Cancer staging using a number of systems to help direct treatment and aid prognosis.
FIGO (in gynaecological cancer)
Dukes staging system
breast cancer staging
non-small cell lung cancer staging
small cell lung cancer staging
Staging of cervical cancer can either be based on the TNM or FIGO system.
Revised FIGO staging of cervical carcinoma 2009 8
stage 0: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL or CIN III)
stage I: confined to cervix
stage Ia: invasive carcinoma only diagnosed by microscopy.
Ia1: stromal inva...
Cervical degenerative changes can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine.
The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (also known as cervical dysplasia) is the potentailly premalignant stage in the dysplastic changes in the squamous epithelium of the cervix.
Grading of CIN is based on the degree of dysplasia seen in a sample of cervical tissue:
similar to condy...
Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
TNM nodal staging
Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
Cholangiocarcinoma staging is dependant on whether the tumour is primarily intrahepatic (ICC), hilar/perihilar (Klatskin), or extrahepatic.
Tumour resection is currently the most optimal treatment and the ability of the tumour to infiltrate longitudinally and radially along the biliary tree nec...
Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. This grading system is the modified Outerbridge grading system, which was devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patella, but then modified and extended for all...
The staging system for choriocarcinoma (usually refers to uterine choriocarcinoma) is the FIGO staging system and is as follows 1:
stage I: disease limited to the uterus
stage II: disease out of the uterus but limited to the female genital tract
stage III: metastasis in the lung with or with...
Colorectal carcinoma staging can be performed using two systems. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically.
Dukes (Astler-Coller modification)
stage A: confined to mucosa
stage B: through muscularis prop...