Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

722 results found
Article

Light bulb sign (pheochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is MRI feature of this tumour. This refers to marked hyperintensity seen on T2 weighted sequences however this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and pheochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal inten...
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Lightbulb sign (shoulder dislocation)

The lightbulb sign refers to the abnormal AP radiograph appearance of the humeral head in posterior shoulder dislocation. When the humerus dislocates it also internally rotates such that the head contour projects like a lightbulb when viewed from the front 1. See also light bulb sign (hepatic...
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Lincoln sign on bone scintigraphy

Lincoln sign on bone scintigraphy (also known as black beard sign) is one of the signs of Paget disease on the radionuclide bone scan when the disease involves the mandible. The sign might be seen when the extensive mandibular involvement with Paget disease results in the uptake of the radiotrac...
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Linguine sign (breast)

Linguine sign is one of the imaging signs of intracapsular rupture of a breast implant. After implantation of a silicone or saline breast implant, a fibrous capsule (scar) forms around the implant shell. In an intracapsular rupture, the contents of the implant are contained by the fibrous scar,...
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Lipohaemarthrosis

Lipohaemarthrosis results from an intra-articular fracture with escape of fat and blood from the bone marrow into the joint, and is most frequently seen in the knee, associated with a tibial plateau fracture or distal femoral fracture. They have also been described in the hip, shoulder and elbow...
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Locked facet joint

Locked facet joint is a type of facet joint dislocation that results from jumping of the inferior articular process over the superior articular process of the vertebra below and becomes locked in the position. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The tip ...
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Loss of normal half-moon overlap sign

Loss of half-moon overlap sign, which does not really roll off the tongue, is a sign of posterior shoulder dislocation on AP radiographs.  On a normal true anteroposterior image, there is a half-moon overlap between the humeral head and the glenoid. In a posteriorly dislocated shoulder, there i...
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Loss of the insular ribbon sign

The loss of the insular ribbon sign refers to a loss of definition of the gray-white interface in the lateral margin of the insular cortex ("insular ribbon") and is considered an early CT sign of MCA infarction. The insular cortex is more susceptible to ischaemia following MCA occlusion than ot...
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation lymphadenopathy high attenuation lymphadenoapthy
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Lower T sign

The lower T sign is one of the features useful in identifying the central sulcus on cross-sectional imaging.  It relies on identifying the inferior frontal sulcus which intersects the precentral sulcus in a "T" junction, thus defining the precentral gyrus. The central sulcus is the next posteri...
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Lucent liver sign

The lucent liver sign is represented by a reduction of hepatic radiodensity on supine radiograph when there is a collection of free intraperitoneal air located anterior to the liver.
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Luftsichel sign (lungs)

The Luftsichel sign is seen in some cases of left upper lobe collapse and refers to the frontal chest radiographic appearance due to hyperinflation of the superior segment of the left lower lobe interposing itself between the mediastinum and the collapsed left upper lobe.   Radiographic feature...
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Lung hyperinflation

Lung hyperinflation is a common feature of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is also linked to ageing and other chronic diseases that cause airflow obstruction. Pathology The airflow limitation during expiration is produced by two factors: destruction of the lung ...
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Lyre sign (carotid artery)

The lyre sign refers to the splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumour. Classically described on angiography it is also visible on CT angiography.
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M sign (inferior frontal gyrus)

The M sign refers to the characteristic "M" configuration of the inferior frontal gyrus, as it forms (from front to back) the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and, pars opercularis.
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Macaroni sign (arteries)

Macaroni sign is a sign seen in Takayasu arteritis on ultrasound. It represents smooth, homogeneous and moderately echogenic circumferential thickening of the arterial wall that occurs in Takayasu arteritis. The sign is highly specific for Takayasu arteritis, more commonly noted in the common ca...
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Magic angle effect (MRI artifact)

The magic angle is an MRI artifact which occurs on sequences with a short TE (less than 32ms; T1W sequences, PD sequences and gradient echo sequences).  It is confined to regions of tightly bound collagen at 54.74° from the main magnetic field (B0), and appears hyperintense, thus potentially be...
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Maiden waist deformity

Maiden waist deformity is the appearance of the deviation of bilateral ureters. This typically occurs in retroperitoneal fibrosis. In this condition, there is medial drawing of the ureter due to deposition of fibrous tissue in the lumbosacral junction. Due to involvement of both ureters, the cou...
Article

Mallory Weiss tear

Mallory Weiss tears occur due to violent projection of gastric contents against the lower oesophagus, which results in mucosal and submucosal tear with involvement of the venous plexus.  Clinical presentation Patients present with massive painless haematemesis. Pathology Tears most commonly ...
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Mamillopontine distance

Mamillopontine distance is defined as the distance between the inferior aspect of the mammillary bodies to superior aspect of the pons. In normal subjects, it should be >5.5 mm. It is decreased in conditions such as intracranial hypotension: it is one of the helpful quantitative signs helpful ...
Article

Manta ray sign (bladder)

The manta ray sign is a radiographic appearance in bladder exstrophy. It describes wide midline separation of the pubic bones simulating the appearance of a manta ray swimming towards you 1. Differential diagnosis On a plain radiograph consider: open book pelvic injuries: the smooth arc of th...
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Marcus Gunn pupil

Marcus Gunn pupil, also known as afferent pupillary defect, is a nonspecific finding that indicates partial optic nerve dysfunction. It is mainly due to unilateral optic neuropathy, or rarely optic chiasm or optic tract lesions. In response to light input to the affected eye, both eyes do not c...
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Matterhorn sign

The Matterhorn sign is a descriptive sign for a calcified disc herniation that impales the dural sac and sometimes the cord, typically located in the thoracic spine. History and etymology The Matterhorn sign is named after one of the most iconic mountains in the Alps: the Matterhorn.
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MCA dot sign (brain)

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) dot sign, also known as the Sylvian fissure sign, is seen on CT of the head and represents the cross-sectional M2 equivalent of the hyperdense MCA sign. Rather than imaging a length of middle cerebral artery (typically the M1 segment), the dot sign represents a t...
Article

Medial stripe sign

Medial stripe sign refers to an area of increased lucency at the interface of the medial lung and the mediastinum in case of medial pneumothorax. A small volume of pneumothorax generally accumulates anteriorly or medially which can be difficult to detect hence this sign holds a certain significa...
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Melting ice cube sign (lungs)

The melting ice cube sign describes the resolution of pulmonary haemorrhage following pulmonary embolism (PE).  When there is pulmonary haemorrhage without infarction following PE, the typical wedge-shaped, pleural-based opacification (Hampton's hump) resolves within a week while preserving its...
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Mercedes-Benz sign (aorta)

The Mercedes-Benz sign can be seen in the aorta in the context of aortic dissection on CT 1.  It is seen at three distinct intimal flaps that have a triradiate configuration similar to the Mercedes-Benz logo (Figure 1). Two of the three lumens outline by these intimal flaps belong to the false ...
Article

Mercedes-Benz sign (gallbladder)

In the gallbladder, the Mercedes-Benz sign describes a star-shaped pattern of gas-fissuring within gallstones initially described on an abdominal radiograph 2. Fissures, usually fluid-filled, are present in close to 50% of gallstones. Less than half of these fissured gallstones contain some amo...
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Metaphyseal flaring

Metaphyseal flaring is a radiological sign seen in long bones referring to narrowing of the diaphysis and widening of the metaphysis. It is also known as metaphyseal cupping and Erlenmeyer flask deformity. It can be seen in various disorders such as: rickets achondroplasia craniometaphyseal ...
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Meth mouth

Meth mouth is the name given to the overt dental disease that is one of the signs of methamphetamine use. Clinical presentation Clinical examination often reveals blackened, stained, rotting or crumbling teeth. Serial studies only a few years apart may show a striking deterioration in the pati...
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Mickey Mouse appearance

In medical imaging literature, a Mickey Mouse appearance has been given to imaging features that depict that of Mickey Mouse when viewed from the front. It has been described in the following: anencephaly 2 progressive supranuclear palsy 1 synonymously with a finger in glove sign the flared ...
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Middle cerebellar peduncle sign

The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) sign is a feature of a number of conditions, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, and most commonly associated with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) although many other conditions are recognised.  It represents high T2 signal in the mi...
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Molar tooth sign (abdomen)

Abdominal molar tooth sign refers to the appearance of contrast media spilled out of the urinary bladder on CT cystography after extraperitoneal bladder rupture. Contrast flows out of the ruptured bladder, occupying preperitoneal cavum Retzii and surrounds the bladder in the shape of a molar to...
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Molar tooth sign (CNS)

The molar tooth sign refers to the appearance of the midbrain in an axial section in which the elongated superior cerebellar peduncles give the midbrain an appearance reminiscent of a molar or wisdom tooth. It was initially described in Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) 2 but is now...
Article

Mondor sign (foot)

Mondor sign refers when there is a haematoma that is formed and extending distally along the sole of the foot. It is considered pathognomonic for calcaneal fracture. It is detected on CT. See also Calcaneal fracture Lover fracture Mondor disease
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Monod sign (lungs)

Monod sign (often spelt Monad sign) simply describes air that surrounds a mycetoma (most commonly an aspergilloma) in a pre-existing pulmonary cavity 1-3. It should not be confused with the air crescent sign which is seen in recovering angioinvasive aspergillosis 4. The air crescent sign herald...
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Moose head appearance

The moose head appearance refers to the lateral ventricles in coronal projection in patients with dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. The cingulate gyrus is everted into narrowed and elongated frontal horns. An alternative name is the viking helmet sign.
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More black sign

The more black sign is a normal finding in lateral chest x-ray, and refers to the gradual increased apparent radiolucency (blackness) of the vertebral bodies, when proceeding from upper to lower chest. This is due to the increased proportion of the chest comprised of air containing lungs over di...
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Morning glory sign (midbrain)

Morning glory sign of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multisystem atrophy, not to be confused with morning glory syndrome, refers to the appearance of the midbrain on axial imaging 1. Graphically this is identified on a axial image at the level of the midbrain by drawing 1:   a horizo...
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Mosaic attenuation pattern in lung

Mosaic attenuation is the description given to the appearance at CT where there is a patchwork of regions of differing attenuation.  It is a non-specific finding, which may be seen in any of the following: obstructive small airways disease: low attenuation regions are abnormal and reflect decre...
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Mosaic pattern of bone

The mosaic bone pattern, also referred to as the jigsaw pattern, of bone is seen in Paget disease, where thickened, disorganized trabeculae lead to areas of sclerosis are interspersed with lucent and more normal bone. See also Other Paget disease related signs: blade of grass sign tam o' sha...
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Mother in law sign

The mother in law sign is perhaps uncharitably (depends on the mother in law I suppose) used to describe lesions that enhance early during the arterial phase and remain opacified well after the venous phase. The joke is that a mother in law comes early and stays late.  It is most frequently equ...
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Moulage sign (bowel)

The moulage sign is related to sprue, in particular coeliac disease. It occurs where there is a dilated jejunal loop with complete loss of jejunal folds 1. It is said to appear like a tube into which wax has been poured. History and etymology Moulage (French: casting/moulding) is the art of ap...
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Mount Fuji sign

Mount Fuji sign is seen on cross sectional imaging and implies tension pneumocephalus is present.  The sign refers to the presence of air (pneumocephalus) between the tips of the frontal lobes giving the appearance of Mount Fuji 1-3. It suggests that the pressure of the air is at least greater ...
Article

Mushroom cap sign

Mushroom cap sign is one of the important signs of deep rectosigmoid endometriosis seen on T2 weighted MRI sequence. It indicates the submucosal involvement in rectosigmoid region. Radiographic appearance MRI Hypertrophic muscularis propria appears as heterogeneous low signal intensity surrou...
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Mushroom sign (pyloric stenosis)

The mushroom sign (also called umbrella sign) is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis on barium examination. This sign refers to the impression made by the hypertrophic pylorus on the duodenal cap. See also shoulder sign cervix sign of pyloric stenosis target sign of pyloric st...
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Naclerio V sign

The Naclerio V sign is a sign described on the plain film in patients with a pneumomediastinum occurring often secondary to an oesophageal rupture.  It is seen as a V-shaped air collection. One limb of the V is produced by mediastinal air outlining the left lower lateral mediastinal border. The...
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Naked facet sign (vertebral column)

The naked facet sign (also known as the hamburger sign or reverse hamburger bun sign) refers to the CT appearance of an uncovered vertebral articular facet when the facet joint is dislocated, most often in cases of locked facet.  This CT sign is characteristic of a flexion-distraction injury an...
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Napkin-ring sign (heart)

The napkin-ring sign (heart) is a recently described sign encountered on CT coronary angiogram (coronary CTA) performed on modern MDCT. It has been shown to possess a high predictive value in predicting future cardiac events and is considered one of the imaging correlates of an unstable plaque. ...
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Neuhauser sign (distal ileum)

Neuhauser sign refers to a soap bubble appearance seen in the distal ileum in cases of meconium ileus, related to the air mixed with meconium. It may be seen with barium enema if contrast passes beyond the ileocaecal valve or with small-bowel follow-through. Although classically described with ...
Article

Nightstick fracture

Nightstick fractures are isolated fractures of the ulna, typically transverse and located in the mid-diaphysis and usually resulting from a direct blow. It is a characteristic defensive fracture when the patient tries to ward off an overhead blow from an assailant (or local law enforcement offic...
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Nodule-in-nodule appearance (liver)

In hepatic imaging, a nodule-in-nodule appearance represents foci of abnormal arterial enhancement within a liver lesion, in cases of a liver regenerative nodule with a focus of hepatocellular carcinoma or high-grade dysplastic nodule. It is so called because of the nodular arterial enhancement ...
Article

Non-accidental injuries

Non-accidental injuries (NAI) represent both ethical and legal challenges to treating physicians. Radiologists are often the first to suspect NAI when confronted with particular injury patterns, and a knowledge of these is essential if the opportunity to save a child from future neglect is not ...
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Northern exposure sign

The northern exposure sign has been described as a high specificity sign in sigmoid volvulus. On a supine abdominal radiograph, the apex of the sigmoid volvulus is seen above (cranial to) the transverse colon.
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Notch sign

There are many so-called notch signs. They include: focal notch in the wall (or tail extending from) a 2nd branchial cleft cyst between the internal and external carotid arteries peripheral notches in the contour of a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) suggests malignancy thymic notch sign late...
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Nubbin sign

Nubbin sign (also called as cystic duct sign) is an important sign in a HIDA scan (cholescintigraphy using iminodiacetic acid analogues) that may be seen in cases of gallbladder neck obstruction. The "nubbin" refers to a small amount of radiotracer activity in the cystic duct, with absence of tr...
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Nutmeg liver

A nutmeg liver appearance is due to a perfusion abnormality of the liver usually as result of hepatic venous congestion. When hepatic veins are congested, contrast is prevented from diffusing through the liver in a normal manner. This results in a mottled pattern of contrast enhancement in the a...
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O'Donoghue unhappy triad

O'Donoghue unhappy triad or terrible triad often occurs in contact sports, such as basketball, football, or rugby, when there is a lateral force applied to the knee while the foot is fixated on the ground. This produces the "pivot shift" mechanism. The O'Donoghue unhappy triad comprises three t...
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Obliteration of the retrosternal airspace

Obliteration of the retrosternal airspace is seen in any cause of an anterior mediastinal mass. 
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Occult fracture

Occult fractures are those that are not visible on imaging, most commonly plain radiographs and sometimes CT, either due to lack of displacement or limitations of the imaging study. There may be signs of a fracture without one actually being seen. MRI or nuclear medicine studies are sometimes re...
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Omega sign of epiglottitis

The omega sign refers to the thickened aryepiglottic folds and epiglottis seen in epiglottitis, when the larynx is seen endoscopically or via laryngoscope, and not to the appearance on lateral plain films. CT would show the finding, but placing a child with epiglottitis supine to CT their neck i...
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Oncocalyx

An oncocalyx is a dilated tumour filled renal calyx, typically seen in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis.
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Onion bulb formation

Onion bulb formation is seen in hypertrophic neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). It is the result of proliferation of Schwann cells and deposition of collagen 1.  Radiographic features MRI The nerve roots appea...
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Onion peel sign

The onion peel sign (also called the cumbo sign) is a feature seen with complicated pulmonary hydatid cyst in which air lining between the endocyst and pericyst has the appearance of an onion peel. 
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Open ring sign

The open ring sign is a relatively specific sign for demyelination, most commonly multiple sclerosis (MS), and is helpful in distinguishing between the causes of ring enhancing lesions. Interestingly open ring enhancement is not seen in neuromyelitis optica (NMO).  Radiographic features The en...
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Orbital emphysema

Orbital emphysema is the presence of gas within the orbital soft tissues. It is usually due to orbital fractures communicating with the paranasal sinuses but can be caused by penetrating trauma and infection. It is a common finding also after orbital or ocular surgery.  Location preseptal pos...
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Oreo cookie sign (heart)

The oreo cookie sign refers to the appearance of a pericardial effusion on lateral radiographs of the chest. A vertical opaque line (pericardial fluid) separating a vertical lucent line directly behind sternum (pericardial fat) anteriorly from a similar lucent vertical lucent line (epicardial fa...
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Owl's eye sign

The owl's eye sign represents bilaterally symmetric circular to ovoid foci of high T2-weighted signals in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and is seen on axial MR imaging. The sagittal corollary is a "pencil-like" vertical linear high T2-weighted signal extending usually over a number ...
Article

Pancake brain

Pancake brain, is the classical sign of alobar holoprosencephaly. It is due to fusion of the cerebral hemispheres leaving a single ventricle in its center. It is the most severe form of holoprosencephaly. It is associated with multiple facial abnormalities. See also pancake vertebra vegetable...
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Panda sign (disambiguation)

The humble panda has a few signs to its name: panda sign of the midbrain double panda sign panda sign of sarcoidosis See also animal and animal produce inspired signs
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Panda sign (midbrain)

The panda sign in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of the midbrain, when the red nucleus and substantia nigra are surrounded by high T2 signal. It is classically seen in Wilson disease, although whenever the white matter is diffusely abnormal in the region a similar appearance will be perc...
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Panda sign (sarcoidosis)

The panda sign of sarcoidosis is a gallium-67 citrate scan finding. It is due to bilateral involvement of parotid and lacrimal glands in sarcoidosis, superimposed on the normal uptake in the nasopharyngeal mucosa. The presence of perihilar adenopathy adds the lambda distribution of increased up...
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Panzerherz (heart)

Panzerherz (or armoured heart) is a term used to describe the appearance of the heart in calcified constrictive pericarditis. The pericardium becomes circumferentially thickened with calcification, limiting the ability of the heart to contract. The rim of dense calcification describes how the h...
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Papilloedema

Papilloedema is essentially an ophthalmoscopic diagnosis and refers to swelling of the optic disc. The MRI appearance relates to the dural anatomy of the optic nerve, which is continuous with the subarachnoid space, thereby allowing increased intracranial pressure (ICP) to be transmitted to the ...
Article

Parrot beak tear of meniscus

A parrot beak meniscal tear is a type of oblique meniscal tear which is connected in one plane and displaced in the other plane. Its appearance on axial images is curved like a crescent and is likened to that of a parrot's beak. The tear gap has a curved V-shape.  Some authors advise that the t...
Article

Patent track sign

Patent track sign is a finding on color Doppler ultrasound, representing blood traveling along the course a biopsy needle track. It can occur after a biopsy of any organ, but is more often seen after liver or kidney biopsies. Radiographic findings linear color Doppler flow along the course of ...
Article

Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or tear-drop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Aetiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder i...
Article

Pearl necklace sign

The pearl necklace sign occurs in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder, on both oral cholecystograms and MRCP. It represents the contrast / fluid-filled intramural mucosal diverticula (Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses); lined up, these are reminiscent of pearls on a necklace. It is synonymous with the C...
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Peg-like tonsil

Peg-like tonsils refer to the CT or MR appearances of pointed cerebellar tonsils on sagittal scans.  The may help distinguish tonsillar ectopia from a Chiari 1 malformation.
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Pelvic tear drop

The pelvic tear drop (also known as U-figure) is a radiographic feature seen on pelvic x-rays and results from the the end-on projection of a bony ridge running along the floor of the acetabular fossa. This was shown to be the case by demonstrating that sawing away this bony plate made the feat...
Article

Penumbra sign (bones)

The penumbra sign represents a rim of vascularized granulation tissue around a bone abscess cavity that has a higher T1 signal intensity than the cavity itself 1.  It should not be confused with the ischaemic penumbra of cerebral infarction.  The penumbra is isointense to muscle on T1, enhance...
Article

Pepperpot skull

Pepperpot skull is occasionally used in place of salt and pepper skull to describe the typical radiographic appearance of multiple small radiolucent lesions of the skull vault. This is clasically seen in hyperparathyroidism2, and is occasionally used (inaccurately) to describe the raindrop skul...
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Peribronchial cuffing

Peribronchial cuffing refers to a radiographic term used to describe haziness or increased density around the walls of a bronchus or large bronchiole seen end-on, both on plain radiographs and on CT. It is sometimes described as a "doughnut sign". When viewed tangentially, it can give the appear...
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification (PC) usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Causes uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location ...
Article

Perilymphatic fistula

A perilymphatic fistula (PLF) (also known as a labyrinthine fistula) is a pathologic communication between the fluid-filled space of the inner ear and the air-filled space of the middle ear, most commonly occurring at either the round or oval window. The primary manifestations of perilymphatic...
Article

Perinephric stranding

Perinephric stranding refers to the appearance of oedema within the fat of the perirenal space on CT or MRI. While a degree of symmetric bilateral perinephric stranding is common, particularly in the elderly, asymmetric or unilateral perinephric stranding is an important sign of renal inflammati...
Article

Periportal free gas sign

The periportal free gas sign has been described as being strongly suggestive for upper gastrointestinal hollow viscus perforation. See also bowel perforation (summary) pneumoperitoneum
Article

Periportal halo

Periportal halo or periportal collar sign is a zone of low attenuation seen around the portal veins on contrast-enhanced CT or hypoechogenicity on liver US. Periportal halos may occur around the central portal veins or their peripheral branches and occurs on both sides of the portal triads. Pat...
Article

Perirenal cobweb

Perirenal cobwebs is the presence of prominent perinephric septae. It is best appreciated on CT images. Pathology The cobweb is considered to be due to engorged venous collaterals or due to edema and fluid extravasation into the perirenal space 1. Perirenal cobwebs may be seen in many benign ...
Article

Phantom calyx

Phantom calyx is a calyx which fails to fill with contrast admist a well opacified remainder of pyelocalyceal system. It refers to an intrarenal process which has infilterated and caused obliteration of the involved collecting system element. It may be seen in: tumour: especially transitional ...
Article

Phemister triad

The triad of Phemister refers to three features seen classically with tuberculous arthropathy: juxta-articular osteopaenia/osteoporosis peripheral osseous erosions gradual narrowing of joint space
Article

Phrygian cap

Phrygian caps are the most common congenital anatomic variant of the gallbladder. It denotes folding of the fundus back upon the gallbladder body and is asymptomatic with no pathological significance. Radiographic findings A Phrygian cap may be identified in ultrasound, multiphase CT/MRI or in...
Article

Picture frame vertebral body

Picture frame vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the cortex of the vertebral body is thickened. This sign is seen in a patient with Paget disease.  This is a result of disorganized new cortical bone formation after excessive osteoclastic activity causes the resorption of normal ...

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