internal cervical os

Cervical funneling is a sign of cervical incompetence and represents the dilatation of the internal part of the cervical canal and reduction of the cervical length. Greater than 50% funneling before 25 weeks is associated with approximately 80% risk of preterm delivery. Radiographic assessment...
Article

Funnel trachea

Funnel trachea is a colloquialism for a congenital long-segment intrathoracic tracheal stenosis.  The diameter of the trachea immediately below the cricoid is normal, and becomes progressively more stenotic caudally. The posterior, membranous portion of the trachea may be partially or completel...
Article

Gage sign

Gage sign is a V-shaped lucent defect at the lateral portion of the epiphysis and/or adjacent metaphysis. It is pathognomonic for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. It may occur early in the disease and is one of the five indicators of a worse prognosis, which are: Gage sign  calcification lateral t...
Article

Galaxy sign (lungs)

The so-called galaxy sign, initially described as the sarcoid galaxy, represents a coalescent granuloma seen in a minority of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis 1. The same appearance can be seen in tuberculosis 2,3. In other words, it represents a mass-like region composed of numerous smaller ...
Article

Garland triad

Garland triad, also known as the 1-2-3 sign or Pawnbrokers sign, is a lymph node enlargement pattern on chest radiographs which has been described in sarcoidosis: right paratracheal nodes right hilar nodes left hilar nodes Hilar lymphadenopathy is symmetrical and usually massive. These so-ca...
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Garrington sign (teeth)

Garrington sign is thickening of the periodontal ligament/membrane space of involved teeth in the setting of gnathic osteosarcoma. Symmetrical widening of the space can be seen early in the disease process due to infiltration of tumour cells. 
Article

Genu recurvatum

Genu recurvatum describes the malalignment or deformity of the knee joint with extension beyond neutral (i.e. hyperextension).  Pathology Genu recurvatum can be associated with subluxation or dislocation of the knee joint.  Aetiology congenital arthrogryposis multiplex congenita congenital...
Article

Geographic skull

A geographic skull is a radiographic appearance which is seen in eosinophilic granuloma (EG) and characterised by destructive lytic bone lesions, the edges of which may be bevelled, scalloped or confluent. See also geographic appearance
Article

Geyser sign (shoulder)

The geyser sign may occur in some cases of long-standing rotator cuff tear and advanced degenerative change of the shoulder.  Clinical presentation It may present as a pseudotumour above the AC joint. Pathology Chronic rotator cuff degenerative change and full-thickness tearing leads to inst...
Article

Ghon lesion

A Ghon lesion (sometimes called Ghon focus) represents a calcified tuberculous caseating granuloma (tuberculoma) and represents the sequelae of primary pulmonary tuberculosis infection. When associated with a calcified ipsilateral hilar node it is known as a Ranke complex. History and etymolog...
Article

Ghost meniscus

A ghost meniscus, also known as the empty meniscus sign, refers to a large radial tear that has completely transected the meniscus or, alternatively, previous meniscectomy. Radiographic features MRI On MRI knee when the slice plane is exactly in line with the meniscal tear this can produce ei...

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