Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

777 results found
Article

Papilloedema

Papilloedema is an ophthalmoscopic diagnosis and refers to swelling of the optic disc. The MRI appearance relates to the dural anatomy of the optic nerve, which is continuous with the subarachnoid space, thereby allowing increased intracranial pressure (ICP) to be transmitted to the optic disc. ...
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Parrot beak meniscal tear

Parrot beak meniscal tears are a type of oblique meniscal tear which is connected in one plane and displaced in the other plane. Its appearance on axial images is curved like a crescent and is likened to that of a parrot's beak. The tear gap has a curved V-shape.  Some authors advise that the t...
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Patent track sign

Patent track sign is a finding on color Doppler ultrasound, representing blood traveling along the course a biopsy needle track. It can occur after a biopsy of any organ, but is more often seen after liver or kidney biopsies. Radiographic findings linear color Doppler flow along the course of ...
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Peaking sign (tension pneumocephalus)

The peaking sign is seen in cross-sectional imaging of the brain suggestive of a tension pneumocephalus. It represents the frontal lobes being pushed together forming a peak in the midline giving a heaped up appearance surrounded by air 1. Later, as the frontal lobes are separated they take on t...
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Pearl necklace sign

The pearl necklace sign occurs in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder, on both oral cholecystograms and MRCP. It represents the contrast / fluid-filled intramural mucosal diverticula (Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses); lined up, these are reminiscent of pearls on a necklace. It is synonymous with the C...
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Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or teardrop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Aetiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder in...
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Peg-like tonsil (cerebellum)

Peg-like tonsils refer to the CT or MR appearances of pointed cerebellar tonsils on sagittal scans. The may help distinguish low-lying tonsils from cerebellar tonsillar ectopia due to a Chiari I malformation.  The terminology of caudally displaced tonsils is discussed in the article on cerebell...
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Pellegrini-Stieda lesion

Pellegrini-Stieda lesions are ossified post-traumatic lesions at (or near) the medial femoral collateral ligament adjacent to the margin of the medial femoral condyle. One presumed mechanism of injury is a Stieda fracture (avulsion injury of the medial collateral ligament at the medial femoral c...
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Pelvic teardrop

The pelvic teardrop, also known as U-figure, is a radiographic feature seen on pelvic x-rays and results from the end-on projection of a bony ridge running along the floor of the acetabular fossa. This was shown to be the case by demonstrating that sawing away this bony plate made the feature d...
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Penumbra sign (bones)

The penumbra sign represents a rim of vascularized granulation tissue around a bone abscess cavity that has a higher T1 signal intensity than the cavity itself 1.  It should not be confused with the ischaemic penumbra of cerebral infarction.  The penumbra is isointense to muscle on T1, enhance...
Article

Peribronchial cuffing

Peribronchial cuffing refers to a radiographic term used to describe haziness or increased density around the walls of a bronchus or large bronchiole seen end-on, both on plain radiographs and on CT. It is sometimes described as a "doughnut sign". When viewed tangentially, it can give the appear...
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Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location of...
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Perilymphatic fistula

A perilymphatic fistula (also known as a labyrinthine fistula) is a pathologic communication between the fluid-filled space of the inner ear and the air-filled space of the middle ear, most commonly occurring at either the round or oval window. The primary manifestations of perilymphatic fistu...
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Perinephric stranding

Perinephric stranding refers to the appearance of oedema within the fat of the perirenal space on CT or MRI. While a degree of symmetric bilateral perinephric stranding is common, particularly in the elderly, asymmetric or unilateral perinephric stranding is an important sign of renal inflammati...
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Periportal free gas sign

The periportal free gas sign has been described as being strongly suggestive for upper gastrointestinal hollow viscus perforation. See also bowel perforation (summary) pneumoperitoneum
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Periportal halo

Periportal halo or periportal collar sign is a zone of low attenuation seen around the portal veins on contrast-enhanced CT or hypoechogenicity on liver US. Periportal halos may occur around the central portal veins or their peripheral branches and occurs on both sides of the portal triads. Pat...
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Perirenal cobweb

Perirenal cobwebs are the presence of prominent perinephric septa. It is best appreciated on CT images. Pathology The cobweb is considered to be due to engorged venous collaterals or due to oedema and fluid extravasation into the perirenal space 1. Perirenal cobwebs may be seen in many benign...
Article

Phantom calyx

A phantom calyx is a solitary calyx which fails to opacify with contrast amidst an otherwise well-opacified pelvicalyceal system. It is due to an intrarenal process which has infiltrated and caused obliteration of the involved collecting system element. It may be seen in: tumour: especially tr...
Article

Phemister triad

The triad of Phemister refers to three features seen classically with tuberculous arthropathy: juxta-articular osteopenia/osteoporosis peripheral osseous erosions gradual narrowing of joint space History and etymology Named after Dallas Burton Phemister (1882-1951), American orthopaedic sur...
Article

Phrygian cap

Phrygian caps are the most common congenital anatomic variant of the gallbladder. It denotes folding of the fundus back upon the gallbladder body and is asymptomatic with no pathological significance. Radiographic findings A Phrygian cap may be identified on ultrasound, multiphase CT/MRI or ch...
Article

Picture frame vertebral body

Picture frame vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the cortex of the vertebral body is thickened. This sign can be seen in patients with Paget disease.  It is a result of disorganised new cortical bone formation after excessive osteoclastic activity causes the resorption of normal...
Article

Piece of pie sign (wrist)

The piece of pie sign refers to an abnormal triangular appearance of the lunate on a PA image of the wrist representing either lunate dislocation or perilunate dislocation 1,2. A lateral image will help differentiate whether there is lunate or perilunate dislocation, with lunate dislocation demo...
Article

Pine cone bladder

A pine cone bladder or christmas tree bladder is a cystogram appearance in which the bladder is elongated and pointed with thickened trabeculated wall. It is typically seen in severe neurogenic bladder with increased sphincter tone (detrusor sphincter dyssynergia) due to suprasacral lesions (abo...
Article

Pistol grip deformity (hip)

The pistol grip deformity is considered a typical radiographic sign of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement. The shape of the proximal femur is reminiscent of a flintlock pistol known from old pirate movies. History and etymology It was first described by American orthopaedic surgeon S David ...
Article

Pitt pit

Pitt pit refers to an oval or round lucency in the anterosuperior aspect of the femoral neck, just distal to the articular surface. It represents a herniation of synovium or soft tissues into the bone through a cortical defect, hence the alternate name synovial herniation pit. They are usually a...
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Pleural mouse

A pleural mouse (also known as a fibrin body), is a 1-2 cm mobile rounded clump of fibrin left over after resolution of a pleural effusion.
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Pneumolipohaemarthrosis

Pneumolipohaemarthrosis is the presence of intra-articular gas in a lipohaemarthrosis. It indicates an open intra-articular fracture. 
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Pneumothorax in supine projection

A pneumothorax does not display classical signs when a patient is positioned supine for a chest radiograph. Instead, the pneumothorax may be demonstrated by looking for the following signs: relative lucency of the involved hemithorax deep, sometimes tongue-like, costophrenic sulcus: deep sulcu...
Article

Pneumothorax (ultrasound)

Pneumothorax is a serious potential consequence of blunt thoracic trauma and, if misdiagnosed, it may quickly become life-threatening. For a discussion on epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment and prognosis please see the main pneumothorax article.  Radiographic feature...
Article

Polka-dot sign (vertebral haemangioma)

The polka-dot sign is the result of the replacement of the normal cancellous bone by thickened vertical trabeculae surrounded by fat marrow or vascular lacunae in vertebral intraosseous haemangiomas 2. It is the axial equivalent of the corduroy sign seen on sagittal and coronal images. On CT the...
Article

Polo Mint sign (venous thrombosis)

The Polo Mint sign is a description given to a venous thrombosis on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.  When viewed in the axial plane, a thin rim of contrast persists around a central filling defect due to thrombus. This gives an appearance like that of the popular UK mint sweet, the Polo, also refe...
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Pool sign (intracranial; metastatic adenocarcinoma)

The pool sign is a recently described brain MRI appearance where an intracranial mass exhibits a T2 hyperintense rim adjacent to a solid mass surrounded by peritumoral oedema. This appearance has been recently suggested to be a feature characteristic of metastatic adenocarcinoma (with various pr...
Article

Pooping duck sign

Pooping duck sign indicates the presence of a triquetral fracture, where an avulsed fracture fragment from the dorsal cortex of the triquetrum projects along the dorsal aspect of the osseous structures of the wrist. In this sign, the fracture fragment represents the poop dorsal to the duck. The ...
Article

Popcorn calcification

Popcorn calcification refers to amorphous calcifications often with rings and arcs that resemble popped corn kernels. This type of calcification may be seen in many radiological settings including 1: chondroid lesions (e.g enchondroma, chondrosarcoma) fibrous dysplasia pulmonary hamartomas d...
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Popcorn calcification within the breast

Popcorn calcification in the breast is the classical description for the calcification seen in involuting fibroadenomas which, as the name suggests, has a popcorn-like appearance.  Pathology A fibroadenoma in the long run may degenerate and calcify. Initially there are a few punctate periphera...
Article

Porcelain gallbladder

Porcelain gallbladder refers to extensive calcium encrustation of the gallbladder wall. The term has been used to emphasise the blue discoloration and brittle consistency of the gallbladder wall at surgery. Often an incidental finding on multiple different modalities, CT can be used to confirm t...
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Porcelain left atrium

Porcelain left atrium, also known as coconut left atrium, is a term used when a large part of or the entire left atrial wall becomes calcified. It can occur as a rare consequence of endocarditis (with underlying rheumatic heart disease). It has also been described in the setting of end-stage ren...
Article

Positive carpal sign

The positive carpal sign is a useful radiographic sign for the diagnosis of Turner syndrome in association with the other musculoskeletal manifestations. Radiographic features Abnormality in the shape of the proximal carpal row in the dorsopalmar radiographs of the wrist and hand (taking in th...
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Positive metacarpal sign

In the metacarpal sign, a line drawn along the heads of the 4th and 5th metacarpals will intersect the head of the 3rd metacarpal if shortening is present. The shortened 4th metacarpal is the key to the sign. The sign is positive in up to 9.6% of normal individuals 3. It is however seen in a va...
Article

Positive PCL line sign

The positive PCL line sign is an indirect sign of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear based on secondary changes of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) on MRI images. A line tangent to the upper border of the PCL should normally intersect the medullary cavity of the distal femur, if it does ...
Article

Posterior fat pad sign

The posterior fat pad sign is the visualisation of a lucent crescent of fat located in the olecranon fossa on a true lateral view of an elbow joint with the elbow flexed at a right angle indicating an elbow joint effusion. Normally, the posterior fat pad will not be seen on this view.  In the s...
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Posterior pituitary bright spot

The posterior pituitary bright spot is an MRI feature of the normal pituitary gland. It refers to the intrinsically high T1 signal of the posterior pituitary thought to be from the storage of vasopressin, which has a T1-shortening effect 2. It is important to note that a posterior pituitary bri...
Article

Powers ratio

Powers ratio is a measurement of the relationship of the foramen magnum to the atlas, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. The ratio, AB/CD, is measured as the ratio of the distance in the median (midsagittal) plane between the: basion (A) and the posterior spinola...
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Pretzel sign

The pretzel sign is seen on DSA and is indicative of a serpentine aneurysm 1. The sign refers to the sinusoid configuration of the intra-aneurysmal vascular channel seen in serpentine aneurysms, giving it the appearance of a pretzel.
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Prévost sign (eyes)

The Prévost sign, also known as the Vulpian sign, refers to conjugate ocular deviation in patients with acute cortical hemiparetic stroke. The direction is variable, depending on the location of the stroke 3. In a hemispheric stroke, the eyes usually deviate towards the lesion (away from the h...
Article

Pronator quadratus sign

The pronator quadratus sign can be an indirect sign of distal forearm trauma. It relies on displacement of the fat pad that lies superficial to the pronator quadratus muscle. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On lateral wrist radiographs, the pronator fat pad normally appears as a thin r...
Article

Pseudocalculus sign (common bile duct)

A pseudocalculus sign is a term coined to describe a mimic of a distally impacted common bile duct (CBD) stone on MRCP and CT cholangiography.  It results from the forceful contraction of the ampulla of Vater with pouting into the lower end of the CBD. This impression is superiorly rounded and ...
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Pseudocavitation (lung)

Pseudocavitation has been described as a well recognised feature of  adenocarcinoma in situ / minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (bronchoalveolar carcinoma) of the lung. It refers to the central bubble-like low density region seen within a pulmonary nodule on CT.
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Pseudodysraphism

A pseudodysraphism refers to the splayed appearance of a normal spine created due to excessive craniocaudal angulation during sonographic evaluation. This can erroneously lead to the diagnosis of a spinal neural tube defect.
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Pseudogallbladder sign

Pseudogallbladder sign is a sonographic feature that can be seen in some children with biliary atresia. Radiographic features Ultrasound Appears as a cystic structure seen in the liver which is confused with gallbladder in a few cases of biliary atresia. In these patients it is an important f...
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Pseudogestational sac

A pseudogestational sac, also known as a pseudosac or intra-cavitary fluid, is the concept that a small amount of intrauterine fluid in the setting of a positive pregnancy test and abdominal pain could be erroneously interpreted as a true gestational sac in ectopic pregnancy. The sign was origi...
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Pseudokidney (intussusception)

The pseudokidney of intussusception is an ultrasound finding in some cases of intestinal intussusception. It refers to the longitudinal ultrasound appearance of the intussuscepted segment of bowel which mimics a kidney.  The fat-containing mesentery which is dragged into the intussusception, co...
Article

Pseudo-omphalocoele

Pseudo-omphalocoele is the spurious sonographic appearance giving an impression of an anterior abdominal wall defect. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound Pseudo-omphalocoele may be seen in: scanning errors where there is a deformation of the fetal abdomen by transducer pressure and th...
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Pseudopneumomediastinum

Pseudopneumomediastinum is the false impression, usually on a chest x-ray, of pneumomediastinum. Correctly identifying pneumomediastinum is important, but making the diagnosis in error may lead to further unnecessary investigation and possible treatment. Causes include: Mach band superimposed...
Article

Pseudosubarachnoid haemorrhage

Pseudosubarachnoid haemorrhage describes apparent increased attenuation within the basal cisterns simulating true subarachnoid haemorrhage. It is usually due to cerebral oedema. Pathology Causes and associations The most common cause is cerebral oedema where there is a decrease in parenchymal...
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Pseudovein sign (bowel)

The pseudovein sign can occur with active gastrointestinal bleeding where contrast extravasation during angiography may have a curvilinear appearance as it pools in the gastric rugae or mucosal folds of bowel, mimicking the appearance of a vein. However, contrast in the “pseudovein” persists bey...
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Ptosis

Ptosis (or blepharoptosis) is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid. Complete ptosis is due to complete oculomotor nerve palsy. Partial ptosis is due to a dysfunction of the sympathetic pathway leading to paralysis of Muller muscle.  Note that facial nerve paralysis prevents screwing of the...
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Puff of smoke sign

The puff of smoke sign describes the characteristic angiographic appearance of tiny abnormal intracranial collateral vessel networks in moyamoya disease. Progressive narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis vessels results in extensive small collateral arteria...
Article

Pulmonary plethora

Pulmonary plethora is a term used to describe the appearances of increased pulmonary perfusion on chest radiographs. It is commonly used in paediatric radiology.  Pathology Usually a left-to-right shunt of 2:1 is required for pulmonary plethora to occur 2,3. Increased pulmonary perfusion occur...
Article

Pulvinar sign (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)

The pulvinar sign refers to bilateral FLAIR hyperintensities involving the pulvinar thalamic nuclei. It is classically described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is also described in other neurological conditions: Fabry disease: the hyperintense signal is seen on T1 rather than T2 bila...
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Punctate microcalcification within the breast

Punctate microcalcifications in the breast are defined as calcific opacities <0.5 mm in diameter seen within the acini of a terminal duct lobular unit. Pathology Associations fibrocystic changes skin calcification skin talc rarely in DCIS: punctate, clustered, segmentally distributed Radi...
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Putaminal rim sign

The putaminal rim sign, also known as the putaminal slit sign, is a relatively specific sign of multiple system atrophy - parkinsonism (MSA-P), and refers to a linear region of high T2 signal surrounding the lateral aspect of the putamen at 1.5 T MRI. Importantly this appearance can be seen in n...
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Putty kidney

A putty kidney refers to a pattern of renal calcification associated with renal tuberculosis conventionally described on plain radiography. Calcification characteristically is very homogeneous and ground glass-like, representing calcified caseous tissue 3,4. Premkumar et al. labelled calcificati...
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Quad sign

The quad sign is a static sonographic sign observed in pleural effusion. It consists of four lines representing the pleura, rib, fluid, and lung. Similar to the sinusoid sign, this sign has a high sensitivity and specificity for pleural effusion, which - when simple - is itself anechoic.
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Raccoon eyes sign (base of skull fracture)

Raccoon eyes sign (or panda eyes in the UK and Ireland) is due to periorbital ecchymosis and is specific for base of skull fracture of the anterior cranial fossa. However it is not pathognomonic for trauma, and there are several rare causes described, including metastatic neuroblastoma, Kaposi ...
Article

Rachitic rosary

Rachitic rosary refers to expansion of the anterior rib ends at the costochondral junctions and is most frequently seen in rickets as nodularity at the costochondral junctions. Differential diagnosis Other causes of this appearance include:  scurvy:  the costochondral junction is more angula...
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Racing car sign (callosal dysgnesis)

The racing car sign refers to widely spaced lateral ventricles due to agenesis of the corpus callosum with intervening Probst bundles. Appearances on axial MRI or CT are reminiscent of a Formula One car seen from above, with the tyres represented by the widely-spaced frontal horns, and the dilat...
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Radial bands sign

The radial bands sign refers to linear bands seen on MRI, radiating from the periventricular white matter to the subcortical region, thought to be specific for tuberous sclerosis 1,2. Pathology The exact pathogenesis of radial bands is uncertain, but they are thought to relate to dysfunction o...
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Radiocapitellar line

The radiocapitellar line is one of the key lines used to assess alignment on the elbow radiograph. It is particularly useful in the paediatric setting. The rule A line drawn down the neck of the radius should intersect the capitellum. It is important to ensure that you draw the line down the r...
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Radiological signs (gastrointestinal tract)

Radiological signs are described across the disciplines of imaging, including the gastrointestinal tract. Fruit-inspired, nature-related, and more feature in the list of signs described for a wide array of pathology. How fascinating are the minds of radiologists work in describing pathology?
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Raindrop skull

The appearance of multiple, well-defined lytic lesions (punched out lesions) of various size scattered throughout the skull constitutes the raindrop skull appearance of multiple myeloma. This term is applied as an analogy to rain hitting a surface and splashing, where it leaves a random pattern ...
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Ranke complex

Ranke complex is seen in 'healed' primary pulmonary tuberculosis and consists of two components: Ghon lesion: calcified parenchymal tuberculoma ipsilateral calcified hilar node
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Rat bite erosions (gout)

Rat (a.k.a. mouse) bite erosions are seen in gout and refer to punched out erosions with sclerotic and overhanging margins. 
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Rat-tail sign (oesophagus)

The rat-tail sign is used to refer to the tapering of the inferior oesophagus in achalasia. The same appearance (although it is difficult to see the similarity) is also referred to as the ​bird beak sign (oesophagus). 
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Renal arterial cut-off sign

Renal arterial cut-off sign, as the name suggests, is an abrupt termination of the contrast-opacified lumen of the renal artery. It may or may not be associated with contrast extravasation. It is seen in a vascular injury, e.g. segmental or main renal artery thrombosis or occlusion.
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Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities refer to peripheral opacities of the lungs, sparing the perihilar region. It is a relatively unusual appearance with a relatively narrow differential: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia organising pneumonia (formerly bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pne...
Article

Reversed halo sign (lungs)

Reversed halo sign, also known as the atoll sign, is defined as central ground-glass opacity surrounded by denser consolidation of crescentic (forming more than three-fourths of a circle) or ring (forming a complete circle) shape of at least 2 mm in thickness. It was initially described on high-...
Article

Reverse figure 3 sign

The reverse figure 3 sign (also known as the E sign) is seen on barium swallows in patients with a coarctation of the aorta and is the medial equivalent of the figure 3 sign seen on plain chest radiographs. It is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta, indentation of the coarcta...
Article

Reverse target sign (cirrhotic nodules)

A reverse target sign is a potential ultrasound marker for cirrhotic nodules on ultrasound.It represents central iso-hyperechogenicity with surrounding hyperechoic rim. This sign is useful to differentiate metastases from cirrhotic nodules, conversely the target sign is seen with liver metastases.
Article

Ribbon ribs deformity

Ribbon ribs deformity refers to the presence of thinned ribs on image studies. Such findings could be present in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 due to the presence of multiple neurofibromas of intercostal nerves.  This deformity is also described in osteogenesis imperfecta 1 Edwards s...
Article

Rice grain calcification

Rice grain calcification is characteristic of infection with Taenia solium (cysticercosis); when the inflammatory response of the host kills the larval cysts (cysticerci), they undergo granulomatous change and become calcified. Radiographic features Ovoid flecks of calcification resembling gra...
Article

Right posterior hepatic notch sign

The right posterior hepatic notch sign is a sharp indentation of the normally smooth posterior right hepatic lobe margin. It is associated with cirrhosis, although the mechanism is not entirely clear. It has been suggested that this may be an indication of relative caudate lobe hypertrophy and d...
Article

Rigler notch sign

The Rigler notch sign refers to an indentation in the border of a solid lung mass, which is thought to represents a feeding vessel, thus suggesting the presence of a bronchial carcinoma 1. However, this sign is also observed in other conditions, including granulomatous infections, and its differ...
Article

Rigler sign

The Rigler sign, also known as the double wall sign, is seen on a radiograph of the abdomen when the air is present on both sides of the intestine, i.e. when there is air on both the luminal and peritoneal side of the bowel wall. Pneumoperitoneum may be a result of perforation or, recent instru...
Article

Rigler triad

Rigler triad consists of three findings seen in gallstone ileus: pneumobilia small bowel obstruction ectopic gallstone, usually in the right iliac fossa History and etymology It is named after Leo George Rigler, American radiologist (1896-1979) 1. Practical points Rigler triad should not ...
Article

Rim sign in chronic hydronephrosis

The rim sign can be seen in association with chronic hydronephrosis.  In patients with chronic hydronephrosis, in all forms of contrast-enhanced imaging of the obstructed kidney, enhancement may occur in the residual, but markedly atrophic, renal parenchyma, surrounding the dilated calyces and ...
Article

Rim sign in pulmonary infarction

The rim sign in pulmonary infarction is seen on PET-CT with very mild peripheral continuous FDG uptake and the complete absence of central uptake. This is a different appearance to that seen in lung abscesses or necrotic tumours, whereby the peripheral FDG-avidity is marked. History and etymolo...
Article

Rim sign in renal vascular compromise

Rim sign in renal vascular compromise is seen in major renal vascular compromise. It can be seen in: renal artery obstruction from embolism, thrombosis or dissection renal vein thrombosis acute tubular necrosis Radiographic features At contrast-enhanced CT or MRI, a thin (1-3 mm) rim of su...
Article

Rim sign of avascular necrosis

The rim sign of avascular necrosis (AVN) comprises a high T2 or intermediate T1 signal line sandwiched between two low signal lines, and represents fluid between the sclerotic borders of an osteochondral fragment, and implies instability (stage III). The rim sign should not be confused with the...
Article

Rind sign (bones)

The rind sign is used when a lesion is surrounded by a layer of thick, sclerotic reactive bone (i.e. a rind) and is suggestive of fibrous dysplasia. The classic rind sign is most commonly seen in the proximal femur.
Article

Ring of fire sign (adnexa)

The ring of fire sign, also known as ring of vascularity, signifies a hypervascular lesion with peripheral vascularity on colour or pulsed Doppler examination of the adnexa due to low impedance high diastolic flow 1. This sign can be seen in: corpus luteum cyst (more commonly) ectopic pregnan...
Article

Rings and arcs calcification

Rings and arcs calcification is characteristic of chondroid lesions, such as enchondromas and chondrosarcomas. It is due to endochondral mineralisation of multiple hyaline cartilage nodules and is similar to popcorn calcification, which has rings and arcs on the background of more amorphous calc...
Article

Ring shadow (disambiguation)

Ring shadows are radiographic signs seen on either chest x-rays or on upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy: ring shadow (chest) ring shadow (abdomen)

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