Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

777 results found
Article

Roberts sign

Roberts sign refers to the presence of a gas shadow within the heart or the greater vessels, in cases of fetal death in utero. It is a rare sign caused by postmortem blood degeneration, usually seen 1-2 days after death; and may be seen as early as 12 hours. History and etymology First describ...
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Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberance projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of a mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair, and/or sebaceous components 1. This region has the highest propensity to undergo malignant transformat...
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Rolling stone sign

The rolling stone sign refers to the presence of gallstones within the gallbladder that are mobile when the patient moves. Small gallstones can sometimes be difficult to diagnose due to the absence of posterior shadow artefact but the presence of a rolling stone sign increases the confidence of...
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Romana sign (Chagas disease)

Romana sign, also known as chagoma, refers to periorbital swelling, palpebral oedema and conjunctivitis seen 1-2 weeks following infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (causative agent in Chagas disease).  Romana sign is associated with ipsilateral regional lymphadenopathy.  History and etymology I...
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Romanus lesion

The Romanus lesion represents an early finding in inflammatory spondyloarthropathies, such as ankylosing spondylitis and enteropathic arthritis, and appears as irregularity and erosion involving the anterior and posterior edges of the vertebral endplates 1. Healing response to these inflammatory...
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Rosary sign (gallbladder)

The rosary sign is a CT finding in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder. It is formed by the enhanced proliferative mucosal epithelium, with the intramural diverticula surrounded by the unenhanced hypertrophied muscle coat of the gallbladder. The rosary sign is similar to the pearl necklace sign.
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Rose-thorn ulcers

Rose-thorn ulcers or rose-thorn appearance refers to deep penetrating linear ulcers or fissuring typically seen within stenosed terminal ileum with a thickened wall. They appear as thorn-like extraluminal projections on barium studies and this appearance is one of the typical signs of Crohn dise...
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Rugger-jersey spine

Rugger-jersey spine describes the prominent subendplate densities at multiple contiguous vertebral levels to produce an alternating sclerotic-lucent-sclerotic appearance. This mimics the horizontal stripes of a rugby jersey. This term and pattern are distinctive for hyperparathyroidism. Pathol...
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Saber-sheath trachea

Saber-sheath trachea refers to diffuse coronal narrowing of the intrathoracic portion of the trachea with the concomitant widening of the sagittal diameter. It is not uncommon and is pathognomonic for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 1.  The sagittal:coronal diameter is over 2:1 2 a...
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Saber sign in pneumobilia

The saber sign refers to a pattern of gas distribution seen in supine abdominal radiographs of patients with pneumobilia.  A sword-shaped lucency is apparent in the right paraspinal region of the upper abdomen representing arching gas extending from the common bile duct into the left hepatic duc...
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Sack of marbles sign

The sack of marbles sign refers to aggregations of multiple small globules of fat within a cyst mimicking marble spheres within a sack. They appear hyperechoic on ultrasound, fat attenuation on CT, and high signal on T1WI and T2WI on MRI. It is considered highly suggestive of a dermoid cyst ​1.
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Saddle pulmonary embolism

Saddle pulmonary embolism commonly refers to a large pulmonary embolism that straddles the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, extending into the left and right pulmonary arteries. If large enough, it can completely obstruct both left and right pulmonary arteries resulting in right heart failur...
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Sail sign (elbow)

The sail sign on an elbow radiograph describes the elevation of the anterior fat pad to create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat. It indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion. The anterior fat pad is usually concealed within the coronoid fossa or seen parall...
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Sail signs

There are numerous sails signs in radiology, where a normal structure is displaced or a pathology creates the appearance of a sail: elbow sail sign: the raised anterior fat pad on an elbow radiograph thymic sail sign: normal thymus on a paediatric chest radiograph spinnaker-sail sign (angel w...
Article

Salad oil sign

Salad oil sign, also referred to as the droplet sign, is characterised by small rounded high T2 signal foci within a breast implant on MRI studies and represents water droplets or small amounts of gas within the silicone. It also can be characterised as hypointense foci on the water-suppressed s...
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Salt and pepper sign

The salt and pepper sign is used to refer to a speckled appearance of tissue. It is used in many instances, but most commonly on MRI. Please note that pathologists also use the term. Differential diagnosis Vascular tumours Used to describe some highly vascular tumours which contain foci of ha...
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Salt and pepper sign (skull)

Salt and pepper sign or pepper pot skull refers to multiple tiny well-defined lucencies in the calvaria caused by resorption of trabecular bone in hyperparathyroidism. There is a loss of definition between the inner and outer tables of the skull and a ground-glass appearance as well as spotty de...
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Sandwich sign (Marchiafava-Bignami disease)

Sandwich sign of Marchiafava-Bignami disease is described as the appearance due to the involvement of central layers of the corpus callosum. T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities are seen in the central region of body and splenium of corpus callosum with sparing of peripheral dorsal and ventral layers ...
Article

Sandwich sign (mesentery)

A sandwich sign, sometimes known as a hamburger sign, refers to a mesenteric nodal mass, either para-aortic or not, giving an appearance of a hamburger. Confluent lymphadenopathy on both sides of the mesenteric vessels gives rise to an appearance described as the sandwich sign 2. The sign is sp...
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Sandwich vertebral body

Sandwich vertebral body is a radiologic appearance in which the endplates are densely sclerotic, giving the appearance of a sandwich. This term and pattern are distinctive for osteopetrosis. Differential diagnosis the sandwich vertebrae appearance resembles rugger-jersey spine but can be diffe...
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Scalpel sign (spinal cord)

The scalpel sign has been recently described in dorsal thoracic arachnoid web on sagittal MRI spine studies. It relates to focal distortion of the thoracic cord, appearing anteriorly displaced. The enlarged dorsal CSF space mimics the profile of a surgical scalpel. It is helpful in distinguishi...
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Scimitar sign of cystic adventitial disease

Scimitar sign traditionally referred to a catheter angiographic appearance, although it can also be seen on MRA and CTA. It denotes lateral displacement and stenosis of the popliteal artery in patients with cystic adventitial disease. 
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Scottie dog sign (spine)

The Scottie dog sign refers to the normal appearance of the lumbar spine when seen on oblique radiographic projection. On oblique views, the posterior elements of the vertebra form the figure of a Scottie dog with: the transverse process being the nose the pedicle forming the eye the inferior...
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Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of bruising/abrasions in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) across the abdomen, chest and sometimes neck.  A positive seatbelt sign, in combination with abdominal pain or tenderne...
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Segond fracture

Segond fracture is an avulsion fracture of the knee that involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. On the frontal knee radiograph, it may be referred to as the lateral capsular...
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Sentinel clot sign

The sentinel clot sign is a useful CT finding for the evaluation of probable anatomic sites of haemorrhage. On CT, acute clotted haemorrhage typically has high attenuation (45 to 80 HU), whereas surrounding areas of acute non-clotted haemorrhage or more chronic haemorrhage have either lower att...
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Sentinel loop

A sentinel loop is a short segment of adynamic ileus close to an intra-abdominal inflammatory process. The sentinel loop sign may aid in localising the source of inflammation. For example, a sentinel loop in the upper abdomen may indicate pancreatitis, while one in the right lower quadrant may ...
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Septal bounce

Septal bounce is a sign of ventricular interdependence on echocardiography, cardiac CT, and cardiac MRI, manifested by reduced or paradoxical interventricular septal movement during diastole (i.e. initial septal movement towards and then away from the left ventricle) during early diastole second...
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Septal lines in lung

Septal lines, also known as Kerley lines, are seen when the interlobular septa in the pulmonary interstitium become prominent. This may be because of lymphatic engorgement or oedema of the connective tissues of the interlobular septa. They usually occur when pulmonary capillary wedge pressure re...
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Sergeant stripes sign (cerebellum)

The sergeant stripes sign refers to the oblique direction of the cerebellar tonsillar folia a feature sometimes visible in cases of Chiari I malformation on sagittal imaging. It is unclear which insignia this is meant to represent as the direction of the chevrons depends on nationality. For exam...
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Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. History and etymology The term refers to a likeness between the angiographic appearance and the artwor...
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Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumours (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood-containing lesions (e.g. haemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of...
Article

Shagreen patch

A shagreen patch is a subepidermal collagenous connective tissue naevus, also known as a collagenoma, associated with tuberous sclerosis. The overlying skin may be discoloured with obvious pours, giving the appearance of orange peel. These lesions are most commonly found in the lumbosacral regio...
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Shepherd crook deformity

A shepherd crook deformity refers to a coxa varus angulation of the proximal femur, classically seen in femoral involvement by fibrous dysplasia, although may be seen in other disorders such as Paget disease of bone and osteogenesis imperfecta. History and etymology The shape of the proximal f...
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Shifting granuloma sign

Shifting granuloma sign refers to a shift in the location of a parenchymal lesion visible on prior films that may be seen in the presence of atelectasis. For example, this occurs when a calcified granuloma is present in a lung and a significant parenchymal collapse "shifts" it from one location...
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Shiny corner sign (ankylosing spondylitis)

The shiny corner sign is a spinal finding in ankylosing spondylitis, representing reactive sclerosis secondary to inflammatory erosions at the superior and inferior endplates (corners on lateral radiograph) of the vertebral bodies which are known as Romanus lesions. Eventually, the vertebral bod...
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Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain AP chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which first appeared in 1948. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enlar...
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Shortening of the cervical canal

Shortening of the uterine cervical canal as the name implies refers to an abnormal shortening of the uterine cervical length. It is considered a sign of cervical incompetence during pregnancy and can lead to premature delivery. Pathology Aetiology primary (i.e. congenital/idiopathic) seconda...
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Shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis

The shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis is seen during barium examination and refers to the bulging of the hypertrophied pyloric muscle into the lumen of the antrum. It is closely related to the cervix sign of pyloric stenosis.  See also cervix sign of pyloric stenosis target sign of pyloric s...
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Shred sign (lungs)

Shred sign is a static sonographic sign observed in lung consolidation. The deeper border of consolidated lung tissue that makes contact with the aerated lung is shredded and irregular. This sign is not seen in massive translobar consolidation in which it is more difficult to appreciate the deep...
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Sigmoid kidney

A sigmoid kidney is an uncommon variant of the horseshoe kidney. Whereas the typical horseshoe kidney is fused only at the lower poles, in a sigmoid kidney both the upper and the lower poles are fused 1.
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Signal flare phenomenon

The signal flare phenomenon is a useful sign to identify active bleeding in a liquefied haematoma with haematocrit effect on dynamic CT scan images. When active arterial haemorrhage is present in a liquefied haematoma that has a haematocrit effect, a signal flare phenomenon may be seen as a lin...
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Signet ring sign

The signet ring sign is seen in bronchiectasis when the dilated bronchus and accompanying pulmonary artery branch are seen in cross-section. The bronchus and artery should be the same size, whereas in bronchiectasis, the bronchus is markedly dilated. The signet ring analogy has also been applie...
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Signs article structure

Signs are numerous in radiology and typically relate to a specific appearance or feature that is reminiscent of an object. The aim of a named sign is to help recognise or understand a specific imaging appearance (e.g. racing car sign of corpus callosal dysgenesis). The most important signs are t...
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Signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography

There are several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography which are suggestive of this diagnosis. None are pathognomonic and need to be interpreted with caution with close regard to the clinical presentation. Chang sign Fleischner sign Hampton hump (strictly a sign of pulmon...
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Silhouette sign (x-rays)

Silhouette sign is somewhat of a misnomer and in the true sense actually denotes the loss of a silhouette, thus, it is sometimes also known as loss of silhouette sign or loss of outline sign 4.  The differential attenuation of x-ray photons by two adjacent structures defines the silhouette, e.g...
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Sinusoid sign (ultrasound)

The sinusoid sign is a dynamic sonographic sign in M-mode describing the movement line representing the lung towards the pleural line which is displayed as a sinusoidal pattern. Similar to the quad sign, this sign has a high sensitivity and specificity for pleural effusion, which is anechoic in ...
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Sitting duck appearance (jugular foramen)

The sitting duck appearance denotes the normal anatomical configuration of the jugular foramen: the head of the duck (pointing backwards on the right side) represents the anteromedial pars nervosa the body of the duck representing the pars vascularis
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Sliver sign (patella)

The sliver sign refers to a curvilinear intra-articular osteochondral fragment in the knee joint on conventional knee radiographs. In the context of acute knee trauma and in association with joint effusion this sign is highly predictive of a recent transient lateral patellar dislocation 1. Path...
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Small bowel faeces sign

The small bowel faeces sign can be observed on abdominal CT scans. The sign has been described as a finding specific for small bowel obstruction or another severe small bowel abnormality (e.g. metabolic or infectious disease). While the reported prevalence of the sign in small bowel obstruction ...
Article

Snake-eye appearance (spinal cord)

Snake-eye appearance refers to symmetric bilateral T1 hypointensity/T2 hyperintensity of the anterior horn of the grey matter on axial cervical MRI, evocative of a pair of snake's eyes. It can be seen in late phase CT myelography, an all but forsaken technique, where it is also known as fried e...
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Snowcap sign (avascular necrosis)

Snowcap sign or snowcapping is defined as the appearance of dense sclerosis over the head of humerus or femur in cases of avascular necrosis as seen on plain radiographs, which resembles a snowcapped mountain.
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Snowman sign (pituitary macroadenoma)

Snowman sign in neuroimaging refers to the configuration of many pituitary macroadenomas. As they are soft tumours they are indented by the diaphragma sellae giving them a snowman configuration (or "figure 8" or "dumbbell" configuration). This feature helps in differentiating these tumours from ...
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Snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return)

Snowman sign refers to the configuration of the heart and the superior mediastinal borders resembling a snowman. This is seen in total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) type I (supracardiac type). It is an abnormality of the fetal circulation wherein the entire pulmonary venous flow is ...
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Snowstorm sign (complete hydatiform mole)

Snowstorm sign in obstetric imaging is classically seen in complete hydatiform mole. It is characterised by the presence of many hydropic villi which gives the ultrasonographic appearance of a central heterogeneous mass having a solid, hyperechoic area and interspersed with a multitude of cystic...
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Snowstorm sign (disambiguation)

Snowstorm sign may refer to: snowstorm sign: complete hydatiform mole (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: extracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: thyroid pulmonary metastases (chest radiograph)
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Snowstorm sign (extracapsular breast implant rupture)

Snowstorm sign on breast ultrasound imaging represents the presence of free silicone droplets mixed with breast tissue giving a characteristic heterogeneous echogenic appearance with the dispersion of the ultrasound beam. It is considered the most reliable sign of extracapsular breast implant ru...
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Soft tissue rim sign

The soft-tissue rim sign is used to distinguish a ureteric calculus from a phlebolith. The former appears as a calcific density with a surrounding rim of soft tissue which represents the oedematous ureteric wall. Phleboliths on the other hand usually have imperceptible walls (although up to 8% m...
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Sonographic halo sign

Sonographic halo sign is used in a number of situations. They include: hypoechoic halo sign (also known as target or bull's eye sign) in liver metastases: used in hepatobiliary imaging, is a concerning feature for malignant lesion if the lesion is a hyperechoic liver lesion 1,2 ultrasound halo...
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Sonographic Murphy sign

Sonographic Murphy sign is defined as maximal abdominal tenderness from pressure of the ultrasound probe over the visualised gallbladder 1,2. It is a sign of local inflammation around the gallbladder along with right upper quadrant pain, tenderness and/or a mass 2. It is one of the most importa...
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Spade phalanx sign

Spade phalanx sign refers to a characteristic distal phalangeal shape in acromegaly. Radiographic features Plain radiographs The terminal phalangeal tufts become hypertrophied and have a "spade appearance". Other findings on hand radiography of acromegaly include joint spaces may be minimal...
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Spaghetti sign in the bladder

The spaghetti sign refers to the presence of a linear worm like filling defect within a contrast opacified bladder. This linear filling defect is considered to represent blood clot extruded from the ureter and thereby moulded in the tubular shape. It is seen in patients with gross haematuria. Pr...
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Spalding sign (fetal demise)

The Spalding sign refers to the overlapping of the fetal skull bones caused by collapse of the fetal brain. It appears usually a week or more after fetal death in utero.  This finding was originally described by Alfred Baker Spalding (1874-1942), an American obstetrician 2, on abdominal radiogr...
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Spilled teacup sign (wrist)

The spilled teacup sign describes abnormal volar displacement and tilt of a dislocated lunate on lateral radiographs of the wrist 1,2. The convexity of the lunate is no longer in articulation with the distal radius while the concavity is no longer in articulation with the capitate. It is an impo...
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Spinnaker sign (mediastinum)

The spinnaker sign (also known as the angel wing sign) is a sign of pneumomediastinum seen on neonatal chest radiographs. It refers to the thymus being outlined by air with each lobe displaced laterally and appearing like spinnaker sails. This is distinct from the sail sign appearance of the nor...
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Split hand sign

The split hand sign is a clinical sign classically seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and refers to loss of pincer grasp due to preferential wasting of the thenar eminence (abductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscle) with relative preservation of the the hypothenar em...
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Split pleura sign (empyema)

The split pleura sign is seen with pleural empyemas and is considered the most reliable CT sign helping to distinguish an empyema from a peripheral pulmonary abscess (see empyema vs pulmonary abscess) 1,2.  The sign results from fibrin coating both the parietal and visceral surfaces of the pleu...
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Spoke wheel sign (meningioma)

The spoke wheel sign refers to the pattern of vessels coursing through meningiomas, when seen in cross-section.  It is the result of the same phenomenon which results in the sunburst pattern (vessels seen from the side rather than in cross-section). Terminology A similar appearance also referr...
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Stack of coins sign (bowel)

Stack of coins sign refers to the appearance of small bowel folds that are smoothly and uniformly thickened 1. The margins between the folds are sharply delineated and the arrangement of clearly demarcated parallel folds is likened to a stack of coins or a picket fence. This sign is distinct fro...
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Staghorn calculus (kidney)

Staghorn calculi, also sometimes called coral calculi, are renal calculi that obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calyces, thus resembling the horns of a stag. For a general discussion of renal calculi please refer to nephrolithiasis. Epidemiology Stagh...
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Stag's antler sign (lungs)

The stag's antler sign refers to upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion (cephalisation) in pulmonary venous hypertension or pulmonary oedema as seen on frontal chest radiograph. The prominence of upper lobe pulmonary veins resemble a stag's antlers. It is the earliest sign of pulmonary venous hy...
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Starfield pattern (fat embolism)

A starfield pattern has been described as being typical of DWI imaging of patients with cerebral fat embolism1,2. Although the term is closely linked to the diagnosis of fat embolism, it should be noted that such an appearance is merely the result of very numerous microemboli. As such a similar ...
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Starry sky appearance (ultrasound)

A starry sky appearance refers to a sonographic appearance of the liver parenchyma in which there are bright echogenic dots throughout a background of decreased liver parenchymal echogenicity. Although usually associated with acute hepatitis, this sign has been found to have poor sensitivity and...
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Steeple sign (trachea)

The steeple sign, also called the wine bottle sign, refers to the tapering of the upper trachea on a frontal chest radiograph reminiscent of a church steeple. The appearance is suggestive of croup, which should be obvious clinically. A corresponding lateral x-ray would show narrowing of the subg...
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Steinberg sign (Marfan disease)

The Steinberg sign, also known as the thumb sign, is one of the clinical examination tests for Marfan disease in the hands. It is a clinical test in which the tip of the thumb is visible medial to the little finger when it is clasped in the clenched hand.  See also thumb sign (disambiguation)
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Steinstrasse

Steinstrasse [stīn′shtra-se] is the German word for "stone street", describing a possible complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary tract calculi, wherein a column of stone fragments forms that blocks the ureter. Incidence Steinstrasse usually develops 1 day to 3...
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Stener lesion

Stener lesions are seen in the context of a torn ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb's metacarpophalangeal joint (gamekeeper's thumb).  Pathology Normally, the ulnar collateral ligament lies deep to the adductor pollicis tendon. A Stener lesion is characterised by slippage of the torn end o...
Article

Stepladder sign (disambiguation)

Stepladder sign may refer to: intracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) gas-fluid levels in obstructed small bowel (erect abdominal radiograph)
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Stepladder sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture)

The stepladder sign is a sonographic sign indicating an intracapsular breast implant rupture. It is considered the most reliable ultrasonographic finding in silicone gel breast implant intracapsular rupture. It is identified as multiple, discontinuous, parallel, linear echoes in the lumen, and i...
Article

Stepladder sign (small bowel obstruction)

Stepladder sign represents the appearance of gas-fluid distended small bowel loops that appear to be stacked on top of each other, typically observed on erect abdominal radiographs in the setting of small bowel obstruction. 
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Stierlin sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)

The Stierlin sign refers to repeated emptying of the caecum, seen radiographically as barium remaining in the terminal part of the ileum and in the transverse colon. This occurs due to irritation of the caecum caused by M. tuberculosis. It is not specific for tuberculosis and can also be seen in...
Article

Stipple sign (transitional cell carcinoma)

The stipple sign refers to the pointillistic end-on appearance on intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography of contrast material tracking into the interstices of a papillary lesion. Because the majority of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) have a papillary configuration, the presence of...
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Strawberry gallbladder

Strawberry gallbladder refers to the surface appearance (not shape) of the mucosa of the gallbladder due to multiple small collections of triglycerides and cholesterol esters within the lamina propria of the gallbladder wall (gallbladder wall cholesterolosis).  Strawberry gallbladder represents...
Article

Strawberry skull

Strawberry skull refers to the shape of the head on an antenatal ultrasound. Epidemiology Associations In general, strawberry skull is considered one of the non-specific 'soft markers' for abnormal fetal development. It is considered more closely associated with trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome). ...
Article

Striated nephrogram

Striated nephrogram is a descriptive term indicating an appearance of alternating linear bands of high and low attenuation in a radial pattern extending through the corticomedullary layers of the kidney on iodine-based intravenous contrast enhanced imaging. It is important to know that a simila...
Article

String of beads sign (renal artery)

The string of beads sign is the description typically given to the appearance of the renal artery in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) but may also be used to describe the appearance of splanchnic arteries in segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). It refers to the appearance arising from the stenoses ...
Article

String of pearls sign (disambiguation)

String of pearls sign can refer to: string of pearls sign on an abdominal radiograph of fluid-filled dilated small bowel loops string of pearls sign on ultrasound in polycystic ovarian syndrome string of pearls sign for angiographic appearances in fibromuscular dysplasia
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String of pearls sign (gastrointestinal)

The string of pearls (or beads) sign can be seen on upright or decubitus abdominal radiographs as well as on CT in patients with small bowel obstruction, increased intraluminal fluid, and slow resorption of intraluminal gas. It consists of an obliquely or horizontally oriented row of small gas ...
Article

String sign (artery)

The angiographic string sign, also known as the carotid string sign, refers to the thin string of intravenous contrast material distal to a stenotic focus in the internal carotid artery (ICA).  Pathology A thin stripe of flow is caused by decreased pressure and flow distal to the stenosis, whi...
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String sign (bones)

The string sign of parosteal osteosarcoma refers to the plain radiographic/CT appearance of a radiolucent cleavage plane between portions of the tumour and cortex of the affected bone. The tumour stalk becomes more broad-based with time, obliterating the string sign in later stages. The string ...
Article

String sign (bowel)

The gastrointestinal string sign (also known as the string sign of Kantor) refers to the string-like appearance of a contrast-filled bowel loop caused its severe narrowing. Originally used to describe the reversible narrowing caused by spasms in Crohn disease, it is now used for any severe narr...
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String sign (disambiguation)

The string sign may refer to: angiographic string sign gastrointestinal string sign string sign of parosteal osteosarcoma
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Stuck temporomandibular joint disc

A stuck disc refers to a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc which does not translate anteriorly out of the mandibular fossa onto the articular eminence, but rather remains (thus "stuck") in the fossa. It is a form of TMJ dysfunction and is typically associated with restricted range of motion. T...

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