Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

18 results found
Article

Bridging vessel sign

The bridging vessel sign refers to an appearance of vessels coursing from the uterus into an adjoining pelvic mass (a vascular bridge). This sign helps to differentiate a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma from other juxtauterine masses of ovarian, adnexal or bowel origin. Colour and pow...
Article

Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining whether a mass arises from a solid structure or is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. As suc...
Article

Cogwheel sign

The Cogwheel sign refers to an imaging appearance in pelvic imaging of thickening loops of the Fallopian tube seen on cross section. There are infolding projections (sometimes look like nodules) into the Fallopian tube lumen which is likened to that of a cogwheel. The sign is typically described...
Article

Dot dash pattern

The dot-dash pattern (dermoid mesh) is one of the characteristic sonographic appearances of an ovarian dermoid cyst. It refers to the short and long echogenic lines which are often seen within a dermoid cyst and are due to the presence of hair.
Article

Funneling of the internal cervical os

Cervical funneling is a sign of cervical incompetence and represents the dilatation of the internal part of the cervical canal and reduction of the cervical length. Greater than 50% funneling before 25 weeks is associated with approximately 80% risk of preterm delivery. Radiographic assessment...
Article

Mushroom cap sign

Mushroom cap sign is one of the important signs of deep rectosigmoid endometriosis seen on T2 weighted MRI sequence. It indicates the submucosal involvement in rectosigmoid region. Radiographic appearance MRI Hypertrophic muscularis propria appears as heterogeneous low signal intensity surrou...
Article

Popcorn calcification

Popcorn calcification refers to amorphous calcifications often with rings and arcs that resemble popped corn kernels. This type of calcification may be seen in many radiological settings including 1: chondroid lesions (e.g enchondroma, chondrosarcoma) fibrous dysplasia pulmonary hamartomas d...
Article

Pseudodysraphism

A pseudodysraphism refers to the splayed  appearance of a normal spine created due to excessive craniocaudal angulation during sonographic evaluation. This can erroneously lead to the diagnosis of a spinal neural tube defect.
Article

Ring of fire sign (adnexa)

The ring of fire sign, also known as ring of vascularity, signifies a hypervascular lesion with peripheral vascularity on colour or pulsed Doppler examination of the adnexa due to low impedance high diastolic flow 1. This sign can be seen in: corpus luteum cyst (more commonly) ectopic pregnan...
Article

Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberence projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of a mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair and/or sebaceous components 1. 
Article

Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumours (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood containing lesions (e.g. haemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of...
Article

Shortening of the cervical canal

Shortening of the uterine cervical canal as the name implies refers to an abnormal shortening of the uterine cervical length. It is considered a sign of cervical incompetence in pregnancy and can lead to premature delivery. Pathology Aetiology primary (i.e. congenital/idiopathic) secondary ...
Article

Snowstorm sign (disambiguation)

Snowstorm sign may refer to: snowstorm sign: complete hydatiform mole (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: extracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound)
Article

String of pearls sign (disambiguation)

String of pearls sign can refer to: string of pearls sign on an abdominal radiograph of fluid-filled dilated small-bowel loops string of pearls sign on ultrasound in polycystic ovarian syndrome string of pearls sign for angiographic appearances in fibromuscular dysplasia 
Article

T2 dark spot sign

T2 dark spot sign is an MRI appearance of endometriomas seen as a result of chronic haemorrhage. The sign is useful in differentiating a solitary endometrioma from a functional haemorrhagic ovarian cyst, as both might show high T1 signal with T2 shading.  The T2 dark spot, described in the sign...
Article

Tip of the iceberg sign (ovarian dermoid cyst)

Tip of the iceberg sign refers to one of the characteristic appearances of an ovarian dermoid cyst. If there are echogenic cyst contents of sebum and hair, they cause marked posterior acoustic attenuation so that only the superficial part of the cyst is seen. Just like an iceberg, you may only b...
Article

Tubal ring sign

Tubal ring sign is one of the ultrasound signs of a tubal ectopic. It comprises of an echogenic ring which surrounds an unruptured ectopic pregnancy. It is said to have a 95% positive predictive value (PPV) for ectopic pregnancy. Differential diagnosis It can be mimicked by a normal corpus lut...
Article

Whirlpool sign

The whirlpool sign, also known as the whirl sign, is seen when a structure twists upon itself. It is most commonly described in the abdomen where bowel rotates around its mesentery, with mesenteric vessels creating the whirls. It can also be seen in ovarian torsion. Whirlpool sign: mesenteric ...

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