Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

9 results found
Article

Cancer staging list

Cancer staging using a number of systems to help direct treatment and aid prognosis.  Staging systems TNM FIGO (in gynaecological cancer) Dukes staging system Examples Breast breast cancer staging Chest non-small cell lung cancer staging small cell lung cancer staging malignant pleura...
Article

Cervical cancer (staging)

Staging of cervical cancer can either be based on the TNM or FIGO system. Revised FIGO staging of cervical carcinoma 2009 8 stage 0: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL or CIN III)  stage I: confined to cervix stage Ia: invasive carcinoma only diagnosed by microscopy. Ia1: stromal inva...
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Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative changes can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Article

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (staging)

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (also known as cervical dysplasia) is the potentailly premalignant stage in the dysplastic changes in the squamous epithelium of the cervix.  Grading of CIN is based on the degree of dysplasia seen in a sample of cervical tissue: CIN I similar to condy...
Article

Cervical lymph node (staging)

Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. TNM nodal staging Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
Article

Cholangiocarcinoma (staging)

Cholangiocarcinoma staging is dependant on whether the tumour is primarily intrahepatic (ICC), hilar/perihilar (Klatskin), or extrahepatic. Tumour resection is currently the most optimal treatment and the ability of the tumour to infiltrate longitudinally and radially along the biliary tree nec...
Article

Chondromalacia (grading)

Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. This grading system is the modified Outerbridge grading system, which was devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patella, but then modified and extended for all...
Article

Choriocarcinoma (staging)

The staging system for choriocarcinoma (usually refers to uterine choriocarcinoma) is the FIGO staging system and is as follows 1: stage I:  disease limited to the uterus stage II: disease out of the uterus but limited to the female genital tract stage III: metastasis in the lung with or with...
Article

Colorectal cancer (staging)

Colorectal carcinoma staging can be performed using two systems. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Dukes (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: through muscularis prop...

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