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Oesophageal cancer staging

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...

Okuda staging system

The Okuda staging system was an advance on earlier hepatocellular (HCC) staging classifications, in that it incorporated both cancer-related variables and liver function related variables to determine prognosis 1: disease involving >50% of hepatic parenchyma ascites albumin ≤3 mg/dL bilir...

Olfactory neuroblastoma (staging)

Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al in 1976 1. group a: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity group b: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses group c: tumour extends beyond the nasal cavit...

Oral cavity

The oral cavity is the most proximal portion of the aerodigestive tract, and is continuous posteriorly with the oropharynx.   Gross anatomy The oral cavity includes the lips anteriorly and extends to a ring of structures (circumvallate papillae, anterior tonsillar pillars, soft palate) that di...

Osteoarthritis hip - grading

Osteoarthritis of the hip can be graded according to severity on imaging. Conventional radiograph grading grade 0: normal grade 1: possible joint space narrowing and subtle osteophytes grade 2: definite joint space narrowing, defined osteophytes and some sclerosis, especially in the acetabul...

Osteochondritis dissecans surgical staging system

Osteochondritis dissecans can be classified at surgery into 4 stages: stage I stable lesion in continuity with the host bone covered by intact cartilage stage II stable on probing partial discontinuity of the lesion from the host bone stage III unstable on probing fragm...

Ovarian cancer staging

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4. stage I:  tumour limited to the ovary or fallopian tube stage Ia:  ​tumour limited to o...

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