Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis.
Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
The Okuda staging system was an advance on earlier hepatocellular (HCC) staging classifications, in that it incorporated both cancer-related variables and liver function related variables to determine prognosis 1:
disease involving >50% of hepatic parenchyma
albumin ≤3 mg/dL
Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al in 1976 1.
group a: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity
group b: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
group c: tumour extends beyond the nasal cavit...
T staging of oral cavity tumours is as follows:
The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferiorly, and the ...
T staging of oropharyngeal tumours is as follows:
The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferior surface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior pharyng...
Osteoarthritis of the hip can be graded according to severity on imaging.
Conventional radiograph grading
grade 0: normal
grade 1: possible joint space narrowing and subtle osteophytes
grade 2: definite joint space narrowing, defined osteophytes and some sclerosis, especially in the acetabul...
Osteochondritis dissecans can be classified at surgery into 4 stages:
lesion in continuity with the host bone
covered by intact cartilage
stable on probing
partial discontinuity of the lesion from the host bone
unstable on probing
fragment not dislocat...
The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1:
CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4.
stage I: tumour limited to the ovary or fallopian tube
tumour limited to o...